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Follet, or practising the graces and courtesies of maturer life. Will there not be years enough, from thirteen to seventy, for ornamenting or disfiguring the person at the fiat of French milliners-for checking laughter and forcing smiles, for reducing all varieties of intellect, all gradations of feeling to one uniform tint? Is there not already a sufficient sameness in the aspect and tone of polished life? Oh, leave children as they are, to relieve by their "wild freshness our elegant insipidity; leave their "hair loosely flowing, robes as free," to refresh the eyes that love simplicity; and leave their eagerness, their warmth, their unreflecting sincerity, their unschooled expressions of joy or regret, to amuse and delight us, when we a little tired by the politeness, the caution, the wisdom, and the coldness of the

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grown-up world.

Children may teach us one blessed, one enviable art, the heart of being easily happy. Kind nature has given to them that useful power of accommodation to circumstances, which compensates for so many external disadvantages; and it is only by injudicious management that it is lost. "Give him but a moderate portion of food and kindness, and the peasant's child is happier far than the duke's. Free from artificial wants, unsated by indulgence, all nature ministers to his pleasures; he can carve out felicity from a bit of hazel twig, or fish for it successfully in a puddle." I love to hear the boisterous joy of a troop of ragged urchins whose cheap playthings are nothing more than mud, snow, sticks, or oyster-shells; or to watch the quiet enjoyment of a half-clothed, halfwashed fellow of four or five years old, who sits with a large rusty knife and a lump of bread and bacon at his father's door, and might move the envy of a London alderman. HE must have been singularly unfortunate in childhood, or singularly the reverse in after life, who does not look back upon its scenes, its sports and pleasures, with fond regret; who does not "wish for e'en its sorrows back again." The wisest and happiest of us may occasionally detect this feeling in our bosoms. There is something unreasonably dear to the man in the recollection of the follies, the whims, the petty cares, and exaggerated delights of his childhood. Perhaps he is engaged in schemes of soaring ambition, but fancies sometimes that there was once a greater charm in flying a kite-perhaps, after many a hard lesson, he has acquired a power of discernment and spirit of caution which defies deception, but he now and then wishes for the boyish confidence which venerated every old beggar, and wept at every tale of woe. He is now deep read in philosophy and science, yet he looks back with regret on the wild and pleas

ing fancies of his young mind, and owns that "l'erreur a son mérite;" he now reads history till he doubts everything, and sighs for the time when he felt comfortably convinced that Romulus was suckled by a wolf, and Richard the Third a monster of iniquity-his mind is now full of perplexities and cares for the future. Oh! for the days when the present was a scene sufficiently wide to satisfy him! Q.

THE VALUE OF LIGHT
FOR THE

FULL DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS.

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIGHT, as an agent

in the full development of plants, has so often been insisted on, and is now so fully appreciated by all who have the slightest claim to a knowledge of the science of gardening-in so far as it applies to and elucidates its practical details—that it might seem almost superfluous to say anything more on the subject. But our acquaintance with garden practice, in the aggregate, forces upon us the conviction, that though the higher principles of the art are acknowledged and practised in numberless establishments, there still lingers among us something more than a spice of the practice prevalent in what may be justly termed the dark age of horticulture. That the period to which we refer does not essentially belong to antiquity, but that the practices which characterise it are still healthful and vigorous, and not merely stumbled upon like fossils embedded in an ancient geological formation, many of our readers know well enough.

We have no intention of penning a dry dissertation on the influence of light; but believing that to teach by example is far superior to dogmatising, as a means of elucidating any given subject, we shall, in illustration of our position, give some particulars that but two or three years since fell under our notice. In one of the southern counties of England, a lady-who was an enthusiastic lover of horticulture--possessed an establishment where every branch of the" art and mystery" of gardening was pursued: we do not say successfully, for thereby hangs a tale,"-and all enthusiasts commit errors, and often gross ones, too. But we should always respect, rather than ridicule the mistakes of an enthusiast; for they will often be found to resemble, in intrinsic value, the ore of a precious metal. While the real gold remains mixed with baser matter, it can influence little the well-being of mankind; but when extracted, refined, and rendered subservient to the wants of society, it extends its benefits a thousand ways. So an enthusiast strikes out new theories, it may be, of little value in themselves, but from which, every-day, plod

ding, matter of fact practice can extract much that is precious. But to return.

In the establishment we speak of, there were, for the accommodation of the heterogeneous mass of plants congregated, a host of structures-stoves, wet and dry, orchidhouses, greenhouses, pits, frames, and a whole legion of nondescript articles: not forgetting glass walls. As might be expected, there was no arrangement in placing the buildings: they jostled each other, whichever way you turned. Conservatory and potting-shed stood side by side; and if you set out with the intention of visiting the orchid-house, you stood a pretty good chance of stumbling into the stoke hole. A guide, verbal or otherwise, was absolutely necessary for a successful perambulation. But as intricacy is held as an essential in garden arrangement, perhaps this might be considered a beauty. The exterior gave one a correct idea of what was to be expected within. Every available nook in every house was laid under contribution as a receptacle for plants. Shelves above you, shelves below you-on the left hand, on the right hand, plants were crowded -nay, crammed together; and, to crown the whole, vines from borders without darkened the roof, and, in the forcing season, others in pots usurped the few rays that would otherwise have struggled through the front lights. And under such circumstances as these, plants were expected to thrive, too-and develop their real beauties; and so many of

them did.

The conditions were congenial to numerous species, but the majority were sorry things. Long, watery shoots, with many leaves and few flowers, in place of sturdy growths and brilliant blossoms, met the eye in all directions. Most of the plants were one-sided; and mildew, and scale, and bug, were apparent in the axils of nearly every leaf, and among the few heads of flowers that were produced. We had the honor of being accompanied through the houses and grounds by the proprietress herself, who, we must in justice to other parties concerned observe, was "her own gardener." Often she stopped before some fine species, and lamented that they did not prove more satisfactory under the treatment. Every cause but the right one was assigned as a reason for her failure. "Water was not given as she directed;"" the soil was not properly mixed;"" the loam was not of the best quality;"" her directions were not followed out in her absence," and so forth; while the true cause was apparent enough. We ventured to suggest that a deficiency of light had something to do with the matter; that too many plants were attempted to be grown in such a limited space; but our cicerone had an opinion of her own on those points, and we were met with a decided ob

jection as to such an explanation being even remotely probable.

We must now beg the reader (after the manner of the play-bills) to imagine the lapse of a year. We are again in the grounds, and strolling through the houses. The proprietress has quitted the scene of her labors; and the accumulated treasures are about to be dispersed by the wand of the auctioneer. There is a large assembly of buyers; for here are many rare plants. Representatives of the Floras of almost every region of the globe are congregated in the space of a few roods. Many of the finer plants are destined to occupy some newly-built plant-houses but a few miles distant. These are of the best construction, and a due regard to an uninterrupted transmission of light is provided for: and, within, the plants are well cared for, and ample space is permitted each specimen for the display of its true character.

Another season has passed, and again we visit our old acquaintances. How would their former mistress rejoice at the change apparent in them! Scarcely do we recognise them in their improved appearance. It is the season for many of them to be in bloom, and so they are: not as they will be in a season or two hence, certainly, but yet very beautiful. Amongst them is one that we especially remember as having been lamented over by its owner on our first acquaintance with it, as never having afforded a solitary blossom. It is a fine plant of Inga pulcherrima, covered with bunches of its scarlet filaments, a very mass of beauty.

"Truly," we exclaimed, apostrophising the lovely object," what a powerful lesson dost thou teach on the influence of light!" [From the Gardeners' Journal.]

WHAT I LOVE.

BY JOHN CLARE.

I love to see the forest maid
Go in the pleasant day,
And jump to break an idle bough
To drive the flies away.

Her face is brown with open air,
And like the lily blooming;
But beauty, whether brown or fair,

Is always found with women.
She stooped to tie her pattens up,

And showed a cleanly stocking; The flowers made curtsies all the way, Against her ancles knocking.

She stoop'd to get the fox-glove bells
That grew among the bushes,
And, careless, set her basket down,
And tied them up with rushes.
Her face was ever in a smile,

And brown and softly blooming;I often meet the scorn of man,

But welcome lives with women!

THE VALUE OF SLEEP.

HABIT influences in some degree the amount of sleep that is required. It should be said, however, that it is never well to withhold any of the revenue that is justly due to the drowsy god.

A man may accustom himself to take so little sleep, as to be greatly the loser thereby in his waking moments. It may be commonly observed, that those persons who spend less time in sleep than is usually found needful by others of the same age and strength, and occupation, consume a much larger portion of their days than others do, in a kind of dreamy vacancy, a virtual inactivity of mind and body. The hours expended in sleep are not the only hours that might be justifiably deducted from the sum total of the life, as having been lost to it; numbers of moments are daily spent in an absolute inaction of mind and body; and sleep cannot be robbed of its dues, without adding largely, and in greater proportion than the time habitually stolen from the sleep, to that which is wasted in such waking reveries.

In order that the mind may have the power of undergoing trying and exhausting labor, that it may continue in the full possession of its capabilities, that it may continue to be undulled and unblunted by such wear and such use-an amount of sleep must be allowed which is proportionate to the severity of such work, to the engrossing and expending nature of the mind's employment. The nights may be robbed of the hours of sleep; and the time so stolen may be devoted to toil of mind or of body; but the endurance by the system of the undue waste and imperfectly restored balance of the vital force, even if somewhat protracted by the strength of the constitution, or if prolonged somewhat by the energy of a determined will, or by the spur of a great necessity, or by the desired goal of a great ambition or daring hope, must be shortlived.

The system cannot be robbed of its sleep, says Dr. Robertson, without a corresponding disturbance and derangement of the functions; the power and the equilibrium of the vital forces will become so far affected as to involve disordered action; and thus indirectly by forming part of the common organism, and directly by the diminished tension of the vital forces which supply the sensorium itself, the mind will become unable to continue its exertions. Many an ardent and hopeful aspirant for collegiate distinctions, many an anxious laborer for professional eminence, has thrown away his hopes in thus vainly struggling to cheat the system of this great requirement.

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We who stand round about thee see it.
Shine on; shine bravely. There are near
Other bright children of the Year,
Almost as high, and much like thee
In features and in festive glee:
Some happy to call forth the mower,
And hear his sharpened scythe sweep o'er
Rank after rank: then others wait
Before the grange's open gate,
And watch the nodding wain, or watch
The fretted domes beneath the thatch,
Till young and old at once take wing,
And promise to return in Spring.
Yet I am sorry, I must own,
Crown of the Year! when thou art gone.
WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR.

THE NEW MODE OF BREEDING FISH.

CONNECTED WITH THE AGRICULTURE of this country, and equally interesting to the rural improver, are the wonderful discoveries lately brought to bear on the artificial production of fish in our rivers. The whole subject seems to open out a new source of profit

their streams, began to collect the spawn and
apply the milt themselves. These they de-
posited in boxes or baskets full of holes, and
placed them in situations of safety in running
"Applying
streams. A French paper says,
this operation, the year
afterwards, to a great
number of fish, they obtained several thousand
trout; and, in a year or two more, the num-

to the speculator, of interest to the natura-bers had literally increased to millions."

list, and to tend to the increase of the nation's food. The capture of salmon-brought now to perfection so great that our rivers are nearly stripped of that king of fishes-ceases to be either skilful or surprising before the schemes in operation for continuing the race. Not only has the new principle been tested by the stocking of the French rivers and streams of the Vosges, the Moselle, the Upper and Lower Rhine, but the spawn has been successfully transported to New Zealand.

A recent number of the Journal of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland attributes the discovery of the plan to Mr. John Shaw, of Drumlanrig, so far back as 1833, and further proved by the Rev. D. S. Williamson, ten years afterwards. But the scientific world seems to have been still earlier at work; for, in 1764, Professor Jacobi, of Berlin, discovered that the roe of fish was fecundated after ejection by the female. Moreover, that the roe and milt extracted even from dead fishes possessed the vital power, and that even when dead two or three days, this power is not lost. The Professor also mentions how fish may be thus introduced into new districts, and even carried to other countries.

During the course of last summer, a small pamphlet, on the artificial production of fish, was published by Reeve and Co., which called particular attention to the French adoption of the discoveries of the German professor and the Scottish gardener, in filling the French streams and rivers with millions of fish of the most valuable kind.

Last year, fecundated trout spawn was conveyed to New Zealand. Gravel was placed in large iron boxes, with a supply of river water, in order to effect the necessary changes; for in water totally stagnant the fish cannot be raised. Owing to the warmth of the tropical atmosphere in the journey, the young were produced before the ordinary time. The usual period varies from 70 to 100 days, according to temperature; but in this case they appeared in about 42 days. The effect of a stream was obtained by constant dropping from a tank above the iron box; the water in which was, we believe, purified by the valisneria.

The French government considering the
matter of much importance, these two fisher-
men were taken into its pay, and made to
apply the principle to the streams of the dis-
tricts we have mentioned. The same paper
remarks, They have done so with the
success; rivers and lakes, in
most sing
which there were no fish, now literally teem
with them."

"L

The originators of the French practice, as we stated in our Second Volume, were two fishermen of the names of Gehin and Remy, of La Bresse; who, finding the fish fail in

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The plan is to be further encouraged. A commission of savans is appointed to superintend the process. Salmon, perch, tench, and even lobsters are to be domesticated-so far at least as being bred and reared, out of the

reach of their numerous enemies.

Perhaps no animal will multiply so fast as fish. The tench produces 38,000 eggs, the mackerel 546,000, the cod fish 1,357,000. The herring produces also vast numbers, and if only 2,000 of any one of these came to perfection, there would be, in the second year, 12,000,000, in the third 2,000,000,000. To protect only, therefore, is to ensure the production of millions of fishes; but how any fish now happens to escape their enemies, natural and artificial, seems even more wonderful than their powers of production.

The breeders of fish artificially in this country are, Mr. Gurney, of Carshalton, and Mr. Young, of Lochshin; but what should hinder the plan being tried by the landed proprietors near the sides of all the rivers in this and the sister kingdom? and why not try to introduce the salmon into rivers where it has not yet been found?

Mr. Shaw appears to have been the first to show that the parr and the smoult are only stages of the salmon; and to prove that by the construction of side ponds, with a small stream running over them, with sufficient water to keep them covered (but not too deep) so as to favor the development of the spawn with as much rapidity as possible, the desired end can be accomplished. The small fish will thus be preserved from their larger enemies until they have an opportunity of shifting better for themselves; and vast supplies will be afforded to the sea, to return again, either to the same spot, or most certainly to the same river, in another year.

The grisle, or young salmon of from 21 to 3lbs. weight, has been sent to market, the spawn from which they have come having only been deposited in the preceding October or November, three months of this to be

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allowed for hatching-and often a longer period. A grisle weighing 6 lbs. in the month of February, after spawning, has, in its return from the sea in September, weighed 13 lbs.; and, it is said that a salmon fry of April will in June weigh 4 lbs., and in August

6 lbs.

Taking the rapid growth, the immense powers of reproduction, and the effect which the artificial production seems to have upon the fish, we hardly know a subject of greater national importance than the encouragement of this practice.

We would strongly urge the thorough investigation of the subject, and the construction of breeding-ponds near the heads of our principal rivers, properly secured. The experiment has interest in itself enough to repay the trouble; and, if Jacobi be right, almost every purchaser of a male and female salmon has the power of putting the process into operation.

NOTES ON THE SWALLOW.

THE SUBJOINED PARTICULARS of the Swallow are from various sources, and will be perused with interest. We need hardly remark that these birds do not winter "under water;" but depart to foreign climes, like other birds of passage.

summer,

The swallow makes its first appearance in Great Britain early in spring; remains with us during and disappears in autumn. The four species which inhabit this island, are also found during summer in almost every other region in Europe and Asia, where their manners and habits are nearly the same as in this country. In the more southern parts of the continent, they appear somewhat earlier than in England. The distinguishing marks of the swallow tribe are-a small bill; a wide mouth; a head rather large in tion to the bulk of the body, and somewhat flattish; a neck scarcely visible; a short, broad, and cloven tongue; a tail mostly forked; short legs; very long wings; a rapid and continued flight.

propor

The House, orChimney Swallow, hirundo rustica, is the most common, as well as the best known. Its length is about six inches, its breadth from tip to tip of the wings, when extended, about twelve inches; the upper parts of its body and wings are black; the under parts whitish ash-color; the head black; the forehead and

marked with a

red spot; the tail very much forked. It generally arrives earlier than the rest of its genus, and mostly before the middle of April. It builds its nest in chimnies, at the distance of about a foot from the top, or under the roofs of barns and outhouses, has commonly two broods in the year, and usually disappears in the latter end of September, or beginning of October. Like all birds of the swallow tribe, it is perpetually on the wing; and it lives upon insects, which it catches flying. It has been calculated from the velocity of this bird on the wing, and its flight in the air for fourteen or fifteen hours together, in search of food, that it flies from two to three hundred miles in that time. As pre

viously observed by an early writer, before rain it may often be seen skimming round the edge of a lake or river, and not unfrequently dipping the tips of its wings, or under part of its body, into the water as it passes over its surface.

boration, that ancient authors had observed the Dr. Forster cites Aratus and Virgil in corrosame fact. He describes the Martin or Martlett, hirundo urbica, as being rather smaller than the swallow, and as easily distinguishable from it by the bright white color of all the under parts of the body. This species usually makes its first appearance early in May, though sometimes sooner; and leaves us towards the latter end of October. It builds under the eaves of houses, in of rocks crags and precipices near the sea, has oftentimes three like that of the swallow, with mud and straw, lined broods in the year, and constructs its curious nest

with feathers on the inside.

largest of the genus, being seven inches in length, He says that the swift, hirundo apus, is the and nearly eighteen in breadth, when its wings are extended, and that it is of a sooty black color with a whitish spot on its breast. It arrives towards the middle of May, and departs about the middle of August. It builds in holes of rocks, in ruined towers, and under the tiling of houses, and has only one brood in the year.

He observes of the Bank or Sand Martin, hirundo riparia, that it is the smallest of the genus, is of a dusky brown color above, and whitish beneath; and that it builds its nest in holes, which it bores in banks of sand, and is said to have only one brood in the year.

No subject has more engaged the attention of naturalists in all ages, than the brumal retreat of the swallow; neither is there any subject on which more various and contrary opinions have been entertained. Some have supposed that they retire at the approach of winter to the inmost recesses of rocks and mountains, and that they there remain in a torpid state until spring. Others have conjectured that these birds immerse themselves in the water at the approach of winter, and that they remain at the bottom in a state of torpidity, until they are again called forth by the influence of the vernal sun.* Dr. Forster admits that there are several instances on record of their having been found in such situations, clustered together in great numbers, and that, on being brought before the fire, they have revived and flown away. But he thinks that few of the accounts were well authenticated; and that the celebrated John Hunter and Mr. Pearson clearly prove, from various experiments, that these birds cannot continue long under water without being drowned. The doctor does not deny that swallows have occasionally been found under water; but he attributes their having been found in such situations to mere accident. As it is well known that, towards the latter end of autumn, swallows frequently roost by the sides of number of these birds had retired to roost on the lakes and rivers; he therefore supposes that a banks of some shallow and muddy river at low tide ; that they had been induced by the cold to creep among the reeds or rushes which might grow in the shallow parts of the river; and that, while in that situation, driven into a state of torpidity by

* Gilbert White insists upon this!-ED. K. J.

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