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5 But

3 And thinkest thou 3. And then how is it possible that thou shouldest this, o man, that judge the pure Christian to be a breaker of the law, do such things, and and thereupon in a damnable estate, only for not being doest the same, that circumcised, and yet deem thyself safe, when thou art thou shalt escape the guilty of those filthinesses which were most eminently judgment of God? prohibited by the law of circumcision? the riches of this. 4; Or shall God's great patience and longanimity goodness and for- in deferring his vengeance on unbelievers, and his bearance and long-forbearing so long to punish thy sinful course, be cast suffering; not know-away upon thee, be despised and not made use of by ing that the good- thee? Dost thou not consider that all this longsuffering ness of God leadeth thee to repentance of God to thee is purposely designed to bring thee to

after thy reformation, and if it work' not that effect will tend to hardness and impé- thy heavier ruin? nitent heart treasur.

5. Wilt thou thus go on in obdurate resisting of all est up unto thyself God's methods, and be never the better by his deferday of wrath and ring these judgments so long, but only to add more + revelation of the weight to thy ruin when it comes ? righteous judgment 6. Who shall not consider circumcision or uncircumof God;

cision, but punish or reward every man according to 6 Who will render to every man accord- his actions. ing to his deeds : 7. To them that by constancy of pure Christian 7 To them who by performances, and by patient bearing of the persecupatient continuance tions that fall upon them for that profession, go on in for glory and honour pursuit of that reward which Christ hath promised to and immortality, e- such, he shall bestow another life upon the loss of ternal life:

this, eternal bliss in the world to come : 8 But unto 6 them 8-10. But to schismatical factious men, which are that are contentious, and do not obey the as it were born and composed and made up of contruth, but obey un- tention, (as the Gnostics are,) that resist the right righteousness, in- way, deny the Christians the liberty of not being cirdignation and wrath, cumcised, and themselves live in all unnatural sins,

9 Tribulation and those that do thus renounce the gospel, and live conanguish, upon every soul of man that trary to the law, to such all judgments must be ex7 doeth evil, of the pected, desolations and destructions here in a most Jew first, and also eminent manner, and eternal misery attending them. of the Gentile;

And as the Jew shall have had the privilege to be 10 But glory, ho- first rewarded for his good performances, (as appears

and every man that work- by Christ's being first revealed to him, in whom coneth good, to the Jew sequently and proportionably he shall have all spiritfirst, and also to the ual grace and crown, if he embrace Christ, and live 9 Gentile:

exactly and constantly according to his directions, so must he also expect to have his punishment and detr uction first, and that a sad one at this present by


according to, κατά. 4 Or, retribution of: for the King's MS. reads, åytatoðÓGEWS. patience of the good work, υπομονήν έργου αγαθού. 6 those that are of, or, from contention, τοις εξ έριθείας. 7 worketh, KatepyaCouévov. S "EXinvos, Greek,

9 Greek.

the Roman armies upon their final rejecting and refusing Christ. The greater his privileges are, the greater also his provocations and his guilt will be. And then the Gnostic also that takes part with the Jew shall bear him company in the vengeance. As for the Gentiles, as they are put after the Jews only (and not left out) in the mercies of God, particularly in the revealing of Christ, so shall their punishments upon their provocations only come after the punishment of the Jews, not be wholly superseded, (and accordingly it is to be seen in the predictions of both their ruins, in the Revelation, the Jewish unbelievers and Gnostics are punished first, and then the Gentiles

and carnal Christians with them also.) 11 For there is no 11. For God's rewards and punishments are not respect of persons conferred by any uncertain rule of arbitrary favour or with God.

displeasure, neither depend they upon any outward privileges or performances, as either having or not having received the law, being or not being circumcised, but are exactly proportioned according to

men's inward qualifications or demeanours. 12 For as many as

12. For all those of the Gentile world, who having have sinned without not received the Mosaical law of circumcision, have law shall also perish sinned against that knowledge of God which hath many as have sinned otherwise been afforded them, shall be adjudged to in the law shall be perdition, though not by the law of Moses, it shall judged by the law; never be laid to their charge that they have not been

circumcised,) or though they be punished, yet shall not they have that aggravation of their sin and punishment which belongs to those which have received the law of Moses, they shall only be judged for their not observing the law of nature, (see Theophylact,) the law of Moses being not able to accuse them. And those who having received the law of Moses, and in it the sign of the covenant, circumcision, do not yet live according to it, (such are these unbelieving Jews and Judaizing Gnostics,) all the benefit that they shall reap by their having received the law and circumcision shall be to have that their accuser, by which they may be condemned the deeper, instead of their

advocate to plead for them. 13 (For not the 13. For, to speak to the latter first, (see note [6] hearers of the law Matt. vii.,) it is a dangerous unchristian error to are just before God, think that the hearing or knowing their duty, the law shall be justified. having the law delivered to them, (yea, and the seal

of the covenant, circumcision in their flesh,) without conscientious practice of the duties thereof, shall stand them in any stead ; no, it is only the living orderly, according to rule and law, that will render any

man acceptable in God's sight. 14 For when the 14. And for the former, it is clear, for when the other Gentiles, which have people of the world, which have not had that revelanot the law, do by tion of God's will and law which the Jews had, do withnature the things contained in the law, out that revelation, by the dictate of their reason, and these, having not the those natural notions of good and evil implanted in law, are a law unto them, (and by those precepts of the sons of Adam themselves :

by parents transmitted to children, and so, without any further revelation from heaven, come down unto them,) perform the substantial things required in the law of Moses, and denoted by circumcision and other ceremonies ; this is an argument and evidence that these men do to themselves supply the place of

Moses's law. 15 Which shew the 15. And that obligation to punishment, which is work of the law writ- ordinarily caused by the law, these men demonstrate ten in their hearts, themselves to have, without help of the Mosaical law; bearing witness, and from whence also it is, that as conscience (which, ac(c) their thoughts cording to the nature of the word, is a man's knowing to the mean while ac- that he hath done or not done what is by law comcusing or else ex- manded) is constantly witness either for or against cusing one another;) them, that they have done or not done their duty; so

the general notions and instincts of good and evil that are in them, without any light from the Mosaical law, do either accuse them as transgressors of the law of God, or else plead for them that they have not culpably done any thing against it.

From whence it appears to be most just, even by their own confession, that they that have sinned without law, transgressed the law of nature, should also be punished, though they never heard of this Mosaical law, (which was the thing affirmed, ver. 12, from whence to ver. 16 all that

hath been said is but a parenthesis.) 16 In the day when 16. And when I speak of perishing and judging, God shall judge the ver. 12, I speak of that doom which shall involve all, secrets of men by both Jews and Gentiles, at that great day, when ing to [d] my gos- Christ Jesus, being by his Father seated in his regal pel.

power, shall at the end of all come forth again to judge the world, not according to outward privileges or performances, but inward qualifications and demeanours, being, as he is, a searcher of hearts ; for then shall the Jews be dealt with either in judgment the rules of the Mosaical law, and so the Gentiles also, according as they have obeyed or not obeyed the law of nature. (And this is the very doctrine that hath been taught us by Christ, and by me and others preached

or mercy, as they have lived or not lived according to 10 among themselves either accusing or pleading for them, μεταξύ άλλήλων κατηγορούντων, ή και απολογουμένων. .

to the world.) 17 Behold, thou art 17. And thus shall the process be to the Judaizing [e] called a Jew, and Gnostics, in this or the like form. Thou that callest restest in the law; thyself, or sayest thou art a Jew, though indeed thou and makest thy boast of God,

art not; thou that dependest on the outward performances of the law, circumcision, &c. as if justification were to be had by that, and could not be had without it; thou that boastest that God is thy father or favourer in a peculiar manner, because thou adherest so faithfully to his law, even in opposition to Christ's re

formations (see note [9] Matt. v.); 18 And knowest his 18. Thou that undertakest to know all the mystewill, and (f ) ap- ries of God's will, (and thence art by thyself called a provest the things Gnostic, or knowing person,) and upon examination, lent, being instruct- to approve and practise the highest perfections by the ed out of the law; skill which thou hast in the law of Moses ; 19 And art confi- 19. And so by that advantage takest thyself to be dent that thou thy: a most knowing person, fit to lead all others, and the blind, a light of despising the orthodox Christians for blind and them which are in ignorant (see note [a] James iü.); darkness,

20. Assumest great matters to thyself, as having a 20 An instructor of scheme or abstract of all knowledge and true religion of babes, which hast (see note [c] 2 Peter i.) by the knowledge and underthe [g]form of know-standing which thou hast, and by the glosses which ledge and of the truth thou givest of the law; in the law.

21, 22. Thou therefore, I say, that pretendest such 21 Thou therefore zeal to and skill in the law, that art so strict for legal which teachest another, teachest thou performances, dost thou commit the same sin thyself not thyself? thou (supposing it stealth, &c.) which thou condemnest in that preachest a others? dost thou that condemnest a Christian for not man should not steal, being circumcised commit the great sin forbidden in dost thou steal ?

the law of circumcision? This is, as if he that pre22 Thou that say: est a man should tended such a pious respect to the place of God's not commit adultery, worship as not to endure with any patience a false dost, thou, commit god or idol to be set up in it, should yet so much deabhorrest idols, dost spise the same place as to rob it of those things that thou commit sacri- are consecrated to it: which sure is as absolute a prolege?

faning of any holy place as to set up the most heathen 23 Thou that mak- idol in it. est thy boast of the law, through break

23. Thou that gloriest in thy zeal to the law, dost ing the law dishon- thou commit the most unlawful practices, and by so ourest thou God? doing bring a reproach on all Christian religion ?

11 proclaimest, knpúoowv.

24 For the name of

24 For the unbelieving Gentiles, seeing and judgGod is blasphemed ing by your evil lives, are aliened from Christianity, among the Gentiles have an evil opinion of the profession, and of Christ, through you, as it is written.

whom you worship, and so those scriptures which mention the dishonour of God's name among the Gentiles, Isaiah lü. 5, Ezek. xxxvi. 20. 23, may fitly

be accommodated to you. 25 For circumcision 25. For men that thus live it is madness to think verily profiteth, if that circumcision will stand them in any stead : for thou keep the law: circumcision is a sacrament to seal benefits to them but if thou be a breaker of the law,

who are circumcised, if the condition required of them thy circumcision is (that is, the sanctity and purity signified thereby) be made uncircumci- performed also; but if not, there is no special advansion.

tage comes to them by being circumcised, that is, by

thus complying with the Mosaical law. 26 Therefore if the 26. And by the same reason, if those who are not uncircumcision keep observant of the law, or circumcised, viz. the Christhe righteousness tians of the Gentiles, live those lives of purity and his uncircumcision sanctity which that sacrament was set to engage men be counted for cir- to, they shall be accepted by God as well as if they cumcision?

had been circumcised. 27 And shall not 27. And those that having not been circumcised, uncircumcision

nor received the law of Moses, (see note [9] Matt. v.,) which is by nature, but only those natural dictates and directions which judge thee, 14 who are common to all men, if they yet do the things com[h] by the letter and manded in the law of the Jews, that is, the moral subcircumcision dost stantial part of it, they shall condemn thee, who being transgress the law? in that legal state, and observing not the sense and

meaning, but only the letter of the law, art outwardly

circumcised, but dost not perform that purity which 28 For he is not a

that ceremony was set to signify, and to engage all Jew, which is one

that are circumcised to observe it. 15 outwardly; nei- 28. For he is not the child of Abraham, such as to ther is that circum- whom the promises pertain, who is born of his race or cision, which is 16out- seed, and no more; nor is

hat the vailable circumward in the flesh: 29 But he is a Jew, cision which is external, that mark imprinted on the which is one 17 in

flesh: wardly; and circum- 29. But he is the Jew indeed, the true child of cision is that of the Abraham, (who shall be accepted by God,) though heart, in the spirit, he be not so by birth, who in the purity of the heart and not in the letter; whose praise is not performs those substantial laws required by God of is of men, but of God. the Jews, and revealed to them more distinctly than


12 ordinances, ôlkaiduata : see note [6] ch. viii. 13 the uncircumcision which is of nature, ή εκ φύσεως ακροβυστία. 14 which art by, or, with, or, in the letter, &c. a transgressor,

15 in the visible part, of the law ? τον διά γράμματος και περιτομής παραβάτην νόμου και εν τω φανερώ. 16 in the visible part, in the flesh, &v TQ pavepo èv sapki.

17 in the hidden part, εν τω κρυπτο. 18 from, E.

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