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advance of the invasion fleet to make easy the way for him and for his men. These Filipinos paved the way for the victories you and I read about in the papers each day.

I repeat, the Filipinos have demonstrated their loyalty to America by living here and working quietly in accordance with law and order. They have demonstrated in this war that freedom, justice and equality -are their guiding light and that they love America as they love their own native land.

When we Filipinos think of the fact that less than a year ago, the Congress of the United States made it possible for the Chinese to become American citizens but that we still are precluded from taking this important step, we feel that at least, we should be given the same consideration as the Chinese, if for nothing else but on the fundamental basis of equality of treatment. Here are former residents of a country that has been under the American flag for more than 45 years, a people who has absorbed and practiced the American way of life, but they, under existing law, cannot become citizens of America; they cannot even practice their professions as physicians or lawyers and the like, except in rare instances. They are seriously handicapped by lack of citizenship wherever they turned if they try to better themselves in this land of opportunity.

We, of course, were glad to know that the Chinese have been given the right to become American citizens, but we were saddened to think that we had not been accorded this privilege, although in two wars now our people have courageously demonstrated their loyalty to the same freedom for which our boys are fighting and dying today.

Under various State interpretations and our Federal decisions we have a very peculiar set-up. In many States of the United States the mere fact that the Filipino owes allegiance to the American flag is sufficient for the legal requirements in many States, and the Filipino can register and vote at the present time.

Mr. ALLEN. Where?
Dr. YAP. Now.
Mr. ALLEN. Where is that done?

Dr. YAP. In New Orleans, and Louisiana, for example. The mere fact that the election is over; the mere fact that the Filipino was eligible to fight under the American flag, is sufficient requirement.

In some of the States, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the mere fact that we owe allegiance to the United States is not sufficient for compliance for citizenship.

In California, for example, the State where Congressman Phillips came from, because a Filipino has been largely designated as "brown", a Filipino from the Philippine Islands cannot marry a white citizen in California.


Dr. YAP. I don not know. I know they classify the Filipino as belonging to the Mongolian race and under California law he cannot be an American citizen.

The CHAIRMAN. It is quite complicated.
Dr. Yap. That is why we want to get this legislation.
The CHAIRMAN. Do they want to get married over here?

Dr. YAP. A large number of these Filipinos who have resided for years in the United States have married American citizens. I have done so. Now their children, American boys and girls, citizens of the United States, have been born of these marriages. May I also call the attention of the committee that, while almost 20,000 Filipino children have been born here of Filipino parents and who, by virtue of their birth are American citizens, yet their parents still remain Filipinos ineligible to American citizenship. In many instances, these parents have been deprived of an opportunity to earn a decent means of livelihood on account of the fact that they have been classified as aliens for purposes of employment. Even their American wives who, when married to a Filipino ineligible to citizenship, and who have lost their American citizenship, have been likewise barred from employment. How can these loving parents bring up a respectable American family when subjected to such anomalous, un-Christian and un-American conditions ?

In some States because we are not citizens we are not permitted to own property. We cannot own real property. Now consider the almost 100,000 Filipinos in the Territory of Hawaii and Alaska.

The CHAIRMAN. How many have you in the Territory of Hawaii?

Dr. YAP. 53,000; the Delegate from Hawaii is here. He can give you more detailed information.

The CHAIRMAN. How many Filipinos have you in this country?
Dr. YAP. 43,000.
The CHAIRMAN. So that most of these persons will be in Hawaii.
Dr. YAP. Most of them who are fathers.
The CHAIRMAN. What is the average age?

Dr. YAP. The average age is between 30 to 36 or 37; that is for the year 1940.

Mr. ALLEN. I believe the record shows that most of them are men? Dr. YAP. Yes.

Mr. ALLEN. You were talking about getting married. How will you get married ?

Dr. YAP. Yes; that is what I was saying. Thousands of Filipinos have married American citizens here. They are allowed to marry in the United States. Take myself as an instance. I married an American and I have a son who is here.

The CHAIRMAN. Have they married Caucasians?
Dr. YAP. Yes.

Mr. ALLEN. Has there ever been an instance to your knowledgeyour people do not marry or intermarry with the Ethiopian race.

Dr. YAP. No, sir; thousands have married white American citizens. The CHAIRMAN. You are using good sense.

Dr. Yap. We found that out, Mr. Chairman; and many of us have raised American children-boys and girls.

Mr. ALLEN. You are married ?

Dr. YAP. Yes; and I have my boy here [indicating]. He is a citizen and I am an alien but cannot find work to support my boy who is an American citizen.

The CHAIRMAN. When were you married ?
Dr. YAP. In 1934 under our marriage laws.
Mr. ALLEN. Your wife is a citizen but you are not?

Dr. YAP. Yes; and I come as an immigrant and we lived with my people and I am not speaking as an official of the Government but å private person.

The legal and social status of Filipinos in the United States is most uncertain. He is a national, owing absolute allegiance to America, yet because he is neither white nor of “African descent” he cannot become a citizen of America except in rare cases.

The American Constitution does not operate, as a general rule, in the Philippines, but the Philippines are a part of the United States under international interpretation, and by virtue of this fact, Filipinos can demand protection from American diplomatic representatives in foreign countries. By treaties which the United States Government has entered into with foreign nations, citizens of the Philippines are considered citizens of the United States and they are accorded rights and privileges of American citizens, rights and privileges not granted to aliens. Yet the Filipinos were classified as aliens under the Alien Registration Act of 1940 and they had to register along with the Japs and Germans in this country.

Because he cannot vote in America, although he can demand protection under its laws, the Filipino is unable to make his voice heard in the councils of Congress and in the Government, unless it be by individual contacts. Politicians by and large turn a deaf ear to his petition for better opportunities and better living conditions.

The different States of the Union vary as to their interpretation of the Filipino status of citizenship. For certain practical purposes, the mere fact that he owes absolute allegiance to the United States is sufficient compliance with the citizenship requirements in order to practice his profession or to be employed in some State projects or even to register and vote during elections. But despite this fact, Filipinos, even though they may have resided in this country for as long as 20 or 30 years or more, are being handicapped seriously by the common assumption that they are merely transients. Consequently, the legal, racial, and even marital status of many Filipinos and their American families is yet unsettled. In some parts of the country this same feeling of racial uncertainty with its resulting marital instability can often be observed even though it is without an immediate basis in legal issue:

I cannot urge you too strongly to consider well these factors when you vote on sending this measure to the House for action. I cannot make too emphatic my sincere and earnest hope that you will vote to send this legislation to the House of Representatives and that there you will support it with all your might.

Gentlemen of the committee; the whole world has been watching with envious eyes and admiration the Philippine-American experiment and many have viewed it as a model for post-war international relations between nations and their colonies. Yet, if that model is to succeed most effectively, certainly the nationals of the Philippines must be allowed to become citizens of America, just as nationals of America have been allowed to become citizens of the Philippines. It is obviously contradictory to claim that America accepts the Philippines as an equal in the family of nations, but at the same time treats the Filipinos on unequal terms and prevents them from becoming American citizens,

Logic alone impels it; our mutual blood-letting demands it; simple justice makes it inevitable. I speak for the parents of those men who are fighting for us today. I speak for their relatives, their brothers and sisters, and their countrymen who have remained in the home front to work for common victory. I speak for every Filipino who has learned to know, to admire, and to love this great America: Give us Justice—now.

The CHAIRMAN. I think you have made out a very good case. Dr. YAP. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.

With the permission of the committee I would like to submit the following additional information regarding the Filipinos in America : Emigration of Filipinos, Citizenship Status of Filipinos, Filipino Immigration Into California, Who Are Citizens of the Philippines? Anomalous Status of Filipinos, and Immigration Problems of Filipinos.

The CHAIRMAN. Without objection the memoranda submitted will be incorporated in the appendix to the record of these proceedings.

(The memoranda appear hereafter in the appendix.)
Mr. ALLEN. Where did you say your home was?
Dr. YAP. Leyte.
The CHAIRMAN. Where are you residing now?
Dr. YAP. Washington, D. C.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you for your comprehensive statement.

Mr. FARRINGTON. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make a brief statement in suport of the bill and in support of the testimony of Dr. Yap, with whom I am well acquainted.

The CHAIRMAN. You may proceed.



Mr. FARRINGTON. I have known Dr. Yap and know him to be a citizen of very fine standing and a man of excellent reputation.

Now on May 24, 1943, I introduced H. R. 2776, requesting that the services of naturalization be extended to the Filipino people. This was the result of a concurrent resolution adopted by the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii favoring that legislation. I would like to present that resolution.

The CHAIRMAN. Without objection it will be made a part of the record.

(The resolution is as follows:)

[S. Con. Res. No. 10]

Whereas one of the most heartening occurrences of the war has been the magnificent spirit of the Filipinos, the stanchness of their devotion to the principles of democratic government, their aptitude and devotion as fighting men, struggling, with their American brothers, against overwhelming odds in the defense of the Philippines, and their maintenance of a hard core of resistance even after the occupation of their country by the enemy; and

Whereas the loyal and devoted support of the war by Filipinos in Hawaii and in the continental United States has established a not less remarkable standard: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Senate of the Twenty-second Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii, the House of Representatives concurring, That the Congress of the United States of America be, and it is hereby requested to modify the naturalization laws of the United States to the end that Filipinos may have an equal opportunity and right with foreign-born residents of the white races to become citizens of the United States of America ; and be it further

Resolved, That copies of this resolution; upon its adoption, be forwarded to the President of the United States, to the President of the Senate of the United States, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States, to the Committee on Immigration of the Senate of the United States, to the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives of the United States, and to the Delegate to Congress from the Territory of Hawaii.

Offered by Charles H. Silva, senator, first district; C. M. Peters, senator, second district; Clem Gomes, senator, fourth district.

APRIL 7, 1943.

Mr. FARRINGTON. Subsequently the Board of Supervisors of the County of Hawaii, the largest county geographically, adopted a resolution supporting this legislation. I would like to present that for the record also.

The CHAIRMAN. Without objection it will be received and made a part of the record.

(The resolution adopted is as follows:)


Whereas the Filipinos residing in the Territory of Hawaii, United States of America, are united behind the proposal endorsed by the Senate of the Twentysecond Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii, requesting the Congress of the United States of America to grant the Filipinos the privilege to become American citizens by naturalization; and

Whereas the Filipinos have proved their loyalty and devotion to the United States of America by their action marked by valor and gallantry under fire in the Philippines as well as in the Territory of Hawaii; and

Whereas the Board of Supervisors of the County of Hawaii feels the entire American Nation owes an eternal debt of gratitude to the Filipino people for their sacrifices in the defense of the American flag in the present war; and

Whereas we believe our Filipino comrades are entitled to enjoy the rights of American citizenship; and

Whereas to deny them of this privilege is to violate a fundamental principle of the American Way; Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Board of Supervisors in and for the County of Hawaii, That the said Board of Supervisors in and for the County of Hawaii goes on record as endorsing the senate concurrent resolution passed by the Senate of the Twentysecond Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii requesting the Congress of the United States of America to modify the naturalization laws to provide machinery whereby Filipinos may become citizens of the United States of America by naturalization; Be it further

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be respectfully submitted to the Honorable President of the Senate and the Honorable Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States of America, the Honorable United States Secretary of the Interior, the Director of the Bureau of Naturalization, the Honorable Joseph R. Farrington, Delegate to Congress from Hawaii, and the Honorable Ingram M. Steinbeck, Governor of Hawaii.

Dated at Hilo, Hawaii, this 6th day of May A. D. 1943.
Introduced by: (Signed) Samuel M. Spencer, Supervisor at Large.

Mr. FARRINGTON. In September of this year I was the guest of a large luncheon arranged by Filipino citizens of America representing the organization Dr. Yap has told you about. There were present Filipinos from all of the Territory, at which resolutions were adopted strongly recommending this legislation be adopted. With your permission I would like to introduce this.

The CHAIRMAN. Without objection it will be inserted in the record.

(The article containing the resolution above-mentioned appeared in the Congressional Record of Sept. 21, 1943, at page A4532.)

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