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PUBLIC WORKS FOR WATER, POLLUTION CONTROL, AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AND ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR

1971

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE
COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
UNITED STATES SENATE

NINETY-FIRST CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

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H.R. 18127
AN ACT MAKING APPROPRIATIONS FOR PUBLIC WORKS FOR
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, AND POWER DEVELOPMENT,
INCLUDING THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS-CIVIL, THE PANAMA
CANAL, THE FEDERAL WATER QUALITY ADMINISTRATION,
THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, POWER AGENCIES OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, THE TENNESSEE VALLEY
AUTHORITY, THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION, AND RE-
LATED INDEPENDENT AGENCIES AND COMMISSIONS FOR
THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1971, AND FOR OTHER

PURPOSES

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SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

ALLEN J. ELLENDER, Louisiana, Chairman RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia

MILTON R, YOUNG, North Dakota JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Washington KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota SPESSARD L. HOLLAND, Florida

MARGARET CHASE SMITH, Maine JOHN STENNIS, Mississippi

GORDON ALLOTT, Colorado ALAN BIBLE, Nevada

CLIFFORD P. CASE, New Jersey ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

NORRIS COTTON, New Hampshire JOHN O. PASTORE, Rhode Island GALE W. McGEE, Wyoming

Ex OFFICIO MEMBERS ON RIVERS AND HARBORS ITEMS JENNINGS RANDOLPH, West Virginia JOHN SHERMAN COOPER, Kentucky STEPHEN M. YOUNG, Ohio

Ex OFFICIO MEMBERS ON ATOMIC ENERGY ITEMS CLINTON P. ANDERSON, New Mexico GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont ALBERT GORE, Tennessee

KENNETH J. BOUSQUET, Clerk to Subcommittee

(II)

PUBLIC WORKS APPROPRIATIONS

FOR FISCAL YEAR 1971

TUESDAY, MARCH 24, 1970

U.S. SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 2:15 p.m., in room S-126, the Capitol, Hon. Allen J. Ellender (chairman) presiding.

Present: Senators Ellender and Young.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

FEDERAL WATER QUALITY ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF CARL L. KLEIN, ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR

WATER QUALITY AND RESEARCH

ACCOMPANIED BY:

DAVID D. DOMINICK, COMMISSIONER
BRYAN F. LaPLANTE, ASSOCIATE COMMISSIONER
DR. DAVID G. STEPHAN, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR RE-

SEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
EUGENE T. JENSEN, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OPERA-

TIONS MURRAY STEIN, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR ENFORCE

MENT EDMUND J. GRANT, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR ADMINIS

TRATION DR. ALLAN HIRSCH, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR PROGRAM

PLANNING AND EVALUATION MATTHEW C. PILZYS, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF FINANCIAL

MANAGEMENT
RICHARD R. HITE, DIRECTOR OF BUDGET, OFFICE OF THE SEC-

RETARY
JAMES TEARE, STAFF ASSISTANT, OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SEC-

RETARY FOR WATER QUALITY AND RESEARCH
REINHOLD W. THIEME, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR

WATER QUALITY AND RESEARCH

INTRODUCTION OF ASSOCIATES

Senator ELLENDER. The subcommittee will please come to order.

We start hearings this afternoon on Federal water pollution control, and we will first hear from Secretary Klein. Will you proceed, sir?

Mr. KLEIN. Yes. Mr. Chairman, I have with me today my budget officer, Mr. James Teare.

I have Commissioner David Dominick, and he has with him a good many of his staff to answer the detailed questions for the committee.

PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS

I appreciate very much the opportunity to meet with you again to discuss water pollution control programs. Since Commissioner Dominick and his associates will discuss the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration requirements in detail, I would like to briefly summarize some of the problems, administration proposals and some accomplishments. With this in mind, I will proceed.

REPEATED USE OF RESOURCES

One of the critical and natural resource and environmental issues today, and increasingly so in the future, is that of quality, that is controlling environmental pollution so that the resources can be reused again and again to meet man's increasing demands.

FEDERAL-STATE-CITY PARTNERSHIP

To meet these increasing demands it is our goal to enhance and preserve the quality and value of this Nation's waters through prevention, control and abatement of pollution. Such a goal cannot be achieved without a Federal partnership with States and cities, with the Federal Government assuming its full responsibility while giving the first opportunity to manage and solve the problems to the State and local governments.

CONCOMITANT WATER DEMAND AND POLLUTION INCREASES

There are a number of trends and conditions which contribute to the water pollution problems and which make it crucial for the Nation to manage wisely its water and waste if it is to satisfy increasing demands for water and at the same time, protect and enhance the quality. Some of the conditions causing concern include

1. A relatively constant supply of water which is not distributed evenly;

2. Projected water demands to triple while population doubles;

3. Municipal sewage output doubling and industrial sevenfold in less than 35 years; and

4. Estuarine areas vulnerable to severe damage from pollution and man-made physical changes. The very factors which increase the demands for clean water also multiply the output of waste, thereby making the demands more difficult to satisfy.

Nationally, the problem of water pollution is important and complex and its solution is difficult and expensive. Water pollution problems consist of many elements and all levels and sectors of society and government-private and public, Federal, State and local—are involved in causing as well as solving the problems.

PRESIDENTS' MESSAGE ON ENVIRONMENT President Nixon, in his message on the environment, stated* * the tasks that need doing require money, resolve and ingenuity—and they are too big to be done by government alone. They call for fundamentally new philosophies of land, air and water use, for stricter regulation, for expanded government action, for greater citizen involvement and for new programs to insure that government, industry and individuals all are called on to do their share of the job and to pay their share of the costs.

As to water pollution problems and solutions, the President's message directed itself to three principal sources municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes.

AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION

It was pointed out that of the three, agricultural pollution was the most troublesome to control and will take time and require action on many fronts. It is recognized that there is a need in this area for programs of intensified research and to develop new methods of reducing agricultural pollution while maintaining an abundant level of productivity.

MUNICIPAL WASTES : FEDERAL COST In the area of municipal wastes, technology is available and, therefore, there is no reason why pollution from this source is permitted to go unchecked.

Based on a recently completed nationwide survey of deficiencies of present facilities, plus projections of additional needs that will develop, it is estimated that it will take a total capital investment of $10 billion over the next 5 years.

Therefore, assuming a national average of 40 percent Federal participation, the President has proposed a program which will make available $1 billion for Federal assistance over the next 4 fiscal years starting in 1971 for a total of $4 billion.

This proposal envisions $1 billion, thereby assuring communities that the Federal share will be there, and therefore, enable planning to begin now for all needed facilities and construction to proceed at an accelerated rate.

The President's proposal also provides for the creation of an Environmental Financing Authority to insure that every municipality has an opportunity to sell bonds at reasonable interest rates to provide its share of the cost of the waste treatment facilities.

REFORMS TO INSURE GOOD INVESTMENTS

In addition to providing the funding, major reforms are being implemented or proposed to ensure that the funds are well invested.

These reforms include revision in the allocation formula, design, operation and maintenance and operator certification requirements; imposition of industrial user fees; development of comprehensive river basin plans; and where feasible, construction of large regional facilities.

In the area of industry, some discharge their waste into municipal systems; others discharge directly into lakes and rivers.

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