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to a higher power and that he can do noth- to answer the numerous calls which may ing without the sanction of the board he made upon their time and attention. that appointed him. Besides, if he be, as It shouli be his business to attend to we suppose him to be, the right man, he all the material interests of the schools. is better able to enter into their feelings, If a blackboarà needs to be painted, a to understand their wants and their du- pane of glas to be set, or any repairs to ties, and to appreciate their labors, than be made, he should know what is requirei, the most competent committee that ever how and by whom it is to be done. It was chosen.
must be entirely superfluous to specify And this leads us to the inquiry, who the thousand little wants and necessities is the right win for the online? To this that are constantly arising; but it is we would unhesitatingly reply, a pructi- enough to say generally, that whatever is cal teacher of large experience, sound requisite for the comfort and convenience sense and of good ability. Is it regards of the schools, which it is within the the school committee, we have already power of the school committee to furnish, shown that it is not practicable to select it should be his duty at once to provide. members from men actually engaged in lle may also be the medium of communithe business of instruction, Neither is it cation between the teachers and commita matter of so much importance if they tee. Passing round from school to school are properly assisted in their labors by a and conve
Oversing with the different teachcompetent superintendent. But in re-ers, he becomes acquainted with their spect to the latter office, the case is differ- views on the various subjects of their pro
Not only is it possible to secure the session, and those views he may properly services of such a one as we have de- present to the board. scribed, but we aliirm with conti lence IIe should visit the schools as often as that no other one should be obtained. --- circumstances perunit, and be in readiness If the candidate be liighly educated and at any time to give professional advice in of intellectual culture, so much the bet- all cases of doubt and dificulty that may ter; but the want of these, if he possess- arise. This, indeed, must be a prominent es the other requisites, should not be fa- part of his duty, and being, as we have intal to his appointment. On the other sisted he must be, a practical tencher, he hand, no combination of qualities, how- is well qualified for the work. Even the erer rare, should avail without positive mort experienced teachers cre often placexperience in teaching. It would be an ed in difficult and trying circumstanact of sheer injustice to place one without ces, where they need sympathy and prothis experience over teachers, some of fessional advice; but it is more especialwhom may have spent their lives in the ly true of those who have just entered the work. Neither is there any necessity for profession, and to them should his attensuch a course. The annual and the dis- tion be particularly directed. The schools trict schools of the commonwealth now of a city or town will not of course be all furnish a sufficient number of well-trained alike. Each teacher will have his exand successful teachers, from whom a cellences and his peculiarities; and the proper selection may be made; and out superintendent should see that, as far as of this number an intelligent committee possible, whatever is good in one school will make their choice, if they regard only is incorporated i: to all. He may give the best interests of their schools, hints in regard to discipline, and surgest
But what shall be the opise of the su- different methods of instruction or, in the perintendent? Weanstrer, in one worl, case of new teachers especially, he may that he is to perform all those duties, conduct the recitations himself, and thus which, from want of time or from any by living example impart instruction other cause, the chool committee mar which it would be next to impossible to not be able properly to discharge. As we convey by precept. have already said, they are engaged in But his attention should not be conthe active duties of life, and it is often in- fined to his own village. He should beconvenient, sometimes utterly impossible come acquainted with the best schools for them to leave their clients or their and the best teachers in the vicinity, and patients, their stores or their workshops, should introduce at home the most ap
WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
proved methods of instruction and disci- comparatively small amount, may secure pline which he may find abroad. When- the services of an experienced teacher, ever a vacancy occurs in a school under and place its schools under the most effihis charge, he will know or should know cient supervision that can be obtained. where to find the very best teacher to fill The school committees of the several towns it; and the great advantage of this can acting together, may select the man and be best appreciated by those who know prescribe his duties; and there can surely how many blanks are usually drawn to be no just occasion for jealousies, or for a prize. In case of applicants from other such differences in opinion as to prevent towns, he should visit their schools, and harmonious action. If there were any thus in the only satisfactory manner as- fear of favoritism on the part of the supercertain in regard to their efficiency and intendent, it would not be necessary that success; and he should also be present he should be taken from either of the and take part in the examination of teach- towns whose schools he would be called ers so long as the present system of ex- upon to direct. Indeed, this would not amination lasts.
be likely to be the case, if a practical In addition to the rest, he should be teacher were selected, for the very reason come familiar with the merits of the prin- that these towns do not furnish men of cipal text-books as they issue from the sufficient experience for the purpose. press, and no change should be made till
Could such an arrangement be effected recommended by him, or at least without the great good which would result must his knowledge and approval.
be apparent to all. The teachers of these It is not necessary, we trust, to pursue towns are generally young and inexperithis part of our subject to any greater enced, and need, therefore, much instruclength. The peculiar work assigned to a tion, sympathy and advice; and who so superintendent will be different in differ- well qualified to give them as one who ent places; and it will be the province of has spent the best years of his life in the school committees to prescribe such duties work? Any one at all conversant with as the particular circumstances of their the subject, knows that the schools of schools may seem to require.
two adjoining towns, not only may be, It is evident that a liberal con
nsa. but frequently are, entirely different in tion will be necessary to procure the ser- regard to text-books, methods of instrucvices of a suitable man. The large towns tion, and their general condition. Go and cities will be able to meet this expen- where we will, after leaving the cities and diture without unreasonably increasing larger towns, and within the circumferthe burden of taxation, Not so, however with the smaller towns. In many places of the best and some of the poorest schools
ence of a few miles, may be found some the salary of a superintendent would be in the State. Suppose, now, they could an important part of the whole amount be placed under the care of some experiraised for schools. But the larger towns enced and successful teacher, and what a support annual schools, where the change change would be wrought in a single year. of teachers is much less frequent, and The extent of territory is, it is true, somie where those employed are more generally objection to the union, but is by no means engaged in the business for life. Thesu
an insuperable one; and this objection, pervision, also, of these schools is usually we believe, would be more than countermore efficient and perfect than in the balanced by the generous rivalry which smaller towns; and hence it will be rea- would be created not among teachers dily seen that a superintendent is needed the most in those places which can the merely, but among the people of the dif
ferent towns. least afford the necessary expense. To remedy this evil we propose that
The plan which has been proposed is several contiguous towns unite in the a simple one, and the experiinent could choice of a man who shall divide his time be easily tried. We cannot predict, for and attention equitably between them.— a certainty, in regard to the result, but To this course we can see no valid objec- we know that some of the best teachers tion, while it has many and great advan- in the State have full confidence in its entages. By this union, each town, for a tire success. — Massachusetts Teacher,
AS WE SOW WE SHALL REAP. usually terminate in ruin. Disaster is
the highly probable issue, and their cerThe vague expectation of gaining ad- tain consequence is a state of anxiety and vantages without employing proper means suspense for which no success can atone. may be seen in those who are perpetually But the most important mistakes of the in search of short and easy roads to knowl-class under consideration are those into edge; flattering themselves, that by the which men fall in their moral conduet.indolent perusal of abridgments and com- Misery in one shape or the other is the pendiums, or the sacrifice of an oecasional inevitable consequence of all vice; and a hour at a popular lecture, they will, with- man can scarcely be under a greater deout much application, imbibe that learn- lusion than to suppose, that he can in any ing, which they see confers so much dis- instance add to his happiness by a sacritinction on others. They forget, that, from fice of principle. Yet, from the want of the very nature of the case, science can- a clear perception of the tendencies of not be obtained without labor; that ideas actions, it is too often assumed, that vice must be frequently presented to the mind would be pleasant enough were it not forbefore they become familiar to it; that bidden; and many a one indulges his the faculties must be vigorously exerted guilty passions because he knows the to possess much efliciency; that skill is pleasure to be certain, while the punishthe effect of habit; and that habit is ac-ment, he flatters himself, is only continquired by the frequent repetition of the gent. Every departure from virtue, howsame act. Application is the only means ever, draws after it a train of evils, which securing the end at which they aim; and no art can escape. The ruin of health is they may rest assured that all schemes the consequence of intemperance and deto put them into possession of intellectual bauchery, the contempt and mistrust of treasures, without any regular or strenu- mankind follow upon deceit and dishonous efforts on their part, all promises to esty, and all other deviations from moral insinuate learning into their minds at so rectitude are attended by their respective small an expense of time and labor that evil effects. Some of these consequences they shail scarcely be sensible of the pro- are certain and uniform, and if others do cess, are mere delusions, which can ter- not invariably follow, they ought to be minate in nothing but disappointment and considered in practice as inevitable from mortification. It cannot be too deeply the rarity of the anomalous instances.-impressed on the mind, that application Between acting against possibility, and is the price to be paid for mental acqui- against a high degree of probability, there sitions, and that it is as absurd to expect is little difference in point of wisdom.them without it, as to hope for a harvest General rules will fail, or appcar umecwhere we have not sown the seed. essary, in particular instances; but as
As men often deceive themselves with these instances cannot be foreseen, and the hope of acquiring knowledge without are few in number, he who wishes to seapplication, so they calculate on acquir- cure the end which the general rule has ing wealth without industry and econo- in view must obscrve it, and would be my, and repine that another should bear guilty of folly to speculate on its excepaway the prize which they have made no tions. If a man wishes to be a long liver effort to secure. Or perhaps, impatient he must adopt habits of sobriety and temof this slow though certain process, they perance, as the most likely way of obattempt to seize the end by some extra- taining his purpose, notwithstanding the ordinary means, and carry by a single instances of a few individuals who have stroke what humbler individuals are con- reached a good old age in direct violation tent to win by regular and tedious ap- of this precept. Men should recollect, proaches. They see the schemes of other too, before cheating themselves into the adventurers continually failing, yet they hope of impunity in vice, that however press forward in the same course, in de- they may escape some of the peculiar effiance of probability, and in the hope of fects, they can have no security against proving singular exceptions to the gen-its general consequences. All vices are eral doom. Their bold speculations, it is accompanied by self-degradation, as the true, may sometimes succeed, but they substance by the shadow; by a deterioration of character iraurht with incalcu- TIIS CULTIVATION OF TIIE SEXSES. ble mischief to our future peaea; by the coatempt, suspicion or inlignetin of our For our hearts bound to the spirited fellos creatures on their discovery; and strains of martial musie; how we thrill whether discovereilor undiscoverel, they to the shout of the multitude! and how are pursued by that seeret uneasiness, many a David has charmed away evil which, by the constitution of our nature, spirits by the melody of beautiful sounds. is the doom of guilt, however successful, Neither is it a passing emotion of little or however concealel. A man may, in- moment in our lives we receive from the deed, proceed for a time in the career of senses, they are our perpetual bodyiniquity, with a seeming carelessness and guards, surrounding us unceasingly ; and enjoyment, and obduracy of conscience; these constantly repeated impressions, bebut as long as the human mind retains come powerful agents in life; they refine its present structure, he can never be sure or beautify our souls, they ennoble or dethat the next moment will not plunge grade them, according to the beautiful or him into the acutest agonies of remorse. mean ohjects which surround us. A dirty
Virtuous actions and virtuous qualities, slovenly dress will exert an evil moral inon the contrary, inay be regarıled as the fluence upon the child; it will aid in denecessary, or most likely means to secure stroying its self-respect; it will incline it certain good ends; as roads terminating to habits which correspond with such a in pleasant places. Thus honesty is the garment. The beautiful scenes through means of inspiring confidence, veracity which a child wanders, playing by the of obtaining credit for what we say, and sea-shore, or on the mountain-side, will temperance of preserving health. If we always be remembered ; the treasures of would be esteemed, loved and confided in, shell and sea-weed, brought from wonderwe must evince qualities which are esti- ful ocean caves, the soft green moss where mable, amiable, and calculated to attract the fairies have danced, and the flowers confidenec. The error of many consists that have sprung up under their footsteps in expecting to arrive at the place with will leave a trace of beauty, of mystery, out traveling the road. They imagine and strange happiness wherever its later that they can retain health of body and life may be cast. The senses mingle powpeace of mind amidst sensuality, cruelty erfully in all the influences of childhood. and injustice, and calculate on the respect It is not merely the loving of parents, the of their neighbors in the face of actions purity and truthfulness of the family realmost beneath contempt. It would be lations that make home so precious a as rational to form expectations of reach- recollection; there are visions of winter ing London by pursuing a northerly route evenings, with the curtains drawn, tho from Edinburgh, or by prolonging life by fire burning, and gay voices or wonderful poisoned nutriment.-Briley.
picture books; there are summer ram
bles in the cool evening, when the deliBind IP tur WOCNDS.-- man strikes vious night-breeze fanned the cheek, and me with a scord and inflicts a wound. ire gazed into the heavens to search out Suppose, instead of binding up the wound, the bright stars. It is, then, most imI am showing it to everybody; and after portant in educating children to guard the it has been bound up, I am taking off the senses from evil influences, to furnish bandage continually, and examining its them with pure and beautiful objects.depth and making it to fester, till my Each separate sense should preserve its limb becomes greatly inflamed, and my acuteness of faculty; the eye should not general health is materially affected; is be injured by resting on a vulgar confu. there a person in the world who would sion of colors, or clumsy, ill-proportioned not call me a fool? Sow such a fool is forms; the car should not be falsified by he, who, by dwelling upon little injuries, discordant sounds, and harsh, unloring or insults, or provocations causes them voices; the nose should not be a recepto agitate and inflame his mind. How tacle for impure odors; each sense should much better were it to put a bandage be preserveil in its purity, and the objects over the wound, and never look at it supplied to them should be filled with again !--Jamison.
moral suggestion and true sentiment; the
house, the dress, the food, may preach to tendencies of things so manifestly in acthe chill through its senses, and aid it-corrance with them, the extent of moral Toth in quite another way from the pro- influence is so great, and the elieets of its tection alfor lel, or the good blood which employment so visible, that whoever asfeels its organs.-II-rper's diag. pires after benevolent action, and reaches
forth to things that remain for us, to the A YOUNG MUIS CILARACTER. true dignity of his nature, can find free
scope for his intellect, and all aspiring No young man who las a just sense of themes for the heart. his own valle will sport with his owl churacier. I watchful regard to his TIIE TARM-SCHOOL AT METTRAI. chararter in early youth, will be of inconceisable value to him in all the remain- AT Mettray, rear Tours, in France, ing years of his life. When tempied to there is a large school for the reformation deviate from strict propriety of deport- of Juvenile Delinquents. It is called an ment, he should ask himself, can I afford Ayricultural Colony, and has acquireri, this? Can I endure hereafter to look nader the direction of Mr. De Metz, a reback upon this?
putation quite equal to the It is of amazing worth to a young man House” of Dr. Wichern at Horn, near to have a pure mind; for this is the foun- Hamburgh, which it closely resembles dation of a pure character. The mind, in in preserving throughout all its arrangeorder to be kept pure, must be employed nents a “family" character. It is a in topics of thought which are themselves home and not a prison, as may be seen lovely, chastened and clevating. Thus from the account Dr. Barnard gives in the mind hath in its own power the se- his National Education in Europe. lection of its themes of meditation. If Lord Leigh, an English nobleman, havyouth only knew how durable and how ing recently published an account of his di-mal is the injury proluced by the in- visit to Vettray, the London Times disdulgence of degradel thoughts, if they cusses the subject in an editorial article, only realized how frightful are the moral from which the following paragraph is depravities which a cherished habit of taken: loose imagination procluces on the soul- "If a man wants to die to the world in they would shun them as the bite of a good earnest, and henceforth to enjoy no serpent. The power of books to excite satisfactions but those which arise from imagination, is a fearful element of moral the performance of duty, let him learn death when employed in the service of from M. de Metz, and adopt a family of vice.
that unguirly, disappointing, and almost The cultivation of an amiable, elevated impracticable class, called “juvenile ofand glowing heart, alive to all the beau- fenders.” It is, indeed, the work of an ties of nature, and all the sublimities of apostle. M. de Metz makes himself “all truth, invigorates the intellect, gives to things to all men” in his dealings with the affections that power of adhesion to his young proteges. Ile renders their whatever is pure and good, and grand, occupation while at Mettray as similar as which is adapted to lead out the whole possible to those which they will renature of man into those scenes of action turn, and therefore the best preparation and impression by which its energies may for them. He gives them the opportumost appropriately be employed, and by nity of iinprovement in their trades, and which its high destination may be most requires such observances of religion, effectually reached.
such an arrangement of the hours, such The opportunities of exciting these fac- a division into groups, such a system of ulties in benevolent and self-denying ef- rewards, such moderate punishments, forts for the welfare of our fellow-men, such a dress, such habits as industry, are so many and great, that it really is economy and cleanliness, such a rule of worth while to live. The heart which is promotion, such instruction, and even truly evangelically benevolent, may luxu- such amusements, and such performance riste in an age like this. The promises of public duties, as shall render the little of God are inexpressibly rich, the main world of Mettray as much as possible a