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District Boards will coincide with each the trouble and mental labor of examinother in the selection of Text-Books.- ing a variety of Text-Books upon the Besides, each District elects a new Board same subject. With such we should have annually, and the succeeding Board has no sympathy, even did we find them in full power to disregard the books selected Wisconsin. by the preceding Board. This has been But we have Teachers who desire to done in many instances within the writ- examine and study various authors upon er's knowledge. But it may be said that every subject taught in the school room. the State Superintendent is to advise in It invigorates their minds as much to this matter. Does that give permanence meet with a new author as it does to be. to the books once selected ? Assuredly come acquainted with another intelligent not. Each Superintendent has thus far man. It creates a desirable mental acrecommended a different series from that tivity. It makes them better acquainted recommended by his immediate predeces- with the subject, and qualified to give in
Were the advice of State Superin-struction in it. A change of Text-Books tendents to be followed, every District in adds fuel to the fire that enlightens the the State must change its Text-Books Teacher's mind, and enables him to preonce in two years. No law can be made sent his subject, all illuminated, to his potent enough to produce such a change pupil's mind. The scholar then instanthroughout. In some localities it would taneously acquires the enthusiasm of the be difficult to obtain the series of books Teacher. Hence, we think a uniformity recommended, while there might, and of Text-Books in the State not only not probably would be, a supply of others desirable, but that it is of great advanjust as valuable. Then we unhesitatingly tage to have a variety. answer the question with which we com
The same reasoning applies to a county. menced, in the negative.
We are in favor of having a variety of Should we desire a uniformity ? Much Text-Books even in each town. It will has been said and written upon the ne- do no harm if one District uses Sanders' cessity of having a uniformity of school Readers, while the adjoining one uses Mc books throughout the State. Our law- Guffey's
. Even in the same school it apmakers have directed our State Superin-pears to be better to change the Texttendent to secure such a uniformity as Books. If different books are in use in far as practicable. A sister State has at- adjacent Districts an exchange can be tempted to enforce the use of uniform se- readily effected. All that is necessary in ries of books throughout her limits. Super- a District, is that
lars of the same intendents, Teachers and other friends of grade shall be provided with the same popular education have frequently ex- Text-Book. (In more advanced classes, pressed themselves in strong terms in fa- in some studies, this is not necessary or vor of such a uniformity. We freely ad-advisable.) Where Sanders' Readers for mit that with such a uniformity, it would instance are in use, it frequently becomes be easier for unqualified Teachers, who advantageous after using the First Reader semi-annually change the scene of their to substitute a reader of the same grade labors, to go through with their stereo- from another series, and so through the typed routine in the school room, and that whole course. Uncommon interest is not it would enable a class of Teachers to shun unfrequently awakened in the whole class
by substituting a different Geography for thought, and however much the text may their familiar Text-Book in that depart- have been studied, or however well comment of knowledge. We say, have all of mitted to memory, unless that study has the most approved Text-Books for sale in taught the student to think, and to think each town and city; no matter if a varic- independent of the text book, it has not ty of books do get into one school, it will been studied aright. Any course of study do the teacher and scholars no harm to -any system of instruction or method of have the advantage of them. It will harm discipline which fails to elicit thought, to no one to read different explanations and develop independent thought, must be esillustrations of the same principle. Only sentially defective. let scholars of the same class (in classes Moreover, though thought may have where it is necessary) have the same book, been developed by the study, yet the inand we are satisfied.
struction must still be regarded as essenBut the objection is raised that parents tially defective, if it has failed to make or will not submit to frequent changes of to induce a practical application of that books, nor supply their children with a thought to useful purposes. Of what acvariety. It is a lamentable fact that miny count is it to us that we learn all science, if parents are behind the age in this matter. we learn not to think and apply? Are They think that a sholar can judiciou-ly we to enter the practical and real busimake use of the same reader for months, ness of active and useful life, with a book or even years. It would be just as ra- of forms, rules and formulas under our tional to obtain one number of the New arms? Nay, verily! From the first rudiYork Tribune for their family and make mental rule or definition or principle them read it for a year. That disposition learned, to the last lesson in science or is only manifested with reference to school art, the student's mind should be carried books. May the Wisconsin Journal of
beyond the lesson, and he should be inEducation do something to correct this structed to ask and answer these ques
tions. old fogy idea that the school boy should
What are the relations of this invariably use one book until nothing is thought? Ilow, to what, and when am I left but the covers.
to make a practical application of this lesFond du Lac, Wis.
son and of these principles ? Less than
this is not educating. (For the Journal of Education. Milton, Wis. WIIAT IT IS TO EDICATE.
[For the Journal of Education.
ARE YOU A TEACHER? TO EDUCATE is to teach how to think and perform. It is a great mistake to Then you are a blessed one among morsuppose when a student has committed tals; the happiest among the happy ;to memory the lesson of the text book and and the great King has set on your forehas recited it well, that such an one is head a jewel of untold worth, which shall necessarily educated; or to suppose when shine on when one has informed the scholar what was in
“ The Stars the text book, that therefore he has been
And the leaves of the judgement day unfold." teaching-has been performing the great You are a Teacher. Then you love to duties of educating. One great ohject of take the little ones into Nature's picture school instruction, should be to develop gallery-among daisy banks and dewy
A. C. S.
eyed violets that always look truth into there yet remains many a "terra incog young hearts and you talk hour after nita" to reward the search of the perse hour of the good God and his marvellous vering adventurer, and beneath the surfa works on this great round earth of ours. of the soil many a gem lies hid, which th Then thoughts of the nobleness of your careful delver, using the pickaxe of expe mission fill your mind; then you rience, will sooner or later bring to light pray that your heart may always be a
Though all have an interest in the submine of rare gems—that truth, love and
ject, it devolves especially upon the teach honor may shine there.
crs to give character and efficiency to th Are you a teacher ? Then you visit
systems of education established by law often the lowly dwellings of the poor ; you to change, improve and perfect them; tdrive want away, and misery flees at your make teaching a profession and elevatapproach. It is your hand that so ten- the process of developing the youthfu derly binds up the crushed and bleeding mind to the dignity of a science. Nor spirit
, and gentle words from your lips that the teachers of Wisconsin have a bring joy to the heavy heart. Then you organ through which they can communi possess a heaven-born patience—always cate with each other, I propose to presen loving, always kind. You can gaze long from month to month some of the idea and earnestly into the vacant eye, and
suggested, and facts accumulated during wait for reason to arouse from the sleep
many years experience in the school of ignorance, enduring scorn and often hatred the while. You are a Teacher. The young re
As “science is knowledge systema joice at your coming ; the lips of the aged tized,” and facts and principles are of bu breathe blessings on your name.
little value unless properly classified, God
shall endeavor to follow a definite plar loves you. Angels love you, for you are a teacher-a TEACHER.
and arrange what I have to present with Racine, Wis.
reference to it. [For the Journal of Education. The foundation upon which the whole COMMON SCHOOLS,
superstructure rests, is the right, or rather CONSIDERED THEORETICALLY AND PRACTICALLY the duty of the State to educate the chil
dren of the State. The argument in favor
of the establishment by law of a system The education of the children of the of public instruction has been so ofter people, whether considered in relation to and so ably stated, that it is not necessary its present necessity or its future results, to repeat it here. To deny the right of is a subject worthy the attention of the the State to use education as a means of Statesman, the Philosopher, the Philan- preserving order, promoting public prosthropist and the Christian. And though perity, preventing pauperism, licentiousmuch has been said and written upon the ness and crime, betrays unpardonable igsubject during the last half century, much norance of the fundamental principles of remains to be said. The continents and our government. But while most perlarger islands in this great ocean of inves- sons acknowledge the abstract right of tigation have been discovered and map- the State in this matter, many deny that it ped out, the main features of the country is the duty of the State to furnish instruchave been quite accurately described, but tion to the children of the people. They
C. E. A.
claim that the State usurps the preroga- persons holding these views should regard tive of the parent whose peculiar duty it an attempt on the part of the State to edis to educate his children, and that the ucate their children as an unwarrantable interference of the State weakens the interference. This is to be expected ; and sense of parental obligation, and destroys the best method of meeting and answerthe interest which individuals would oth-ing their objections is not by trying to erwise feel in the subject of education.- prove the right of the State to furnish They say if knowledge is free, it will be public instruction, but by showing them undervalued; what costs but little is lit- that they themselves are the State, a part tle prized. This objection is founded up
and parcel of the government. Some may on a misconception of the true nature and think these statements unnecessary, that object of civil government.
the class of persons to whom they are apThere has never been a clearer enunci- plicable is quite small. Let those who ation of principles, or a more definite think thus, canvass the State in behalf of statement of the relations existing between
temperance, education or any other reform
carefully scanning, as far as possible, the government and the individual, than was made by the founders of this republic.
motives of those who render them aid in It was emphatically declared that the peo- personal and party predilections, many
their undertaking. Many will act from ple were sovereign, the source of all authority, that government possessed no
from sympathy moved by eloquent appowers except those delegated to it, and peals to their feelings, many because they that the State as an organization was but hope to receive a return in lessened taxa means of giving direction and efficiency
ation consequent upon the decrease of to united individual effort, but the em
pauperism and crime; but how very few bodied expression of the popular will.— from a sense of their personal responsiThough in theory we still acknowledge
bility growing out of the possession of the the correctness of these principles, in ac
elective franchise and their consequent
relation to the State. tion we have wandered far from the path
The prevalence of marked out by our fathers.
this want of personal responsibility is ev
idenced by those acts of lawless violence The tendency of all government towards which have been perpetrated in this councentralization, the corrupting influence of
try during a few years past. party politics, and the admixture of foreign elements, have contributed to sepa
If men felt that they were the governrate the State from the individual, encour-ment, and personally responsible for unaging, high-handed legislative and judicial wise or wicked legislation, they would aggression upon natural rights, and de- sever the ties which bind them to party, stroying the sense of personal responsi- spurn the demagogues who betray them, bility for the existence of organized evil purify the ballot-box, consecrate it anew in the community.
to truth and liberty, and bow in humble We find many at the present time who reverence before the majesty of the lawregard government as something above or the expressed will of an enlightened mabeyond them, out of their sphere, a sort jority. The more I consider this subject of self-propelling machine, with which the more I am convinced that the sense of they have nothing to do, and for which personal responsibility to our fellow men, they are not responsible. No wonder that developed by and through the State as an
organism, is the corner stone of that great subtraction as well as addition, and that temple yet to be reared in which shall be every harm done is so much taken from gathered the whole brotherhood of na- the aggregate of the good accomplished. tions to worship the Universal.
To a certain extent the second of our radI place education on a level with pro- ical principles modifies the first. If I tection to life and property. It is the cannot avail myself of any specified duty of the parent to use those means means of doing good, without doing more and influences which, while they produce harin than good I am under obligations to the desired result with reference to his leave that means untouched. If the meown children, shall also insure the great-chanic cannot use the labor-saving maest benefit to the children of his neighbor. chinery without breaking its wheels and That this is best effected through a well ruining its costly mechanism, he would arranged system of common schools, 1 better confine himself to his knife and axe. firmly believe, and shall endeavor to prove But while the second principle thus modin future numbers of the Journal. A. J. c. ifies the first, it has a distinct bearing of
We are bound not to use the THE MORALS OF EXAMPLE.
instruments of action committed to us, for
the production of evil. The mechanic Every consistent system of morals may perfectly understand the use of the must have reference to man, both as an machinery about him, and use it diligentindividual and as a member of society.-- ly, yet he is inexcusable if he employs It must recognize the fact that we are in it for the injury instead of the benefit of volved in two sets of responsibilities; and his employer. are, to a certain extent, our brother's
Now, example is one of the most powkeepers as well as our own. At its basis erful moral instruments which man can must be these two principles; that man wield. It is a stimulant to good or evil, is bound to do the greatest possible good which few are capable of resisting. We and to be guilty of the least possible harm. are bound to use, and forbidden to abuse These principles will, in the most perfect it. It is a delicate instrument, but that ethical scheme, be strengthened by the only makes it more important that it introduction of the cardinal principle of should be carefully employed. It is an Christianity, Love. These three princi- instrument which may be unconsciously ples established, it will not be difficult to used, or rather which in its exercise may define, by their application, the morals of produce effects which are wholly unknown example.
to us. We may act with a design of arousIf we are bound to do the greatest pos- ing others to a like activity ; but we may sible good, we are bound to use all the incite to good or tempt to evil those whom means within our reach. It would be a we do not see. The deeds of ancient heplain contradiction to say that it is the roes are still quoted to rouse the courage duty of the mechanic to do all he can for of the trembling. The humblest somehis employer in a specified time; and yet times live in all ages, and influence while in a shop filled with labor-saving mankind while the race endures. Mary machinery, he is excusable for using only is somewhere breaking an alabaster box his axe or his pocket knife. At the same of ointment over a Saviour's head to-day. time, it must be remembered that in the Grace Darling still strains at the oars of arithmetic of morals, there is a rule of her life-boat on the waves of every sea.