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The Aircraft Engine Emissions Study Group drafted the framework for proposed ICAO standards covering emissions. Methods of measurement and actual values of emission levels are to be discussed further at the meeting of the study group in 1976.

Another study group was formed to assist the ICAO secretariat in developing specifications required to ensure a high level of safety without unduly impeding the carriage of hazardous materials by air.

With the fall of the Saigon Government of South Viet-Nam in April 1975, it became necessary to reroute air traffic in the airspace formerly serviced by that administration. The ICAO Regional Office in Bangkok developed an interim route structure in conjunction with neighboring states and other principal users of the routes to avoid overflight of Viet-Nam.

The deadlines for proposals describing various systems for a microwave landing system to replace the present instrument landing system, scheduled for submission to the Air Navigation Commission by July 1, 1975, was moved back to December 1 at the request of the Federal Republic of Germany. By that time major proposals were received from the United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, and Australia, and there were indications that other states might subsequently submit proposals as well.

Legal Activities

The United States was a member of a Legal Committee subcommittee which convened in April 1975 to consider both a revision of the 1952 Rome Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface and a possible new instrument on liability of air carriers for noise and sonic boom damage. The subcommittee concentrated on revising the Rome convention provisions concerning the financial security requirements of the aircraft operator, jurisdiction, enforcement of foreign judgment, and limits of carrier liability. Some progress was made on the first three topics, but little was accomplished with respect to the limits of liability, which the United States believes should either be fixed at a high level or removed entirely. With respect to a new instrument on noise and sonic boom, some governments appeared to favor some form of convention to govern air carrier liability, but there was no consensus on basic points.

In September a Diplomatic Conference was held at ICAO headquarters to consider revising the 1929 Warsaw Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, as amended by the 1955 Hague Protocol. Draft cargo provisions prepared

by the Legal Committee in 1974 formed the basis of discussion. In addition, the conference considered substituting the IMF Special Drawing Right (SDR) for gold, in which the limits of liability are presently expressed. The Conference adopted, with U.S. support, four separate protocols which amend the Warsaw convention, the Hague protocol, and the 1971 Guatemala City protocol. Three of the new protocols deal substantively with the SDR change; the fourth contains basic amendments to modernize the cargo provisions of the Warsaw convention as amended by the Hague protocol.

A group of experts met several times during the year to develop an authentic Russian language text of the Chicago Convention. The group expects to have an agreed text by the time of the next ICAO Assembly in 1977.

Statistical Activities

After preliminary work by the ICAO Statistical Panel in May, the sixth session of the Statistics Division was held in Montreal October 20-November 7. Thirty-two ICAO member states and three international organizations were represented at this meeting, which conducted a detailed and complete review of the ICAO statistical program. The Division recommended that: (1) ICAO study ways to improve its statistical reporting requirements for small-scale commercial air transport operators, (2) a program of reporting on-flight origin and destination statistics be introduced on an experimental basis and eventually replace the existing program of traffic statistics by flight stage, (3) a biennial collection of financial statistics for en route facilities and services be commenced in 1976, (4) a collection of airport financial statistics be introduced by ICAO on an experimental basis for 1976 and 1977, (5) en route traffic movement statistics be collected biennially, and (6) statistics on general aviation flying be collected from states in an annual survey of number of aircraft, number of departures, and total flying hours.


Austria, the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, and Venezuela joined IMCO during 1975, bringing the total membership to 92 full members and one associate member.

IMCO continued in 1975 to provide for cooperation among governments in regulations and practices with respect to those technical questions affecting shipping in international trade. IMCO encouraged adoption of the highest practicable standards for maritime safety and efficient navigation. It also encouraged the

removal by governments of discriminatory practices and unnecessary restrictions affecting shipping engaged in international trade. In addition, IMCO played an important role in abating marine pollution, particularly with respect to oil spills.

IMCO's work is accomplished through several different forums: the Assembly of all members, the Council, and the Committees --Maritime Safety, Marine Environment Protection, Legal, and Technical Cooperation. Proposals developed in the committees are transmitted to the Council and then to the Assembly for final approval.

Assembly and Council

The ninth regular Assembly of IMCO met in London during November and adopted amendments to the 1948 Convention which established the organization. These amendments institutionalized the Legal Committee and the Marine Environment Protection Committee. They also clarified the relationship between the Council and the Committees and the administrative role the organization plays in the implementation of maritime conventions and codes that have been adopted. In other actions, the Assembly approved a budget of $11,249,400 for the 1976-77 biennium, and confirmed arrangements that had been made by the Council in June for a new headquarters building to be constructed on the Albert Embankment in London. The Assembly also approved arrangements for intersessional meetings of experts following the initial session in April-May of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System (INMARSAT) and made provisions for a resumed session of the Conference in 1976.

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A code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquified gases in bulk was adopted during 1975: Since such carriage is a growing trade and the United States will increasingly import liquified gases, the international adoption of this code, which closely parallels existing U.S. regulations, is significant not only for safety of life at sea but also for safety of U.S. receiving ports. A large number of small but significant improvements in maritime safety provisions were also adopted.

IMCO made substantial progress in 1975 toward establishing standards for fishing vessel safety. A conference is scheduled for 1977 to adopt a final convention in this field. U.S. law does not presently regulate many aspects of fishing vessel construction

and safety which would be subject to the proposed convention.

The United States participated in preparatory work for a conference to develop standards for watchkeeping and training which is scheduled for 1978. The conference will set forth common, internationally approved standards, identifying the skills and knowledge required by the various members of a ship's crew. Such a convention would be the basis for more uniform manning of ships engaged in international trade.

Ocean Pollution

In December 1975, a meeting of contracting parties to the 1972 Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter agreed that IMCO should provide the secretariat for this convention. IMCO accepted this responsibility and began preparation for a meeting of parties to begin work under the convention.

Legal Committee

The IMCO Legal Committee held four meetings during 1975. The bulk of the Committee's time was devoted to consideration of proposed conventions on shipowners' liability and on civil liability for discharges of hazardous polluting substances. The Legal Committee has now completed its work on shipowners' liability, and a diplomatic conference for consideration of this subject is scheduled for 1976. The Committee also considered problems in implementation of the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, which entered into force on June 19, 1975 (the United States is not a party), and questions relating to wreck removal and the regime of vessels in ports.


The ITU memberships of the territories of the United States, France, United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal ended on December 31, 1974, as the result of a decision taken at the 1973 Plenipotentiary Conference to limit membership in the Union to independent states. On the other hand, Bahrain, North Korea, Mozambique, and Papua New Guinea acceded to the ITU Convention during 1975 bringing total membership in the ITU at the end of the year to 146.

Administrative Council

The 36-member Administrative Council, of which the United States is a member, held its 30th session in Geneva, June 7-27, 1975. The Council approved a 1976 assessment budget of 46,564,700 Swiss francs, of which the U.S. share is approximately 7.2%. The Council gave extended consideration to a report prepared by outside experts regarding the organization and management of the Union, accepting certain of the recommendations, rejecting others, and referring some to the ITU Secretary General for further study. The net result is expected to be a more efficiently managed Union with the financial benefits therefrom accruing to the membership.

The Council approved the agendas for two major conferences that the ITU will sponsor.

The first, scheduled for early 1977, is a World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of the BroadcastingSatellite Service in frequency bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (in regions 2 -- Western Hemisphere--and 3--Asia and Pacific) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (in region 1 -- Europe and Africa).. The second conference, currently scheduled for 1978, will be a World Administrative Radio Conference on the Aeronautical Mobile (R) Service. The Council also took certain decisions in preparation for a World Administrative Radio Conference to be held in 1979.

Regional Administrative LF/MF Broadcasting Conference

The second of two sessions of a regional Administrative Radio Conference concerned with low frequency (LF) and medium frequency (MF) broadcasting in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Oceania was held during October and November 1975. The Conference developed new LF/MF assignment plans for the regions concerned, and extensive U.S. foreign broadcasting operations were accommodated in the new plans.

Other Permanent Organs

The permanent technical organs of the ITU-- the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT), the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), and the International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB) --were all active during 1975.

The Study Groups of the CCITT continued their studies pursuant to the work program for 1973 - 76 approved for them by the fifth plenary Assembly of the CCITT in 1972. Studies of technical operating and tariff questions with respect to telegraphy and telephony are being undertaken to further development of the technical standards, embodied in recommendations. that largely govern the operation of the world's

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