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great order on middling, and extraordinary fat on good food: both circumstances, resulting from an illformed carcass: a rigid back; large bones; a thin chine; and heavy offals: a restless and unquiet disposition. which makes them difficult to keep in any other than the largest walks, commons, or fields; a texture of flesh that will not keep in hot weather so long as that of South Down, and consequently said to be inferior in price at that season; a loose ragged habit of wool, losing if not in high keep.
These ill qualities have so much foundation in facts, that other breeds are introducing rapidly into both Suffolk and Norfolk, and promise speedily to be well established. It is proper to observe, that of all these objections to the Norfolk breed, there is Done more notorious, or more susceptible of direct proof, than the number kept on a given quantity of ground; which, in these two counties, is fewer than is kept on similar land of some other breeds. This is an object of importance; whatever merit or advantage is attained by keeping 500 sheep on a farm of 750 acres, sinks much, if 750 of some other breeds might be kept on the same land. The first and greatest of the national interests, as well as the profit of the individual, is intimately concerned in such a position.
In the managemeat of their flocks, our farmers have no point so interesting as the almost entire reliance for the winter support on turnips. In some Counties, large flocks are kept without turnips: here they have not an idea of the possibility of such a conduct.
Cows. The cows of Suffolk have long been celebrated for the great quantity of their milk, which, we believe, much exceeds, on an average, that of any other breed in the island, if quantity of food and size of the animal are taken into the account. The breed is universally polled, that is, without horns; the size small; few rise, when fattened, to
above 50 stone. (14/6.) The points admired are, a clean throat, with little dewlap; a snake head; clean thin legs, and short; a springing rib and large carcass; a flat loin, the hip bones to lie square and even; the tail to rise high from the rump. This is the description of some considerable dairy-men.— But if we were to describe the points of certain individuals, which were very famous for their quantity of milk, it would vary in several points; and these would be such as are applicable to great numbers. A clean throat, with little dew-lap; a thin clean snake head, thin legs; a very large carcase; rib tolerably springing from the centre of the back, but with a heavy belly; back-bone ridged; chine thin and hollow; loin narrow; udder large, loose, and creased when empty; milk-veins remarkably large, and rising in knotted puffs to the eye: this is so general, that we scarcely ever saw a famous milker that did not possess this point. A general habit of leanness, hip-bones high, and ill covered, and scarcely any part of the carcase so formed and covered as to please an eye that is accustomed to fat beasts of the finer breeds. But something of a contradiction to this, in appearances is, that many of these beasts fatten remarkably well; the flesh of a fine quality; and in that state will feel well enough to satisfy the touch of skilful butchers. The best milkers known have been either red, brindle, or yellowish cream-coloured,
The quantity of milk given, is very considerable indeed. There is hardly a dairy of any consideration, in one district, that does not contain cows, which give, in the height of the season, that is, in the beginning of June, eight gallons of milk in the day; and six are common among many, for a large part of the season. For two or three months a whole dairy will give, for all that give milk at all, five gallons a day, on an average, if the season is not unfavourable, which, for cows of this size, is very considerable.
considerable. When the quantity of milk in any breed is very great, that of butter is rarely equal. It is thus in Suffolk; the quantity of milk is more extraordinary than that of butter. The average of all the dairies of the district may be estimated at three firkins, and three-fourths of a whey of cheese per cow, clear to the factor's hands, after supplying the consumption of the family.
Horses. The Suffolk breed of horses is no less celebrated than the cows. They are found in most perfection in the district of the country that is upon the coast, extending to Woodbridge, Debenham, Eye, and Loestoff. The best of all were found some years ago upon the Sandlings, south of Woodbridge and Orford. Amongst the great farmers in that country, there was, fifty years ago, a considerable spirit of breeding, and of drawing team against team for large sums of money. It is to be regretted, that such a spirit of emulation was lost. We remember many of the old breed, which were very famous, and, in some respects, an uglier horse could not be viewed: sorrel colour, very low in the foreend; a large ill-shaped head, with slouching heavy ears; a great carcase, and short legs; but shorthacked, and more of the punch than the Leicestershire breeders will allow. These horses could only walk and draw; they could trot no better than a cow; but their power in drawing was very considerable. Of late years, by aiming at coach horses, the breed is much changed to a handsomer, lighter, and more active horse. It is yet an excellent breed; and if the comparison with others, and especially the great black horse of the midland counties, be fairly made, there is no doubt of their beating them in useful draft, that of the cart and the plough. But the fair comparison is this: let a given sum be invested in the purchase of each breed; and then, by means of which will a thousand tons of earth be moved to a given distance, by the smallest quantity
of hay and oats? It is the oats and hay that are to be compared, not the number or size of the cattle. A spirited and attentive breeder, upon a farm of 1,000 or 1,500 acres of various soils, that would admit two or three stallions, and thirty or forty capital mares, might, by breeding in and in, with close attention to the improvements wanted, advance this breed to a very high perfection, and render it a national object. But then, query, whether the same expence and attention would not produce a breed of cattle that would, by training, supersede the use of horses? Of all the branches of live stock, perhaps nothing is in such an imperfect state as working oxen; in every thing that concerns them, we are really in the infancy of agriculture.
Hogs. Of the hogs of Suffolk we shall only observe, that the short white breed of the cow district has very great merit; well-made, thick, short noses, small bone, and light offals; but not quite so prolific as some worse-made breeds.
Rabbits. There are many warrens in Suffolk, especially in the western sand district; but within the last 20 or 30 years, great tracts of them had been ploughed up, and converted to the much better use of yielding corn, mutton, and wool. From this circumstance has arisen the great increase of the price of these furs. It is very difficult to gain a satisfactory knowledge of the acreable produce of land, in this application of the soil; for the warrens are more commonly estimated than measured.
CULTIVATION.--Carrots. The culture of carrots in the Sandlings, or district within the line formed by Woodbridge, Saxmundham, and Orford, but extending to Leiston, is one of the most interesting objects to be met with in the agriculture of Britain. —— It appears, from Norden's Surveyor's Dialogue, that carrots were commonly cultivated in this district two hundred years ago, which is a remarkable fact, and shews how extremely local such practices long re
main, and what ages are necessary thoroughly to spread them. For many years the principal object in the cultivation was sending the carrots to London market by sea: but other parts of the kingdom having rivalled them in this supply, they have of late years been cultivated chiefly for feeding horses; and thus they now ascertain, by the common husbandry of a large district, that it will answer well to raise carrots for the mere object of the teams.
There is scarcely an article of cultivation in any county of England, that more demands attention than this of carrots in Suffolk, for it is applicable to all sands, and dry friable sandy loams, of which immense tracts are found all over the kingdom; but this application of them is not sufficiently known.
Cabbages. The culture of cabbages is another article which adds not inconsiderably to the agricul tural merit of Suffolk. The most approved method is, to sow the seed in a very rich bed, early in the spring; to prepare the land for four ploughings, the last of which buries an ample dunging, and forms the land a second time on three-feet ridges, along the crown of which the plants are set in a rainy season, about Midsummer. They are kept clean by horse and hand-hoeing.
Hops-At Stow Market, and its vicinity, there are about 200 acres of hops, which deserve mention, as an article which is not generally spread throughout the kingdom.
Woods --The woods of Suffolk hardly deserve mentioning, except for the fact, that they pay in general but indifferently; and nothing but the expence and trouble of grubbing, prevents large tracts of land, thus occupied, from being applied much more beneficially.
Hemp. The district of country in which this article of cultivation is chiefly found, extends from Eye to Beccles, spreading to the breadth of about ten miles,