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a large and variously colored halo; and, open- See Lowthorp's Abridgment, Vol. II., p. 189. ing the window, he found that it arose entirely Sir Isaac Newton mentions it with respect. This from that thin plate of ice, for none was seen article contains the heads of a discourse which except through it. Dr. Kotelnihow, having, like he afterwards composed, but never quite finished; Dr. Halley, made very accurate observations to and which has been translated, with some addidetermine the number of possible rainbows, tions, by Dr. Smith, from whom the following considers the colored bało, which appears about account is chiefly extracted. Mr. Huygens was a candle, as the same thing with one of those first led to think particularly upon this subject, Lows which is formed near the body of the sun, by the appearance of five suns at Warsaw, in but which is not visible on account of his exces- 1658; after which, he says, he hit upon the true sive splendor.

cause of halos and mock suns. If we can conDescartes observes, that the halo never appears ceive any kind of bodies in the atmosphere, when it rains; from which he concludes that this which, according to the known laws of optics, phenomenon is occasioned by the refraction of will, either by reflection or refraction, produce light in the round particles of ice, which are then the appearance in question, when nothing else floating in the atmosphere; and, though these can be found that will do it, we must acquiesce in particles are flat when they fall to the ground, he the hypothesis, and suppose such bodies to exist, thought they must be protuberant in the middle even though we cannot give a satisfactory account before their descent; and according to this pro- of their generation. Two such bodies are astuberancy he imagined that the diameter of the sumed by M. Huygens; one of them a round halo would vary. In treating of meteors, Gas- ball, opaque in the centre, but covered with a sendi supposed, that a halo is of the same nature transparent shell; and the other is a cylinder, of with the rainbow, the rays of light being in both a similar composition. By the help of the forcases twice refracted and once reflected within mer he endeavours to account for halos, and by each drop of rain or vapor, and that all the dif- the latter for those appearances which are called ference there is between them arises from their mock suns. Those bodies which M. Huygens different situation with respect to the observer. requires, in order to explain these phenomena, For whereas, when the sun is behind the spec- are not, however, a mere assumption; for some tator, and consequently the rainbow before him, such, though of a larger size than his purpose rehis eye is in the centre of the circle; when he quires, have been actually found, consisting of views the halo, with his face towards the sun, his snow within and ice without. They are particueye is in the circumference of the circle; so that, larly mentioned by Descartes. The balls with according to the known principles of geometry, the opaque kernel, which he supposed to have the angle under which the object appears, in been the cause of them, he imagines not to exceed this case, must be just half of what it is in the the size of a turnip-seed. other.

M. Marriotte accounts for the formation of the M. Dechales endeavours to show that the ge- small coronas by the transmission of light through neration of the halo is similar to that of the rain- aqueous vapors, where it suffers two refractions bow. If, says he, a sphere of glass or crystal, without any intermediate reflection. He shows full of water, be placed in the beams of the sun, that light which comes to the eye, after being rethere will not only be two circles of colored light fracted in this manner, will be chiefly that which on the side next the sun, and which constitute falls upon the drop nearly perpendicular; because the two rainbows; but there will also be another more rays falling upon any given quantity of suron the part opposite to the sun, the rays belong- face in that situation, fewer of them are reflected ing to which afterwards diverge, and form a with small degrees of obliquity, and they are not colored circle, such as will be visible, if the light so much scattered after refraction. The red will that is transmitted through the globe be received always be outermost in these halos, as consisting on a piece of white paper. The reason why the of rays which suffer the least refraction. And colors of the halo are more dilute than those of whereas he had seen, when the clouds were driven the rainbow, he says, is owing principally to their briskly by the wind, halos round the moon, varybeing formed not in large drops of rain, but in ing frequently in their diameter, being sometimes very small vapor; for, if the drops of water were of 2°, sometimes of 3°, and sometimes of 4o; large, the cloud would be so thick, that the rays sometimes also colored, sometimes only white, of the sun could not be regularly transmitted and sometimes disappearing entirely; he conthrough them; and, on the other hand, he ob- cluded that all these variations arose from the served, that when the rainbow is formed by very different thickness of the clouds, through which thin vapors, the colors hardly appear. As for sometimes more and sometimes less light was transthose circles of colors which are sometimes seen mitted. He supposed, also, that the light which round candles, it was his opinion that they are formed them might sometimes be reflected, and owing to nothing but moisture on the eye of the at other times refracted. As to those coronas observer; for that he could never produce this which consist of two orders of colors, he imaappearance by means of vapor only, if he wiped gined that they were produced by small pieces of his eyes carefully; and he had observed that snow, which, when they begin to dissolve, form such circles are visible to some persons and not figures which are a little convex towards their exto others, and to the same persons at one time tremities. Sometimes, also, the snow will be and not another.

melted in different shapes; and, in this case, the The most considerable and generally received colors of several halos will be intermixed and theory, respecting halos, is that of Huygens, pub- confused ; and such, he says, he had sometimes lished in the English Philosophical Transactions. observed round the sun. M. Marriotte then

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proceeds to explain the larger halos, viz. those suth part of an inch, so that a red-making ray, that are about 45° in diameter, and for this pur- in passing through the middle of this globule, pose he has recourse to equiangular prisms of has 250 fits of easy transmission within the gloice, in a certain position with respect to the sun; bule, and ail the red-making rays, which are at and he takes pains to trace the progress of the a certain distance from this middle ray round rays of light for this purpose; but this hypothe- about it, have 249 fits within the globules, and sis is very improbable. In some cases he thought all the like rays at a certain farther distance that these large coronas were caused by hail- round about it have 248 fits, and all those at a stones, of a pyramidal figure; beca'ise, after two certain farther distance 247 fits, and so on, these or three of them had been seen about the sun, concentric circles of rays, after their transmisthere fell the same day several such pyramidal sion, falling on a white paper, will make conhail-stones. M. Marriotte explains parhelia by centric rings of red upon the paper; supposing the help of the same suppositions. See Parne- the light which passes through one single globule

strong enough to be sensible, and in like manner M. Muschenbroeck concludes his account of the rays of other colors will make rings of other coronas with observing, that some density of colors. Suppose now that in a fair day the sun vapor, or some thickness of the plates of ice, should shine through a thin cloud of such glodivides the light in its transmission through the bules of water or hail, and that the globules are small globules of water, or their interstices, into all of the same sizo, the sun seen through this its separate colors: but what that density was, cloud ought to appear surrounded with the like or what was the size of the particles which com- concentric rings of colors, and the diameter of posed the vapor, he could not determine. the first ring of red should be 7° 15', that of

Sir Isaac Newton considered the larger and the second 10° 15', that of the third 12° 33', and, less variable appearances of this kind as pro- according as the globules of water are bigger or duced according to the common laws of refrac- less, the ring should be less or bigger.' This tion, but that the less and more variable appear- curious theory our author informs us was conances depend upon the same cause with the firmed by an observation which he made in 1692. colors of thin plates. He concludes his expli- He saw by reflexion, in a vessel of stagnating cation of the rainbow with the following obser- water, three halos, crowns, or rings of colors vation on halos and parhelia :- The light which about the sun, like three little rainbows concencomes through drops of rain by two refractions, tric to his body. The colors of the first or inwithout any reflexion, ought to appear the nermost, were blue next the sun, red without, strongest at the distance of about 26° from the and white in the middle, between the blue and sun, and to decay gradually both ways as the red; those of the second crown were purple distance from him increases. And the same is and blue within, pale red without, and green in to be understood of light transmitted through the middle; and those of the third were pale spherical hailstones: and if the hail be a little blue within, and pale red without. These crowns flatted, as it often is, the transmitted light may enclosed one another immediately, so that their be so strong, at a little less distance than that of colors proceeded in this continual order from 26°, as to form a halo about the sun or moon; the sun outward; blue, white, red; purple, blue, which halo, as often as the hail-stones are duly green, pale yellow, and red; pale blue, pale figured, may be colored, and then it must be red. The diameter of the second crown, mea red within by the least refrangible rays, and blue sured from the middle of the yellow and red on without by the most refrangible ones; especially one side of the sun to the middle of the same if the hail-stones have opaque globules of snow color on the other side, was 9° 33', or therein their centres to intercept the light within the abouts. The diameters of the first and third he halo, as Mr. Huygens has observed, and made had not time to measure; but that of the first the inside of it more distinctly defined than it seemed to be about 50 or 6°, and that of the third would otherwise be. For such hail-stones, about 12°. The like crowns appear sometimes though spherical, by terminating the light by the about the moon: for in the beginning of the snow, may make a halo red within, and colorless year 1664, on February 19th, at night, he saw without, and darker within the red than without, two such crowns about her. The diameter of the as halos use to be. For, of those rays which first, or innermost, was about 3°, and that of the pass close by the snow, the red-making ones second about 5° 30'. Next about the moon was will be the least refracted, and so come to the eye a circle of white; and next about that the inner in the straightest lines.' Some farther thoughts crown, which was of a bluish green within, next of Sir Isaac Newton's on halos are subjoined to the white, and of a yellow and red without; and the account of his experiments on the colors of next about these colors were blue and green on thick plates of glass which he conceived to be the inside of the outer crown, and red on the similar to those which are exhibited by thin outside of it. At the same time there appeared ones:As light reflected by a lens quicksil- a halo at the distance of about 22° 35' from the vered on the back side makes the rings of the centre of the moon. It was elliptical; and its colors above described, so it ought to make the long diameter was perpendicular to the horizon, like rings in passing through a drop of water. verging below farthest from the moon. He was At the first reflexion of the rays within the drop, told that the inoon has sometimes three or more some colors ought to be transmitted, as in the concentric crowns or colors encompassing one case of a lens, and others to be reflected back another next about her body. The more equal to the eye. For instance, if the diameter of a the globules of water or ice are to one another, small drop or globule of water be about the the more crowns of colors will appear, and the colors will be the more lively. The halo, at the Without any halt they marched between the two distance of 22° 30' from the moon, is of another armies.

Clarendon. sort. By its being oval, and more remote from He might have made a halt 'till his foot and artillery the moon below than above, he concludes that it came up to him.

Id. was made by refraction in some kind of hail or

The heavenly bands

Down from a sky of jasper lighted now snow floating in the air in an horizontal posture,

In Paradise, and on a hill made halt. Milton. the refracting angle being about 50° or 60°. Dr.

Scouts each coast light armed scour Smith, however, makes it sufficiently evident, that the reason why this halo appeared oval, and

Each quarter to descry the distant fue,

Where lodged, or whither fied, or if for fight more remote from the moon towards the horizon,

In Motion, or in halt.

Milton. is a deception of sight, and the same with that

Thus inborn broils the factions would engage, which makes the moon appear larger in the ho- Or wars of exiled heirs, or foreign rage, rizon.

"Till halting vengeance overtook our age. Dryden. HALORAGUS, in botany, a genus of the te- I was forced to halt in this perpendicular march. tragynia order and octandria class of plants :

Addison. CAL. quadrifid above; there are four petals; a Spenser himself affects the obsolete, dry plum, and a quadrilocular nut.

And Sidney's verse halts ill on Roman feet. HALS'ENING, udj. 7 Germ. hals ; Scotch,

Pope Halse, n. s. hass, the neck. Sound- The man who pauses on the paths of treason

Hal'ser, n. s. ing harshly; inharmo- Halts on a quicksand, the first step ingulphs him. nious in the throat or tongue. Not in use. Hal

Hill's Henry V. ser, from Sax. fals neck, and feel a rope. It is

HALTER, n. s. & v. a. Sax. þealstre, from pow in marine pronunciation corrupted to þals, the neck. A rope to hang malefactors; to bawser. A rope less than a cable.

bind with a cord; to catch in a noose. The crueltee of thce, Quene Medea !

Whom neither halter binds nor burthens charge. Thy litel children hanging by the hals,

Sandys. For thy Jason that wos of love so fals.

He's filed, my lord, and all his powers do yield; Chaucer. Prologue to the Man of Lawe's Tale. And humbly thus, with halters on their necks, A beechen mast then in the hollow base

Expect your highness' doom of life or death. They hoisted, and with well-wreathed halsers hoise

Shakspeare. Their white sails.

Chapman. They were to die by the sword if they stood upon This halsening horny name hath, as Cornuto in defence, and by the hulter if they yielded; whereItaly, opened a gap to the scoffs of many. Carew. fore they made choice to die rather as soldiers than No halsers need to bind these vessels here, as dogs.

Huyurd. Nor bearded anchors ; for no storms they fear. Were I a drowsy judge, whose dismal note

Dryden. Disgorgeth halter, as a juggler's throat
Doth ribbands.

Cleaveland. HALSTEAD, a market town of Essex, seated

He gets renown, who, to the halter near, on a rising ground, on the Coln, forty-seven miles

Dryden. north-east of London. It has an old church, the

But narrowly escapes and buys it dear. steeple of which was once burnt down by light

He might have employed his time in the frivolous ning, but rebuilt at the expense of Robert Fiske, delights of catching moles and haltering frogs.

Atterbury. esq. The town consists of about 800 houses. The inhabitants manufacture says, bays, cali

HALTER-Cast is an excoriation of the pasmancoes, &c. There is a free school for forty tern, occasioned by the halter's being entangled boys, and a very antique Bridewell. Its market about a horse's foot, upon his endeavouring to on Friday is noted for corn.

rub his neck with his hinder feet. For the cure, HALT, v. 11., udj. & n. s. 1 Sax. pealt, lame; anoint the place, morning and evening, with

HALTER, n. s. $ þealtan, to limp. equal quantities of linseed oil and brandy, well To limp, or falter in walking; one who is dis mixed. abled; a cripple; to stop suddenly as soldiers

HALTERISTÆ, in antiquity, a kind of in a march; to doubt or besitate; to be unde- players at discus. Some take the discus to have cided; to fail or falter; in a religious sense, to

been a leaden weight or ball, which the vaulters backslide from former steadfastness.

bore in their hands, to secure and keep themHow long halt ye between two opinions ?

selves the more steady in their leaping. . Others 1 Kings.

say the halter was a lump of lead or stone, with All my familiars watched for my halting, saying, a hole or handle fixed to it, by which it might be Peradventure he will be enticed, and we shall prevail

carried. Hier. Mercurialis, in his treatise De against him.

Jeremiah. Arte Gymnastica, 1. ii. c. 12, distinguishes two Bring in hither the poor, the maimed, the halt, and kinds of halteristæ; for, though there was but the blind.

Luke. one halter, there were two ways of applying it. For false Fortune hath played a game The one was to throw or pitch it; the other only At chesse with me, alas the while!

to hold it out at arm's end, and in this posture to The trayteresse, false and full of gyle

give themselves divers motions, swinging the Tbat al behoteth and nothing halte,

hand backwards and forwards, according to the She goth upright and yet she halte. Chaucer. The Boke of the Duchesse.

engraven figures thereof given us by Mercurialis. Here's a paper written in his band;

The halter was of a cylindrical figure, smaller in A halting sonnet of his own pure brain,

the middle, where it was held by one diameter, Fashioned in Beatrice,


than at the two ends. It was above a foot long. And will she yet debase her eyes

and there was one for each hand : it was either On me, that halt and am mis-shapen thus? Id. of iron, stone, or lead. Galen, De Tuend. Vale

tud. lib. i. v. and vi., speaks of this exercise, and pressing them in a press eight or ten days, then shows of what use it is in purging the body of steeping them in juniper water, and drying them peccant humors, making it equivalent both to by the smoke of juniper wood. A ham may be purgation and phlebotomy.

salted in imitation of those of Westphalia, by HALVE, v.a. Dan. halv. See Half. sprinkling a ham of young pork with salt for one

Halves, interj. (To divide equally: halves day, to fetch out the blood; then wiping it dry, is an expression by which any one lays claim to and rubbing it with a mixture of 1 lb. of brown an equal share. See Half.

sugar, † lb. of saltpetre, } pint of bay salt, and Have you not seen how the divided dam

3 pints of common salt, well stirred in an iron Runs to the suminons of her hungry lamb ?

pan over the fire, till moderately hot; let it lie But, when the twin cries halves, she quits the first. three weeks in this salting, turn it often, then Cleaveland. dry it, and hang it up.

Smoked hams,' says HALYMOTE properly signifies a holy or

Dr. Willich, are a very strong food, which is not ecclesiastical court. There is a halymote held easily digested. If eaten in proper time, and in in London, before the lord mayor and sheriffs, small quantities, they may be a cordial to some for regulating the bakers. It was anciently held vigorous stomachs, especially in the morning, as on Sunday before St. Thomas's day, and hence a substitute for the pernicious hot and buttered called the haly mote, or holy court.

rolls; but boiling renders their digestion still HALYS, in ancient geography, the noblest more difficult. See SMOKING. river of the Hither Asia, through which it has a Ham, Heb. On, i.e. crafty. The youngest long course, was the boundary of Cresus's king- son of Noah, and father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, dom on the east. Running down from the foot and Canaan; each of whom possessed the counof Mount Taurus, through Cataonia and Cappa- tries peopled by them. Ham, it is believed, bad docia, it divided almost the whole of the Lower all Africa for his inheritance, and peopled it with Asia, from the sea of Cyprus down to the Euxine, his posterity. He himself, it is thought, dwelt in according to Herodotus; who seems to extend Egypt; but M. Basnage is of opinion, that neiits course too far. According to Strabo, who was ther Ham nor Mizraim ever were in Egypt, but a Cappadocian, it had its springs in Great Cap- that their posterity settled in this country, and padocia. It separated Paphlagonia from Cap- called it by the name of their ancestor. He also padocia, and received its name, ato tov alos, doubts of his having been worshipped as a god, from salt, because its waters were of a salt taste, by the name of Jupiter Hammon. Be that as from the soil over which they flowed. It is it may, Africa is called the Land of Ham in famous for the defeat of Cræsus, king of Lydia, Psalm 1xxviii. 51, cv. 23, cvi. 22. In Plutarch who was misled by this ambiguous response of Egypt is called Chemia; and there are traces of the oracle: Χροισος Αλυν διαβας μεγαλην αρχην the name of Ham or Charm in Psochemmis, and dia/voel; i. e. If Cræsus passes over the Halys Psitta-chemmis, which are cantons of Egypt. he shall destroy a great empire. That empire See EGYPT. proved to be his own. See CR@SUS.

HAMADAN, or AMADAN, a city of Irak, HAM, n. s.

Saxon, ham; Dutch, Persia, standing on or near the site of the ancient HAM'BLE, v. n.

hamme; Lat. hamus. Ecbatana. It was taken and destroyed by Timur, HAM'ATED, adj.

The hip;

or hinder and ever since has been only a secondary place. HAM'STRUNG, n. s. or part of the thigh; the It contains, however, still 10,000 meanly built

HAM'STRING, v. a. thigh of a bog salted: houses, and about 40,000 inhabitants. The wall any thing hooked; set with hooks. Hamble, which surrounded it was not long since destroyed. formerly hamebe, and hamstring to cut the sinews Hamadan is famous for its manufacture of leaof the back part of the thigh; the tendon of the ther, and is a considerable mart of commerce ham.

between Ispahan and Bagdad, and between the And, thereto hath she laid her faith to borrow;

latter place and Tehraun. Algole o foote is hameled, of thy sorowe.

HAMADRYADES, from aua, together, and Chaucer. Troiltus and Creseide. Opvc, an oak, a kind of inferior deities revered A player, whose conceit

among the ancient heathens, and believed to preLies in his hamstring, doth think it rich

side over woods and forests, and to be enclosed To hear the wooden dialogue, and sound

under the bark of oaks. They were supposed to Twixt his stretched footing and the scaffoldage. live and die with the trees they were attached to,

Shakspeare. as is observed by Servius on Virgil, Eclog. X. v. Hamstringed behind, unhappy Gyges died; 62, after Mnesimachus, the scholiast of ApolloThen Phalaris is added to his side. Dryden.

nius, &c., who mentions other traditions relating Who has not learned, fresh sturgeon and ham eye Are no rewarris for want and infamy?

to them. The poets often confound the HamaPope.

dryads with the Naiads, Napææ, and rural On the hinder side it is guarded with the two hamstrings.


nymphs in general. Festus calls them QuerqueThe ham was much relaxed; but there was some tulanæ, as being sprung from oaks. Pherenicius, contraction remaining.

in Athenaus, lib. iv. calls the vine, fig-tree, and Along this hall, and up and down, some squatted

other fruit trees, hamadryades. This idea among Upon their hums wrre occupied at chess; the ancients, of intellectual beings annexed to Others in monosyllable talk chatted,

trees, accounts for their worship of trees. Livy And some seemed much in love with their own speaks of an ambassador addressing himself to


an old oak, as to an intelligent person and a Ham, in commerce, &c. Westphalia hams divinity.—Lib. iii. $ 25. are prepared by salting them with salt-petre, HAMAH, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Syria,



Don Juan.

situated on the river Orontes, By some travel- 3, 2 Kings xiv. 25, and 2 Chron. vii. 8, is the lers it is corruptly called Amarl and Amant. narrow pass leading from the land of Canaan Some mistake it for the ancient Apamea, now through the valley between Libanus and Antilicalled Afamiyah, but that town is a day's journey banus. This entrance is set down as the north from llamah; and Dr. Pococke supposes Hamah boundary of Canaan, in opposition to its southern to be the ancient Epiphania; wh Ist Theodoret, limits, the Nile. Joshua (xix. 35) assigned and other good geographers, maintain it to be ]lamath to the tribe of Naphtali

. It was taken Emesset in Syria. Hamab is seated among by the kings of and retaken from the hills, and has a castle on one of them. It has Syrians by Jeroboam II. 2 Kings xiv. 28. The always been a considerable place, and in the kings of Assyria at last took it, and transplanted thirteenth and fourteenth centuries had princes the inhabitants into Samaria. 2 Kings xvii. 24, of its own.

Among these Ismael Abulfeda, and xviii. 34, &c. It is the same with IIAMAH. prince of Hamah, from the year 1342, to See that article. 1345, was famous for his skill in geography. It HAMAXOBIANS, HAMAXOBIT, or Hamaxois very large, and, being seated on the ascent of BITÆ. From apača, a chariot, and Bios, life. a bill, makes a fine appearance; but, like other A people who had no houses, but lived in cartowns under the Turkish government, is going riages. They were an ancient people of Sarmato decay. Many of the houses are half ruined; tia Europæa, inhabiting the southern part of but those which are still standing, as well as the Muscovy, and instead of houses had a sort of mosques and castle, have their walls built of tents made of leather, on carriages to be black and white stones, disposed so as to form ready for travelling. Some say they inhabited various figures. The river Assi, the ancient the countries now called Bessarabia, Moldavia, Orontes, runs by the castle, and fills the ditches Wallachia, and part of Transylvania. round it, which are cut very deep into the rock; HAMBURGH, one of the most important it passes through the town from south to north, commercial cities in Europe, is situated at the and, in its course, turns eighteen great wheels, confluence of the little rivers, Alster and Bille, called saki, which raise great quantities of water with the Elbe, and about eighteen leagues from to a considerable height, and throw it into the sea. It is built in the Gothic style ; the canals supported by arches, which run into the streets narrow and crooked; and it has many gardens. There are some pretty good market- canals, crossed by eighty-one bridges. It is places in Haman. Linen is manufactured there, surrounded by a wall, on the top of which two and sent to Tripoli to be exported into Europe. carriages can drive abreast, and has six gates. The sheiks of the town enjoy a high consideration. The French, while in possession of it, constructed They inhabit a splendid palace, and have the title many other works : its population is about of emir. It is at present the only market for the 120,000, and the territory about 15,000 more. Arabs, who roam over the extensive desert which In the new town many of the houses are neatly intervenes between it and Tadmor, and who are built, and some streets elegant, particularly on the under a sort of tacit agreement not to plunder the Alster, where the Jungfernsteig, planted with caravans coming to the city. Sixty-two miles trees, is a fashionable promenade. Hamburgh S.S. W. of Aleppo. Long. 36° 15' E., lat. 350 has several suburbs: on its east side, between 15' N.

the Elbe and Alster, stands that of St. George, HAMAMELIS, witch hazel, a genus of the surrounded by a regular wall, and forming a digynia order, and tetrandria class of plants. separate parish. On the west is the Hamburger The involucrum is triphyllous, the proper calyx Berg, separated from Altona only by a wall. tetraphyllous; there are four petals; the nut Here, adjacent to the Elbe, are the large oil horned and bilocular. There is but one species, works belonging to the Greenland fisheries, and a native of Virginia. It has a shrubby or woody at some distance two hospitals and a workhouse. stem, branching three or four feet high; oval, in- On the north side of Hamburgh, along the dented, alternate leaves, resembling those of com- Alster, is a new suburb, containing a number of mon hazel; and flowers growing in clusters from elegant buildings. the joints of the young branches, but not suc- Outside of the town the Alster forms a large ceeded by seeds in this country. It is hardy, basin; and within the town another of less extent, and is admitted as a variety in our gardens. Its called the Binnen Alster, which serves as a harflowers are remarkable for appearing in Novem- bour. An arm of the Elbe also forms two ports, ber and December, when the leaves are fallen. one on the east for boats, and another on the It may be propagated either by seeds or layers. west, called the Niederbaum, for ships. The

HAMAMET, a considerable sea-port on the depth of this harbour is twenty feet; but on east coast of Tunis, in a bay or gulf of the Medi- account of a sand-bank opposite to the village terranean of this name. Dr. Shaw derives its of Blankenese, nine miles below Hamburgh, name from Haman, wild pigeons, with which the vessels that draw more than fourteen feet of country abounds.

It contains some antiquities water must discharge part of their cargo, except from the neighbouring ruins of the Civitas Siagi- at spring tides, when the depth on the bank is tana, and is thirty miles south of Tunis.

eighteen feet. The hour of high water at new HAMATH, in ancient geography, a kingdom and full moon is six o'clock. Besides the Alster, of Syria. Toi, one of its monarchs, cultivated a small river, called the Bill, flows by the east ihe friendship of David. 2 Sam. viii. 9. side of the city.

Hamath, the capital of the above kingdom, There are in Hamburgh five large and eleven was seated on the Orontes. "The entering into small churches; that of St. Michael, a modern Jlamath,' spoken of Josh. xiii. 5., Judges iii. edifice, and that of St. Peter, are remarkable for

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