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INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

After two previous sessions of the Assembly had deferred consideration of the question of international terrorism because of lack of time, the 30th General Assembly once again included on its agenda the item, "Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance, and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes."

The item was referred to the Sixth Committee, along with the 1973 report of the Ad Hoc Committee on International Terrorism. However, the Sixth Committee did not reach the item until the session was nearly over. On December 4 it held a brief debate on the topic in which 12 states took part. Bolivia, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Uruguay were among states that called for UN action to deal with the problem.

The U.S. Representative, Mr. Rosenstock, deplored the fact that acts of terrorism continued to plague the international community and noted that little action had been taken to deal with the problem. He said that the United States had not pressed hard for action at the 30th Assembly because it recognized that many states were not yet prepared to face up to the problem. To press for action in such circumstances could lead to the creation of unnecessary barriers to constructive developments. Nevertheless, in the U.S. view, it was time for the international community to accept its responsibilities and to begin work on legal measures to combat acts of terrorism. He urged that work concentrate on acts by individuals and groups, rather than by states--which was already being dealt with in other contexts--and that the question of causes for such acts not be used as a bar to taking legal measures. He also urged that further consideration be given to the draft convention that the United States had submitted in 1972. That draft, still before the Committee, was formulated so as to deal only with the most serious criminal threats. Finally, he expressed the hope that the Committee's discussion in 1975 would at least lay the foundation for meaningful action in 1976.

On the initiative of Tunisia, the Committee decided without a vote that because of the lack of time further consideration of the question should be deferred until the 31st session of the Assembly. On December 15 the General Assembly in plenary session approved by consensus the recommendation of the Sixth Committee that the item be placed on the agenda of its 31st session.

HOST COUNTRY RELATIONS

Maintaining the security of missions to the United Nations and of their personnel is a serious problem of concern to the United States and the diplomatic community at large. The Committee on Relations with the

on during 1975 at the request of the 29th General Assembly.

The Committee met 15 times during the year to consider the security of missions and personnel and other issues arising in connection with the status of representatives of UN members. Among the security incidents discussed were the firing of shots and bombings of mission buildings. The measures taken by the United States to ensure mission security were praised by some Committee members, while others considered those measures to be inadequate. Expressing deep regret over these incidents, the U.S. Representative, Ambassador White, said that the U.S. authorities were conducting a complete review of security procedures and were taking steps to ensure that every legal means was taken to apprehend and punish those responsible for the attacks, as well as to prevent recurrences. She also pointed out that international criminal terrorism against diplomatic personnel was a global phenomenon which caused the United States grave concern and against which the United States had endeavored, with limited success, to mount a global attack. She pledged that U.S. multilateral, bilateral, and unilateral efforts would continue.

In its report, adopted on September 12, the Committee, inter alia, (1) condemned acts of violence, other criminal acts, and all acts whose purpose is the harassment of missions, their personnel, and their property; (2) recommended that all appropriate preventive measures should be taken to discourage criminal acts against missions, including, in particular, that the law enforcement mechanism should operate in such a

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Bulgaria, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Cyprus, France, Honduras, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Mali, Spain, Tanzania, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States.

way that it is made clear to persons contemplating such acts that if they commit them they will be punished; (3) urged that the 1972 Federal Act for the Protection of Foreign Officials and Official Guests of the United States be fully implemented; (4) called on the member states to cooperate with federal and local U.S. authorities in cases affecting the security of missions and their personnel; (5) urged the host country, the UN Secretariat, and other organizations involved to seek the promotion of mutual understanding between the diplomatic community and local population to ensure good relations among all concerned; (6) recalled that it is the duty of all members of the diplomatic community to respect the laws and regulations of the receiving state; and (7) expressed the hope that the host country would again review measures adopted with regard to the parking problem to meet more adequately the needs of the diplomatic community.

The Sixth Committee of the 30th General Assembly briefly considered the report of the Committee on Host Country Relations at four meetings between November 5 and December 1. On the latter day it approved by consensus a draft resolution sponsored by Cyprus, Libya, and the Ukrainian S.S. R. incorporating the recommendations of the Committee on Host Country Relations and deciding to continue the work of the Committee in 1976. The General Assembly subsequently adopted the resolution by consensus on December 15.

REPRESENTATION OF STATES

In 1972 the 27th General Assembly had decided that it would convene as soon as practicable an international conference to consider draft articles prepared by the International Law Commission on the representation of states in their relations with international organizations. The Assembly further decided that the conference would embody the results of its work in an international convention and such other instruments as it might deem appropriate.

The conference was held in Vienna from February 4 to March 14, 1975, and it adopted by a vote of 57 to 1, with 15 abstentions (U.S. and most other states that are hosts to major international organizations), the Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in Their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character. The 92-article convention deals with the status, privileges, and immunities to be enjoyed by representatives of states to international organizations, and with the obligations and duties owed by such representatives'. In an explanation of vote, the United States said that the convention was unaccept

able because it expanded the obligations of host states to an unjustified extent while decreasing their rights. It had, further, gone beyond the requirements of article 105 of the UN Charter by according greater privileges and immunities to missions and delegations than were required for the independent carrying out of their duties and functions.

The convention will enter into force on the 30th day following the date of deposit with the UN Secretary General of the 35th instrument of ratification or accession. No state had ratified it by the end of 1975.

The conference also adopted two resolutions which it requested the UN General Assembly to consider. The first related to the privileges and immunities to be accorded the national liberation movements recognized by the OAU or the League of Arab States. The resolution requested the Assembly to examine the question without delay, and recommended that, in the interim, states should be guided by the pertinent provisions of the convention and should accord to delegations of such movements the privileges and immunities necessary for the performance of their tasks. The U.S. delegation to the conference opposed the resolution because in its view national liberation movements were not entitled to enjoy privileges and immunities.

The other resolution related to the application of the convention in future activities of international organizations. It recommended that the UN Secretary General should inform UN members whether a state that has asked to host a future conference of an "international organization of universal character" (i.e., generally the United Nations and the specialized agencies) has ratified or acceded to the convention. The United States opposed this resolution which, in its view, would serve no useful purpose.

At the request of the Secretary General the resolutions were included in the agenda of the 30th General Assembly, which allocated them to its Sixth Committee. However, on December 4, the Committee recommended that because of the lack of time consideration of the resolutions should be deferred until the 31st session of the Assembly. On December 15 the plenary Assembly approved the recommendation without a vote.

ASSISTANCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

The "UN Program of Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination, aliú Wider Appreciation of International Law" was established by the General Assembly in 1965. The two-fold program was to consist of

(1) steps to encourage and coordinate existing international law programs and (2) forms of direct assistance and exchange, such as seminars, training and refresher courses, fellowships, advisory services of experts, the provision of legal publications and libraries, and translations of major legal work. The Assembly also established an Advisory Committee to assist the Secretary General in developing and carrying out the Program. Both UNESCO and UNITĀR were specifically invited to participate in the Program, and both have done so since its inception.

At six meetings between November 25 and December 3, 1975, the Sixth Committee of the 30th General Assembly considered the Secretary General's report on the Program's activities during 1974-75 and those planned for 1976-77. In his report, the Secretary General estimated at $176,000 the cost of the fellowships and travel grants planned for the next biennium.

On December i Ghana introduced a draft resolution, ultimately sponsored by nine states, that (1) authorized the Secretary General to carry out in 1976-77 the activities recommended in his report, including the provision of (a) a minimum of 15 fellowships, at the request of developing countries, and (b) a travel grant for one participant from each developing country invited to the regional activities to be organized during the 2 years; (2) expressed appreciation to the Secretary General for his constructive efforts to promote training and assistance in international law; (3) expressed appreciation to UNESCO and UNITAR for their cooperation and participation in the Program and to Sierra Leone and Zaire for serving as hosts for regional training and refresher courses held in 1975; (4) urged all governments to encourage the inclusion of courses on international law in the programs of legal studies offered at institutions of higher learning; (5) requested the Secretary General to continue publicizing the Program; (6) reiterated a request to member states, interested organizations, and individuals to make voluntary contributions toward financing the Program; (7) decided to appoint Barbados, Cyprus, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Hungary, Italy, Mali, Syria, Tanzania, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, and United States as members of the Advisory Committee for a period of 4 years beginning January 1, 1976; and (8) requested the Secretary General to report again in 1977.

On December 3 the Sixth Committee approved the draft resolution without objection, and on December 15 the General Assembly adopted it by consensus.

4/ The 13 members in 1975 were Barbados, Belgium, Cyprus, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Hungary, Iraq, Mali, Tanzania, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, and United States.

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