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HE soil of the county of Norfolk is known to have a greater variety in it than is found in any other county in England. Mr. Kent, in his General view of the Agriculture of this County, divides it into five parts, as to its soil: first, the district to the north and north-east of Norwich consists of a sandy loam, equal in value to the best part of the Austrian Netherlands, to which it is similar. Second, the district to the south and south-east of Norwich, consists of stiff wet land, composed of a mixture of sand and clay, and abounding with springs. Third, the district containing the largest part of the county, and lying to the west and northwest of Norwich, generally denominated "West Norfolk," consists principally of light sandy ground, and is very inferior to the two preceding districts. The fourth district, lying south-west of Norwich, consists of a light sand; so light indeed is it in the hundred of Grimshoe, that it frequently drifts in the wind and is bare of vegetation. Marshland may be considered a fifth district by itself, consisting of ooze, formed by a deposition from the sea. There are large tracts of swampy ground in the vicinity of Loddon, frequently inundated by land floods and producing little but sedge and reeds.-Several of the western hundreds, from Thetford northwards, are open and bare, consisting of extensive heaths, having a light sandy or gravelly soil. Mr. Arthur Young, whose agricultural science and unwearied researches are known throughout the world, has given the following table of soils in Norfolk, with the number of square miles and acres oc cupied by each.

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The sagacious Dr. Campbell, after remarking of this noble county that it is equal in size to the island of Majorca, larger than the duchy of Parma, and not inferior in bulk to that of Modena, makes the following energetic observations :-"It has been remarked that in the compass of this isle, which is of an oval form, and its towns excellently well-disposed, here are all the different sorts of soil that are to be found in England;" (perhaps, on this evidence, we might add in Europe)" that of consequence all the variety of improvements which have been made elsewhere have been gradually introduced, and most of them succeeded, here; and that, by a judicious conjunction of these several husbandries, Norfolk is at this day considered as one of the best cultivated counties in the kingdom. It has been said that there are estates the income of which, by mere dint of judicious industry, has been more than doubled within memory, while the lands in general in this county have in their value greatly encreased.". "Norfolk (says Mr. Britton) early took the lead in unshackling its genius from the fetters of antiquated system, and readily adopted hints for improvement."

The first object which attracts the attention of the agriculturist in travelling through this county is the fine tilth of the soil and the succession of crops. The mode of cultivating the arable lands is admirable. The plough, which is of a modern construction, is drawn by two horses harnessed together abreast, which, with a pair of reins, are guided by the person who holds the plough. Instead of working the ani


mals seven or eight hours without drawing bit, as the custom is in some counties, they are here worked (says Mr. Kent) eight hours in winter and ten in summer, by two journies, as they are termed, which enables them to do considerably more than they would by one journey." The ploughings over the Jand is in high tilth, when it is completely pulverised with wheeled drugs and harrows, which are violently drawn by the horses, being upon a trotting pace. Owing to this rapid movement the clods are com pletely broken, and the soil fitted for sowing seed After this work is compleated, the most unremitting care is taken to keep the land free from weeds. The mode of cropping in general practice is what is termed a six-course shift. First year, wheat; second, barley, with or without clover; third, turnips; fourth, barley or oats, with or without clover; fifth, clover mown for hay; sixth, grazed and ploughed up for wheat again.

Wheat is a general crop, but thrives best on the stiff loamy lands. The lighter soils are favourable to barley, of which vast quantities are raised; the Jands (says Mr. Kent) are principally either drilled, for several kinds of ingeniously contrived barrowdrills are used, or else planted with the hand, by the women and children, called dibbling.

Lands in the hundreds of Flegg and Marshland, usually bear six quarters of wheat per acre, and ten of oats; but in the very light soils the farmer is glad to obtain two quarters of oats, and three of barley. The average crops of the whole county may be stated at three quarters of wheat, and four of barley, and other articles in proportion per acre. Oats are sown only as a shifting crop, and seldom more are raised than what are consumed in the county.

Other crops are rye, buck-wheat, peas, beans, vetches or tares; cole-seed, clovers, and other artificial grasses, burnet, cocksfoot, chichary, cab,


bages, mangel, wurzel, lucerne, carrots, and potatoes; the latter invaluable root has but very lately been adopted as a field course in this county. Among irregular crops may be reckoned, mustard; saffron is also grown in many parts; flax is culti vated about Downham, and hemp near Old Buckenham.

Some of the marshes and fens of Norfolk, as to soil, are peculiarly favourable to the growth of corn; but being exposed to occasional inundation, it has induced the inhabitants to prefer the "dairy system." In these parts large quantities of butter are prepared for sale, and from thence transferred to Cambridge, where it changes its name previous to reaching the metropolis.

Some modern agriculturists are of opinion that the grass lands of Norfolk have been too generally neglected. We hope this is not the case; but as an intelligent modern tourist justly observes, "The late practice of marling has grealy improved them, and by the adoption of under draining and irrigation, the grazing land is experiencing very considerable advantages."

The point of agricultural excellence in which Norfolk pre-eminently excels, and which has led to its established excellence, is the management of its turnip crops. This valuable winter root was only cultivated in gardens, as a culinary plant, in this country, until the reign of King George the First, when Lord Viscount Townsend recommended the sowing of the seed to his Norfolk tenants. A good acre of turnips (says Mr. Kent) in Norfolk will produce between thirty and forty cart loads, as heavy as three horses can draw; and an acte will fatten a Scotch bullock, from forty to fifty stone, or eight sheep. But the advantage of this crop does not end here; for it generally leaves the land so clean, and in such fine condition, that it almost ensures a good crop of barley, and a kind of plant


clover; and the clover is a most excellent preparation for wheat, so that in the subsequent advantages the value of the turnip can hardly be estimated. This is a proud testimonial of the sound judgment and rural œconomy of the Norfolk agriculturists.

This county has exhibited implements of husban dry, in multiform shapes. Here we observe a wheel carriage, called a "Wizzard or Hermaphrodite ;” there a "drill-roller," peculiar to this county. The Wizzard is a wheel-carriage, of a non-descript kind, and is thus described by Mr. Kent: "It is a common cart, to which in harvest or under pressing circumstances, a couple of temporary fore wheels are placed under the shaft, and two oblique ladders to the frame, by which it is made to answer the purpose of a waggon; and in little farms it is a real object of utility, and in large ones a great help in a busy season.

The drill roller is a large cast iron cylinder, with projecting rings round it, at about ten inches distance from each other. This being drawn over the ploughed land, makes indentations, and the seed sown being "broad cast" chiefly falls into the drills, and is thus more regularly and better deposited than in the common mode of sowing. Threshing machines are become general throughout the county, and are found to answer every expectation formed of them. The short time in which a large quantity of corn may be prepared for the market by such implements is highly advantageous to the farmer. He is enabled the better to prepare for the day of reckoning, and to profit by the changes of price in fluctuating markets. The powers of steam were first applied to the purposes of agriculture in this county by Colonel Buller, of Haydon.

The steam engine possesses a ten-horse power, turns a large threshing machine, a corn-mill, a chaffcutter, and performs, at the same time, several other



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