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generally able to think for himself, that the topicks are obvious, and their application is different.-But for argument's fake, let the parody be granted; and "our author (fays fome one) may be puzzled to prove, that there was a Latin tranflation of Anacreon at the time Shakspeare wrote his Timon of Athens." This challenge is peculiarly unhappy: for I do not at prefent recollect any other claffick, (if indeed, with great deference to Mynheer De Pauw, Anacreon may be numbered amongst them,) that was originally published with two Latin3 tranfla


But this is not all. Puttenham in his Arte of English Poefie, 1589, quotes fome one of a "reafonable good facilitie in tranflation, who finding certaine of Anacreon's Odes very well tranflated by Ronfard the French poct-comes our minion, and tranflates the fame out of French into English:" and his ftrictures upon him evince the publication. Now this identical ode is to be met with in Ronfard! and as his works are in few hands, I will take the liberty of tranfcribing it:

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3 By Henry Stephens and Elias Andreas, Par. 1554, 4to. ten years before the birth of Shak fpeare. The former version hath been ascribed without reason to John Dorat. Many other tranflators appeared before the end of the century: and particularly the ode in queftion was made popular by Buchanan, whofe pieces were foon to be met with in almost every modern language.

I know not whether an observation or two relative to our author's acquaintance with Homer, be worth our investigation. The ingenious Mrs. Lenox obferves on a paffage of Troilus and Creffida, where Achilles is roufed to battle by the death of Patroclus, that Shakspeare muft bere have had the Iliad in view, as "the old ftory, which in many places he hath faithfully copied, is abfolutely filent with refpect to this circumftance."

And Mr. Upton is pofitive that the fweet oblivious antidote, inquired after by Macbeth, could be nothing but the nepenthe defcribed in the Odyffey,

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σε Νηπενθές τ' ἄχολόν τε, κακῶν ἐπίληθον ἁπάντων.”

I will not infift upon the tranflations by Chapman as the first editions are without date, and it may be difficult to afcertain the exact time of their publication. But the former circumstance might have been learned from Alexander Barclay; and the latter more fully from Spenfer," than from Homer himself.

"But Shakspeare" perfifts Mr. Upton, " hath

It was originally drawn into Englishe by Caxton under the name of The Recuyel of the Hiftoryes of Troy, from the French of the ryght venerable Perfon and worshipfull man Raoul le Feure, and fynyfbed in the holy citye of Colen, the 19 day of Septembre, the yere of our Lord God, a thousand foure hundred fixty and enleuen. Wynkyn de Worde printed an edit. fol. 1503, and there have been feveral fubfequent ones.

5 "Who lift thistory of Patroclus to reade," &c.

Ship of Fooles, 1570, p. 21. "Nepenthe is a drinck of foueragne grace, "Deuized by the gods, for to affwage "Harts grief, and bitter gall away to chace"Inflead thereof fweet peace and quietage "It doth establish in the troubled mynd," &c.

Faerie Queene, 1596, Book IV. c. iii. ft. 43.

fome Greek expreffions." Indeed!" We have one in Coriolanus:

It is held

That valour is the chiefeft virtue, and

• Moft dignifies the haver.'

and another in Macbeth, where Banquo addreffes the weird fifters:

My noble partner

• You greet with prefent grace, and great prediction

Of noble having.

Gr. Ἔχεια.—and πρὸς τὸν Ἔχοντα, to the haver."

This was the common language of Shakspeare's time. (c Lye in a water-bearer's houfe!" fays Mafter Mathew of Bobadil, "a gentleman of his bavings!"

Thus likewife John Davies in his Pleafant Defcant upon English Proverbs, printed with his Scourge of Folly, about 1612:

"Do well and have well!-neyther fo ftill:

"For fome are good doers, whose havings are ill.”

and Daniel the hiftorian uses it frequently. Having seems to be fynonymous with behaviour in Gawin Douglas and the elder Scotch writers.

Haver, in the fense of poffeffor, is every where met with: though unfortunately the πρὸς τὸν Ἔχοντα of Sophocles produced as an authority for it, is

"It is very remarkable, that the bishop is called by his countryman, Sir David Lindsey, in his Complaint of our Souerane Lordis Papingo,

"In our Inglifche rethorick the rofe.”

And Dunbar hath a fimilar expreffion in his beautiful poem of The Goldin Terge.

fufpected by Kufter, as good a critick in these matters, to have abfolutely a different meaning.

But what fhall we fay to the learning of the Clown in Hamlet, Ay, tell me that, and unyoke ?” alluding to the Beaurds of the Greeks: and Homer and his fcholiaft are quoted accordingly!

If it be not fufficient to say, with Dr. Warburton, that the phrafe might have been taken from husbandry, without much depth of reading; we may produce it from a Dittie of the workmen of Dover, preserved in the additions to Holinfhed, p. 1546:

"My bow is broke, I would unyoke,

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My foot is fore, I can worke no more."

An expreffion of my Dame Quickly is next faftened upon, which you may look for in vain in the modern text; fhe calls fome of the pretended fairies in The Merry Wives of Windfor:

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· Orphan heirs of fixed Destiny.”

"And how elegant is this," quoth Mr. Upton, fuppofing the word to be used, as a Grecian would

Ariftophanis Comedie undecim. Gr. & Lat. Amft. 1710.

Fol. p. 596.

9 Dr. Warburton corrects orphan to suphen; and not without plaufibility, as the word ouphes occurs both before and afterward. But I fancy, in acquiefcence to the vulgar doctrine, the addrefs in this line is to a part of the troop, as mortals by birth, but adopted by the fairies: orphans with refpect to their real parents, and now only dependant on Destiny herself. A few lines from Spenfer will fufficiently illuftrate the paffage:

"The man whom heauens have ordayn'd to bee
"The spouse of Britomart, is Arthegall:

"He wonneth in the land of fayeree,

"Yet is no fary borne, ne fib at all

"To elfes, but fprong of feed terrestriall,

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"And whilome by falfe faries ftolen away,

Whyles yet in infant cradle he did crall," &c.

Edit. 1590, Book III. c. iii. ft. 26.

have used it? "ögPavòs ab ógvòs-acting in darkness and obfcurity."

Mr. Heath affures us, that the bare mention of fuch an interpretation, is a fufficient refutation of it: and his critical word will be rather taken in Greek than in English: in the fame hands therefore I will venture to leave all our author's knowledge of the old comedy, and his etymological learning in the word, Desdemona.

Surely poor Mr. Upton was very little acquainted with fairies, notwithstanding his laborious study of Spenfer. The laft authentick account of them is from our countryman William Lilly; and it by no means agrees with the learned interpretation: for the angelical creatures appeared in his Hurst wood in a moft illuftrious glory," and indeed, (fays the fage,) it is not given to many perfons to endure their glorious afpe&is."

The only ufe of transcribing these things, is to fhew what abfurdities men for ever run into, when they lay down an hypothefis, and afterward feek for arguments in the fupport of it. What else could induce this man, by no means a bad fcholar, to doubt whether Truepenny might not be derived from Tpúavov; and quote upon us with much parade an old fcholiaft on Ariftophanes?-I will not ftop to confute him: nor take any notice of two or three more expreffions, in which he was pleased to fuppofe fome learned meaning or other; all which he might have found in every writer of the time, or ftill more eafily in the vulgar tranflation of the Bible, by confulting the Concordance of Alexander Cruden.

2 Revifal, p. 75, 323, and 561.

3 Hiftory of his Life and Times, p. 102, preferved by his dupe, Mr. Ashmole.

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