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President Cleveland, in his message of December 4, 1893, said, concerning the resolution of the British Parliament of July 16, 1893, which I have already read, and commenting on the concurrent resolution of February 14 and April 18, 1890:
It affords me signal pleasure to lay this parliamentary resolution before the Congress and to express my sincere gratification that the sentiment of two great kindred nations is thus authoritatively manifested in favor of the rational and peaceable settlement of international quarrels by honorable resort to arbitration,
President McKinley, in his message of December 6, 1897, said:
International arbitration can not be omitted from the list of subjects claiming our consideration. Events have only served to strengthen the general views on this question expressed in my inaugural address. The best sentiment of the civilized world is moving toward the settlement of differences between nations without resorting to the horrors of war. Treaties embodying these humane principles on broad lines without in any way imperiling our interests or our honor shall have my constant encouragement.
President Roosevelt, in his message of December 3, 1905, said:
I earnestly hope that the conference
The second Hague conference
may be able to devise some way to make arbitration between nations the customary way of settling international disputes in all save a few classes of cases, which should themselves be sharply defined and rigidly limited as the present governmental and social development of the world will permit. If possible, there should be a general arbitration treaty negotiated among all nations represented at the conference.
Oh, Mr. President, are we Pharisees? Have we been insincere and false? Have we been pretending in all these long years of resolution and declaration and proposal and urgency for arbitration ? Are we ready now to admit that our country, that its Congresses and its Presidents, have all been
guilty of false pretense, of humbug, of talking to the galleries, of fine words to secure applause, and that the instant we have an interest .we are ready to falsify every declaration, every promise, and every principle? But we must do that if we arrogantly insist that we alone will determine upon the interpretation of this treaty and will refuse to abide by the agreement of our treaty of arbitration.
Mr. President, what is all this for? Is the game worth the candle? Is it worth while to put ourselves in a position and to remain in a position to maintain which we may be driven to repudiate our principles, our professions, and our agreements for the purpose of conferring a money benefit—not very great, not very important, but a money benefit—at the expense of the Treasury of the United States, upon the most highly and absolutely protected special industry in the United States? Is it worth while ? We refuse to help our foreign shipping, which is in competition with the lower wages and the lower standard of living of foreign countries, and we are proposing to do this for a part of our coastwise shipping which has now by law the absolute protection of a statutory monopoly and which needs no help.
Mr. President, there is but one alternative consistent with self-respect. We must arbitrate the interpretation of this treaty or we must retire from the position we have taken.
O Senators, consider for a moment what it is that we are doing. We all love our country; we are all proud of its history; we are all full of hope and courage for its future; we love its good name; we desire for it that power among the nations of the earth which will enable it to accomplish still greater things for civilization than it has accomplished in its noble past. Shall we make ourselves in the minds of the world like unto the man who in his own community is marked as astute and cunning to get out of his obligations? Shall we make ourselves like unto the man who is known to be false to his agreements; false to his pledged word? Shall we have it understood the whole world over that "you must look out for
the United States or she will get the advantage of you”; that we are clever and cunning to get the better of the other party to an agreement, and that at the end
Mr. BRANDEGEE. "Slippery” would be a better word.
Mr. Root. Yes; I thank the Senator for the suggestion“slippery.” Shall we in our generation add to those claims to honor and respect that our fathers have established for our country good cause that we shall be considered slippery?
It is worth while, Mr. President, to be a citizen of a great country, but size alone is not enough to make a country great. A country must be great in its ideals; it must be great-hearted; it must be noble; it must despise and reject all smallness and meanness; it must be faithful to its word; it must keep the faith of treaties; it must be faithful to its mission of civilization in order that it shall be truly great. It is because we believe that of our country that we are proud, aye, that the alien with the first step of his foot upon our soil is proud to be a part of this great democracy.
Let us put aside the idea of small, petty advantage; let us treat this situation and these obligations in our relation to this canal in that large way which befits a great nation.
Mr. President, how sad it would be if we were to dim the splendor of that great achievement by drawing across it the mark of petty selfishness; if we were to diminish and reduce for generations to come the power and influence of this free Republic for the uplifting and the progress of mankind by destroying the respect of mankind for us! How sad it would be if you and I, Senators, were to make ourselves responsible for destroying that bright and inspiring ideal which has enabled free America to lead the world in progress toward liberty and justice!
DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM We favor the exemption from tolls of American ships engaged in coastwise trade passing through the Panama Canal. We also favor legislation forbidding the use of the Panama Canal by ships owned or controlled by railroad carriers engaged in transportation competitive with the canal.
This platform also declared for upbuilding the marine by constitutional regulation of commerce without subsidies or bounties.
The Panama Canal, built and paid for by the American people must be used primarily for their benefit. We demand that the canal shall be so operated as to break transportation monopoly, now held and misused by the transcontinental railroads, by maintaining sea competition with them; that ships directly or indirectly owned or controlled by American railroad corporations shall not be permitted to use the canal, and that American ships engaged in the coasting trade shall pay no tolls.
The Republican platform did not declare a policy but President Taft's views given in his memorandum cover his policy if elected.
TREATY OF 1846
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF NEW
GRANADA This is a treaty of thirty-six articles.
The United States of America and the Republic of New Granada desiring to make as durable as possible, the relations which are to be established between the two parties by
virtue of this treaty, have declared solemnly and do agree to the following points.
1st. For the better understanding of the preceding articles, it is, and has been stipulated, between the high contracting parties, that the citizens, vessels and merchandise of the United States shall enjoy in the parts of New Granada, including those of the part of the Granadian territory generally denominated Isthmus of Panama ... all the exemptions, privileges and immunities, which are now or which may hereafter be enjoyed by Granadian citizens, their vessels and merchandise; and that this equality of favors shall be made to extend to the passengers, correspondence and merchandise of the United States in their transit across the said territory, from one sea to the other.
The Government of New Granada guarantees to the Government of the United States that the right of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama upon any modes of communication that now exist, or that may be hereafter constructed shall be open and free to the Government and citizens of the United States and for the transportation of any articles of produce, manufactures or merchandise, of lawful commerce belonging to the citizens of the United States; that no other tolls or charges shall be levied or collected upon the citizens of the United States, or their said merchandise thus passing over any road or canal that may be made by the Government of New Granada, or by the authority of the same, than is under like circumstances, levied upon and collected from the Granadian citizens; that any lawful produce, manufactures or merchandise belonging to citizens of the United States, thus passing from one sea to the other, in either direction for the purpose of exportation to any foreign country, shall not be liable to any import duties whatever; or having paid said duties they shall be entitled to draw back, upon their exportation; nor shall the citizens of the United States be liable to any duty, tolls, or charges of any kind to which native citizens are not subjected for thus passing the said Isthmus.