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he dwelt upon it with all the interest of a EDUCATION OF THE JUVENILE POOR. stranger.

ENGLAND AND GERMANY. It was indeed beautiful! There was a be witching loveliness floating over the features. NO PERSON CAN BE IGNORANT of the frightThe figure and air had a peculiar grace and ful condition of the lower orders in England, freedom; but the eye showed the genius of with respect to education. Children are the master. It was a large lustrous eye, born of ignorant parents, and most of them moistened without weeping, and lifted up, as die even more ignorant than those who gave if to the face of a lover, with a look of in- them birth. Beyond smoking, drinking, describable tenderness. The deception was lying, swearing, and thieving, they know wonderful. It seemed every moment as if positively nothing. Nor do they improve; the moisture would gather into a tear, and they degenerate. roll down her cheek. There was a strange One of the first things which strikes a freshness in its impression upon Duncan. It foreigner on passing through the streets of seemed to have the very look that had some the metropolis, and of the great manufactimes beamed upon him in the twilight. He turing towns of England, is the quantities of turned from it and looked at Helen. Her children running wild in the poorer localities, eyes met his with the same—the self same ragged, dirty, untrained, uncontrolled, as if expression of the picture. A murmur of they were a species of vermin, rather than pleased recognition stole from the crowd beings amenable to the laws, and living whose attention was attracted. Duncan within the pale of a Christian community. burst into tears-and awoke. He had been This is so strange a sight, that, to a German dreaming on his easel !

who has not been in England, it is impossible “Do you believe in dreams, Helen?" said to conceive the state of the juvenile poor of Duncan, as he led her into the studio the our towns. next day to look at the finished picture. “ If any one," says Mr. KAY, “ will take

his stand in the streets of a Swiss or German THE PREVAILING WINDS.

town, either before the schools open in a

morning, or when the children are returning WITH REGARD TO THE PREVAILING WINDS of from the school play grounds in the middle our native country, the following account has of the day, or after the schools and their been published in the Transactions of the Royal play-grounds are closed in the evening, he Society "At London

will see all the children of the town, rich and Winds.

Days. poor together, on their way to and from their South-west


homes, clean, neatly and comfortably dressed, North-east

58 happy, healthy, and orderly in appearance, North-west

50 and with their bags of books in their hands. West

53 If he will go into the same streets during South-east


school hours, he will find no children whatEast


ever, except it may be a little creature too South North

young for school, or boys of fifteen or six16

teen, who have finished their course, and are The same register shows that the south-west now engaged in their regular employment. wind blows more upon an average in each month If he will visit the schools, he will find dry, of the year than any other, particularly in July and August; that the north-east prevails during

clean, well-built and well-ventilated buildings, January, March, April, May, and June, and is situated in carefully selected sites, each most unfrequent in February, July, September, divided into from four to twelve class-rooms, and December ; the north-west occurring more surrounded by dry and roomy play-yards for frequently from November to March, and less so exercise, and full of children of all classes, in September and October than in any other comfortably dressed, clean, healthy, and months. In the fifth volume of the Statistical intelligent in appearance, and under the care Account of Scotland, there is a table of seven of educated men, who have been very careyears' close observation made by Dr. Meek, near fully trained for their profession.” Under Glasgow, the average of which is stated as fol- such a system, we shall not be surprised if Winds.

we find a state of things which is utterly



impossible at present in England. The schools North-west

and teachers are so excellent," and the chilNorth-east


dren of the poorer classes of these countries South-east

47 are so much more civilised than with us, that In Ireland the prevailing winds are the west

even in the capitals themselves I have often and south-west."

seen the children of the German nobles and This is not a very recent “minute" of the winds gentry sitting at the same desks with the in London and its vicinity. We know now little children of poorest classes; and in the of any but north and east winds !

primary schools, in the country villages, it is





by no means uncommon, either in Germany society, and the miserable victims of his or Switzerland, for the children of some neglect. gentleman in the neighborhood to attend the Mr. Kay relates an incident which may village school, and sit at the same desks with not inappropriately be introduced here, and the children of the villagers."

which, perhaps, will better exemplify the If this were the testimjny of a man who great difference betwixt the children of the was pursuing a crotchet, we might lay it English poor and those of foreigners, than aside and think no more of it. But Mr. Kay any descriptive comparison. In the summer is of a very different stamp. He has under- of 1847, he was travelling through the taken his task of examining into the state of kingdom of Wirtemberg, from Ulm, to a education at home and abroad, in the spirit town in the interior, by night. Ilis comof a patriot and philanthropist ; and he has panions in the diligence were an Oxford executed it with the ability of a man of sound Fellow, a German, and a Frenchman. and enlarged understanding. We may there- Conversation turned on the condition of fore rely upon his statements, contirmed as the poor children in the German towns. they are by that floating information, which, The Englishman, with his insular prejudices, in spite of our national prejudices—the refused to credit the account which the result of insular position—forces its way to German and his more travelled fellow

We see, then, that abroad, for the most countryman had given him of the educapart, instead of there being in every town tional efforts of Germany, but laughed crowds of children exposed to the corruption at them as useless and chimerical. “Well,” of the streets—to its dirt, its idleness, and said Mr. bay at last, seeing argument was bad example, disciplined in crime, and useless against prejudice, “ if you are ever educated to a fate in after-life from which in the streets of a German town in the escape would be next to a miracle, all the morning between eight and nine o'clock, children-except, as before said, those too or between twelve and one o'clock, observe young and those who have completed their what is going on, and remember what I course-are at school; and that by these told you.' means, and the good example they have

Early the next day they stopped to received from educated parents, they are so change horses in a small town between Ulm civilised in manners that the children of

and Stuttgard. The children of the town merchants, professional men, and nobles, may

on their way to the schools. “I be seen sitting in the same rooms, and at begged the Oxford Fellow to get out of the same desks with children who are being the diligence and observe what was going educated and even clothed at the

expense of

on around us at that time. The street in the municipality—their parents being too which we had pulled up was full of clean poor to pay the small weekly school-fees and respectable looking children ; each of required for every child.

the girls holding a small bag of books in And, be it observed, this happy result has her hand, and each boy carrying a little been brought about in the face of the strongest goatskin knapsack full of books on his back. religious differences, and is not to be traced to There were no rags, no bare feet, and no the character of any particular creed. The unseemly patched and darned clothes. The state of education and the condition of the girls were all very neat, their hair was children of the poor are the same in Pro- dressed, as is always the case in Germany, testant and Catholic states, in Bavaria as well with a good deal of taste, and their general as in Prussia. No poor man is prevented appearance was healthy and comfortable. sending his children to school by inability to A stranger would have imagined them all pay the school pence, for the town pays it to be children belonging to the middle for him as soon as the education committee classes. Most of them, however, were the is satisfied of his poverty. No poor parent sons and daughters of poor artisans and is deterred by the wretchedness of his laborers. In England, many would have children's dress ; on the contrary, he is been the squalid idlers of our gutters and induced to send them by the knowledge that back alleys. In this German town, no by doing so they will be provided with difference could be discerned between the comfortable clothing. No poor person is appearance of the children of the poor prevented by objection to the religion of the laborer and those of the rich shopkeeper. teacher ; for if he objects to the teachers of They all looked equally clean, respectable, one school, the committee will, at his request, polite, and intelligent. I asked my comtransfer his children to any other school he panion if he was convinced; he turned to may prefer; but, on the other hand, no me and answered, 'Yes; this is indeed & parent has, in the face of these liberal very interesting and curious sight. I do provisions, any excuse for neglecting his not any longer doubt the accuracy of all you children, or for leaving them to grow up told me last night. It is certainly very in the streets, to become the pests of remarkable.'


The reflection, continues Mr. KAY, to bickerings instead of blessedness, flirtation which this sight leads every beholder is, that instead of fixedness, falsehood instead of faith, if this is the condition of all the children of despondency instead of devotion, and caudlethe German towns, it is no wonder that the ism instead of consolation ? poor are so much more prosperous, virtuous, and happy than our own.





Our hearts may be gay as we hail a bright day, MENTAL AND SUBSTANTIVE.

Yet its close brings us anguish and pain ;

At evo we may rove with the kind friends we love, So long as mind and matter shall exist,

But never behold them again! there will be a sympathy between mental and Though the heart with its brightest affections substantive beauty. Every form is perfected seems rife, by the perfection of an idea. The daisy of They fade ere we grasp them--alas, such is life ! the field, the moss on the mountain, the lily in the valley, the shell by the sea, the stars The mariner bold to his bosom doth fold in the firmament-are all and each complete They murmur their fears, as they mingle their

His wife and his children dear ; by the completeness of our perceptive

tears, qualities. If it were not so, these objects

For sorrow-keen sorrow is here. would appear the same to every individual. But his ship waits to bear him far over the main, The poet would see in them no more supe. And he cries as he leaves them, “I'll meet you riority than the most worldly man observes. again." The intimacy of form and idea affects the course of our whole social and moral life. The ship nears the shore she will never reach An ideal image of domestic peace governs the literal existence of domestic feeling.

For a tempest is raging there; We will take two instances-Love and Their shroud is the surge, the wind howls their

dirge, Pleasure. It is necessary to have a lofty She sinks—whilst a shriek rends the air. conception of love, that the reality may not Hark! whose is that scream? 'tis the mariner's sink into mere conventional duty. How

wife, often do we wonder at the matrimonial Her poor heart is broken! Alas, such is life! happiness which exists, in spite of poverty ? We contrast this state of things with the The soldier has been to the battle, and seen

His comrades fall round himn and die ; proverb :-“When poverty comes in at the He's now'going to part with the friend of his door, love flies out of the window ;” and we

heart, find the proverb false. The cause of the And a tear dims the brave soldier's eye falsity in the adage can only be traced to the “Be faithful," he cries, “all our fears will prove agency of an idea. The happiness of the vain, marriage state exists only when the anticipa- I'll fight for, my country—then meet thee again." tion of good has preceded, and is preserved through the existence of the evil. When the The soldier returns, in his bosom still burns faith in happiness is weak, the growth of He blesses his lot as he hies to her cot,

True love for the dear ones at home! misery is rapid and strong.

Resolved he no longer will roam. Can it be said that, in proportion as the But the kind gentle girl he would claim as his wife age becomes intelligent, it anticipates the Now sleeps in the churchyard—alas, such is life! advent of social beauty ?

No. Look around, and see how love lies The fond mother creeps o'er the cold grave where bleeding under the golden hoof of Mammon! sleeps Few, very few, have knelt before the sacred Her husband lies slain on the dark battle-plain,

Her darling-her only child; altar with bosoms untouched by the gangrene of selfishness. Alas I the traffic of human All she loved in this world—as a mother, a wise,

With grief and despair she is wild. hearts is as common as the traffic of common is gone-GONE FOR EVER! ALAS, such is LIFE! merchandise ! Hearts, in the freshness of innocency, are bleeding their life away at every pore. Affection has lost a portion of

TRUE LOVE. its sublime completeness, and is fast dwindling into a thing of shreds and patches. Many a

—'Tis made of every fine emotion, man has married a house, who should have of generous impulses and noble thoughts :married a woman; and many a man has It nestles 'mid the flowers, and swoetens earth.

It looketh to the stars, and dreams of Heaven ; wedded a fidgetty uncle's will, or an asthma: Love is aspiring, yet 'tis humble too ; tical grandfather's legacy, when the world It doth exalt another o'er itself, has applauded him for a more magnanimous With sweet heart-homage which delights to raise action. Can we then wonder when we see

its object



THE INNOCENCE OF CHILDHOOD. be bribed to good behavior, like many of

their elders; they insist upon fingering When Heaven and angels, earth and earthly things, your watch, and spoiling what they do not Do leave the guilty in their guiltiness, A cherub's voice doth whisper in a CHILD'S,

understand. Like numbers of the patrons There is a shrine within that little heart,

of literature and the arts, they will someWhere I will hide; nor hear the trump of doom.

times cry for the moon as absurdly as AlexOh, life! how pleasant is thy morning!

ander for more worlds; and when they are

ROGERS. angry, they have as little mercy for cups and HILDREX ARE BUT LITTLE saucers as I have for a travelling Italian

organ-grinder. They are as unreasonable, important part of society, ex- impatient, selfish, exacting, and whimsical as pend much of our capital, em- grown-up, men and women; and only want ploy a great portion of

the varnish of politeness and mask of hypopopulation in their service, and crisy, to complete the likeness. In short,

occupy half the literati of our they display to all their acquaintance those day in labors for their instruction and faults of character which their wiser elders amusement. They cause more trouble and show only to their family and dependents. anxiety than the national debt; the loveliest Another description of children deof women in her maturity of charms breaks servedly unpopular, is the over-educated and not so many slumbers, nor occasions so super-excellent, who despise dolls and drums, many sighs as she did in her cradle ; and read only for instruction, have no wish for a the handsomest of men, with full-grown holiday, no fancy for a fairy-tale. They are mustachios and Stultz for his tailor, must the representatives of the old-fashioned, exnot flatter himself that he is half so much tinct class, who used to blunder through admired as he was when in petticoats. Norval's speech, or Satan's address to the

Without any reference to their being our Sun; but far more perseveringly tiresome, future statesmen, philosophers, and magis- more unintermittingly dull than their prede trates in miniature disguise, children form, cessors. The latter excited your compasin their present state of pigmy existence, a sion by bearing the manner of victims; and most influential class of beings; and the when their task was over, were ready for a arrival of a mewling infant who can scarcely ride upon your foot, a noisy_game at play, open its eyes, and only opens its mouth, like or a story about an ogress. But the modern an unfledged bird, for food, will effect the class appear to have a natural taste for most extraordinary alteration in a whole pedantry and precision ; their wisdom never household ; substitute affection for coldness, indulges in a nap, at least before company; duty for dissipation, cheerfulness for gravity, they have learned the Pestalozzi system, and bustle for formality; unite hearts which weary you with questions. They require time had divided, soften feelings which the you to prove everything you assert, and are world had hardened, teach women of fashion always on the watch to detect you in a to criticise pap, and grave metaphysicians to verbal inaccuracy, or a slight mistake in a crawl upon all fours.

date. Indeed, it is not a little annoying, It is not only to their parents and near when you are whiling away the time before connexions that children are interesting dinner in that irritable state which precedes and delightful; they are general favorites, an Englishman's afternoon meal, tired perand their caresses are slighted by none haps by business or study, and wishing for a but the strange, the affected, or the mo- few minutes' relaxation preparatory to the rose. Even men may condescend to sport important tasks of repletion and digestion, with children without fear of contempt ; to find your attempts at playfulness and and for those who like to shelter them- trifling baffled in all directions. Turning selves under authority, and cannot venture from the gentlemen to avoid the Funds, to be wise and happy their own way, we Nero Napoleon the French Emperor, or the have plenty of splendid examples, ancient New Ministry; driven from your refuge and modern, living and dead, to adduce, among the ladies by phrenology, or the which may sanction a love for these pigmy lectures at the Royal Institution, you fly to a playthings. Statesmen have romped with group of children, in hopes of a game at them; orators told them stories ; conquerors play, or an interchange of nonsense, and find submitted to their blows; judges, divines, yourself beset by critics and examiners, reand philosophers listened to their prattle quired to attend to Lindley Murray's rules, to and joined in their sports.

brush up your geographical and chronologiSpoiled children (Legion !) are, however, cal knowledge; and, instead of a demand excepted from this partiality: Every one upon your imagination for a story, or your joins in visiting the faults of others upon foot for a ride, you are called upon to give their heads, and hating these unfortunate an account of the Copernican system or the victims of their parents' folly. They must | Peloponnesian war.

VOL. III.-18.


I love a children's ball—that is, a ball for masculine violence and obstinacy, which, very young children; for when they ap- when they grow up, they will call spirit and proach their teens, they begin gradually to firmness; and lose earlier in life that docility, throw off their angelic disguise, preparatory tenderness, and ignorance of evil, which are to becoming men and women; the germs of their sisters' peculiar charms. In all the vanity, dissimulation, and pride, are visible; range of visible creation there is no object to the young eye roves for admiration, the head me so attractive and delightful as a lovely, is held high on contact with vulgarity; the intelligent, gentle little girl, of eight or nine lips speak a different language from the less years old. This is the point at which may deceitful brow. If the object of entertain- be witnessed the greatest improvement of inments were really to entertain, we ought tellect compatible with that lily-like purity only to invite children; because, if not of mind, to which taint is incomprehensible, quite sure of succeeding in our aim, we at danger unsuspected ; which wants not only least cap discover whether or not we have the vocabulary, but the very idea of sin. It attained it.

is true that In the uniform polite satisfaction and measured mirth of a grown-up party—the

Evil into the mind of God or man cold smiles, the joyless laughter, the languid

May come and go, so unapproved, and leave dance, one tale only is told. Satiety, con

No spot or blame behind tempt, anger, and mortification may lurk be- But to those who have lived long, and obneath, no clue is afforded to the poor host served what constant sweeping and cleaning by which he may discover the quantity of their house within requires, what clouds of pleasure his efforts and his money have pro- dust fly in at every neglected cranny, and duced ; a heart or two may be breaking be- how often they have omitted to brush it off side him, but he knows nothing of the till it has injured the gloss of their furniture matter; a duel or two arranging at his elbow, -to these there is something wonderful, but he sees only bows and politenees; and he dazzling, and precious, in the spotless innomay send away half his guests affronted by cence of childhood, from which the slightest his neglect, and the other half ridiculing his particle of impurity has not been wiped away. hospitality, while he has fatigued and im- Woe to those who by a single word help to poverished himself to please them. In these shorten this beautiful period ! assemblies,

That man was never born whose secret soul, There's sic parade, sic pomp an' art, With all its motley treasure of dark thoughts,

The joy can scarcely reach the heart; Foul fantasies, vain musings, and wild dreams, while, in a party for children, ninety-nine out

Was ever open'd to another's scan. of a hundred consider themselves at the Even the best and purest of women would summit of human felicity, and take no care shrink from displaying her heart to our gaze, to conceal their sentiments; and if the un- while lovely childhood allows us to read its lucky hundredth happens to fall down, or to every thought and fancy. Its sincerity, inbe affronted, a few tears and a little outcry deed, is occasionally very inconvenient; and show


assistance is required, let that person be quite sure that he has and allow you to set matters right again by nothing remarkably odd, ugly, or disagreecoaxing and sugar-plums. These occasional able about his appearance, who ventures to eccentric movements in the polka, proceeding ask a child—what it thinks of him? Amidst from the exuberance of spirits and of joy; the frowns and blushes of the family, amidst those shouts of merriment which sometimes a thousand efforts to prevent or to drown the defy the lessons of politeness and the frowns answer, “ truth," in all the horrors of nakedof a smiling mamma; those peals of young ness, will generally appear in the surprised laughter so thrilling and so infectious; those assembly; and he who has hitherto thought, animated voices and bright faces--assure the in spite of his mirror, that his eyes had donors of the feast that they have conferred merely a slight and not unpleasing cast, will a few hours of exquisite happiness on the now learn for the first time that "everybody dear little beings around them, afforded them says he has a terrible squint." food for chattering and mirth for many days, 1 cannot approve of the modern practice and perhaps planted in their grateful memo- of dressing little girls in accordance with the ries one of those sunny spots to which the prevailing fashion, with scrupulous imitation man looks back with pleasure and wonder, of their elders. When I look at a child, I do when sated, wearied, and disappointed, he not wish to feel doubtful whether it is not an sees with surprise how easily and how keenly unfortunate dwarf who is standing before me, he was once delighted.

attired in a costume suited to its age. ExLittle girls are my favorites; boys, treme simplicity of attire, and a dress sacred though sufficiently interesting and amusing, to themselves only, are most fitted to these are apt to be infected, as soon as they as-“fresh female buds; " and it vexes me to see sume the manly garb, with a little of that them disguised in the newest fashions of Le

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