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planting cabbages instead of fallow; but, as that will be mentioned elsewhere, we omit it here.
Rich Loam.-On this soil the management is more uniform. The rotation, called the Norfolk husbandry, is very generally introduced, which is making turnips the preparation for barley, and clover that for wheat, in the course of : 1. turnips ; 2. barley ; 3. clover ; 4. wheat; which is certainly one of the best systems that ever was invented, and, indeed, altogether unexceptionable. There are two common variations, but both for the worse; to take a second crop of barley or oats after the wheat, and then recommence : the other, to sow clover with that second barley, and then wheat again on that clover : this is very bad, for it fouls the land.
Sund.--On the sand districts the management varies proportionably with the badness of the soil; but in one feature it is universal, that turnips are every where the preparation, the basis for both corn and grass. There is no sand so light that it will not yield, by means of dung or fold, this crop.
After turnips barley is generally sown; then grassseed succeeds, but with variations. On bad sands tretoil and ray grass are chosen, because their duration equals the views of the farmer : they are left commonly three or four years, and when broken up, a husturd fallow given for rye. The discrimination between good and bad farmers, in this arrangement, depends entirely on this point ; good ones consider every one as subservient to sheep, consequenly leave their grasses as long as possible; but bad ones, in a hurry for corn, and an immediate advantage, plough too soon. All these sandy districts are invariably sheep farms (rabbits only excepted); the flocks feed in winter on turnips, and in summer on these layers.
Bucks heat forms, in some very poor spots, a variation ; and small pieces of tares and pease are sometimes seen, but the system hiere described hoisis good in general.
Fen. –The course of crops generally pursueri in this district is to sow cole seed on one plousui bg, after paring and burning ; which is for sheep terdor seed, according to circumstances; then oats in ce in succession; with the last of which crops they lay down with ray grass and clover for six or seven years, and then pare and burn, and repeat the same husbandry.
Such are the courses of crops which are usually practised in the four predominant soils of Suffolk; and we shonld remark, that they are found indiscriminately on the fields of men who have worked no improvements, and those by whom considerable ones have been effected.
OPERATIONS OF Tillage.-Ploughing. In every part of the county this is done with a pair of horses, conducted with reins by the ploughman; and the quantity of land usually turned in a day is an acre upon stiff soils, and from one and a quarter to one and a half on sands. The Norfolk wheelplough, and the little light swing plough of Suffolk, are the common implements. The latter is a good tool for depths not exceeding four inches, but a better construction is wanted for greater depths.
Oxen are used by a few individuals, but no where common.
The form of laying arable lands upon dry soils, is, on the flat with tinishing furrows; alternate gathering and splitting ; but on wet lands, the three-foot Essex ridge of two bouts is most common.
In some districts, six, eight, and ten feat steuches a little arched, are used.
Rolling and harrowing.-In general, there is nothing in the practice which demands particular attention; but there is to be found in the hemp district a management in working clover lays for wheat, which ought to be noted. A beavy roller follows the
ploughs, then a spike roller. This prepares well es. pecially in a dry season.
Dibbling wheut. This practice, which there is every reason to denominate excellent; is well established in this county, and increases every year. In the maritime sand district, many thousand acres are thus put in. The ground being rolled with a light barley roller, a man, walking backwards on the flag, as the furrow slice is called, with a dibber of iron, the handle about three feet long, in each hand, strikes two rows of holes, about four inches from one row to the other, on each flag; and he is followed by three or four children, to drop the grains, three, four, or five in each hole. In this way, from six to seven pecks of seed are deposited, at very equal depths, in the centre of the flag. A bush harrow follows to cover it. Thete are several circum. stances which tend to render this method superior to the common. The treading so equally is very beneficial upon light soil, and in dry weather hurtful upon none. The seed is laid in at an equal and good depth; and it is all in the flag itself, and not dropt in the seanis, where weeds, if any, will arise : and there is some saving in seed. The fact is, that the crops are superior io the common, and the sample more equal. It is not common to hoe, except only one row is put in instead of two. Some use a frame which strikes many holes at a time, but the work is not so well done, and the practice not equally approved. The vast system of well-paid employment for the poor which this practice care ries with it, is a point of immense iinportance.
Drilling is practised with great intelligence and success, by individuals, in several parts of the county ; but no where has the least tendency to become the common practice. In some districts it declines; and while dibbling spreads rapidly, this practice moves with difficulty. Grass Lands. The management of meadows and
upland pastures, in this county, in general, can scarcely be worse. Upon the same farms, where almost every effort is made upon the arable, the grass is nearly or quite neglected. A little draining is sometimes, though rarely, bestowed. Manuring is unknown in the hands of tenants ; and as to mole and ant-hills, bushes, and other rubbish, immense tracts of what is called grass, are over-run with them. Rolling is seldom given. Things wear rather a better aspect upon farms occupied by the owners; but, generally speaking, we allude principally to tenants. As to lands in the bands of gentlemen, they are managed, in many cases, in much superior stile, but not always.
Whatever is expended upon arable lands, the tenant can, in the course of a lease, get back again. Upon grass this is not the case: be may make as large a profit; but still he will leave something at the end of a term for the landlord. If this idea be not the cause of the ill-management noted, we know not what is. But the conduct ought to be a lesson to landlords, never to allow grass-lands to be broken up: instead of which, it has been common.
Improvement of Live Stock. This object is perhaps the most important in the whole range of rural ceconomies. "The poorest and most backward nations contrive to raise bread for their consumption equal to the deinand; and to increase the quantity with the increase of their mouths. Their wheat, in the most miserable husbandry, is nearly equal, and much of it superior to that of our highly cultivated tields, and we feel constantly in our markets the effect of their competition ; but with all that concerns live stock, the case is abundantly different; it is by great exertions only, that a people can be well supplied, and for want of such exertions, many nations are forced to content themselves with such meat as others would not touch. Look at a sample of French and Swiss wheat, no difference is found ;
but examine the cows of Swisserland and of Lore raine, what a difference ! Compare the mares of Flanders with the ponies of Bretange, the sheep of England and of France; nay, let us coine nearer home, and reflect on the wool which is in contemplation, examine the fleeces of Segovia and of Italy, in the same parallel of latitude.
Next to the cultivation of waste lands (which by the way inuch depends on the well ordering of live stock) this is the greatest desideratum in the agriculture of Britain. The sheep, cows, hugs, and horses of Sutfolk, demand attention.
Sheep.-The Norfolk breed of sleep spreads over almost every part of the county ; and as the most famous flocks are about Bury-much more celebrated than any in Norfolk-it has been observed, that they ought rather to be called the Suffolk breed. This race is so well known that it would be useless to give a particular description of them; it is, however, proper here to note their principal excellencies and defects. Among the former is the quality of the mutton ; it being admitted at Smithfield, that as long as cool weather lasts, it has, for the table of the curious, no superior in texture or grain, flavour, quantity, and colour of gravy, with fat enough for such tables. In tallow they reckon no sheep better. In fatting, at an early age, they are superior to many breeds, though said to be not equal to some others. The wool is tine, being in price per lb. the third sort in England. Their activity in bearing hard driving, for the fold, is inuch spoken of. In hardiness and success, as nurses, they are also much esteemed in this county. Such are their excellencies; the defects with which they are reproached are a voracity of stomach, which demands more food, in proportion to their weight, than some other breeds; and the consequent circumstances of being necessarily kept very thin on the ground: a want of that disposition to fatten, which keeps stock in