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day it became increasingly so; and on nearly a week thus employed, he had the Saturday night the water drinkers declared satisfaction to find that their health had not that they never felt so fresh in all their suffered in the slightest degree." lives as they had felt through that particular An additional illustration is found in week. the narrative of Daniel Wheeler, in his IV. The common practice of taking al-account of a voyage in the ship Francis coholic stimulants while labouring under the Freeling, during the year 1833, for Hobart effects of a severe cold, is attended with most Town. The ship, in its passage, touched at injurious, and not unfrequently even fatal, Rio de Janeiro, and the voyage was laborious, results. A cold simply consists in a pre-stormy, and dangerous to a remarkable deternatural excitement of the circulation, gree. Mr. Wheeler states, in reference to terminating in local inflammation of the the ships' company, "With a little exception mucous membrane of the nostrils and air our sailors have exceeded my most sanguine pipes. To use spirituous liquors in such a expectations, as to behaviour and conduct in state of the system, is but to add fuel to the general; but I think no men could have already active fire. It is evident that the suffered more hardships from the weather only safe and effectual mode of cure, must than they have endured. For a time we consist in such remedial agents as will di- gave them some wine; but whether from its minish and not increase the excitement of becoming flat and vapid, by washing about the circulation. Dr. Garnett with great truth in the cask when a quantity of it had been remarks as follows:-" Perhaps there would taken out, or with the change from cold to be scarcely such a thing as a bad cold if heat, and then to cold again, some of them people when they found it coming on, were declined drinking it, on account of its not to keep cool, and avoid wine and strong suiting them, so that they had nothing but liquors, and confine themselves for a short water for months together." It is a little time to a simple diet of vegetable food, remarkable that although they have been drinking only toast and water. Instances sometimes wet, and in wet clothes, not for are by no means uncommon, where a heat a day or two, but for a week together, when of the nostrils, difficulty of breathing, a short their teeth chattered with cold, with no warm tickling cough, and other symptoms, threat- food, the sea having put the fires out even ening a violent cold, have gone off entirely below the deck, and the water filtering in consequence of this plan being pursued."*

through the deck on their beds below, and not a dry garment to change, yet not a single instance of the cramp has occurred amongst them, nor the slightest appearance of the scurvy, even in those who have before time been afflicted with it, and still bear the marks about them; and with the solitary instance of one man, who was forced to quit the deck for two hours during his watch, from being unwell, every man and boy have stood throughout the whole in a remarkable manner."

Strong impressions exist in regard to the necessity of spirituous liquors, while working in damp situations and in wet weather. The incorrectness of this opinion is well illustrated by the following example:-In America, one hundred workmen were employed during a considerable portion of the day, for a number of successive days, in building a dam across a river. They were most of the time frequently up to the middle in water. And again, page 39, the same During the whole of this period, they writer observes that "strangers who attended refrained from the use of ardent spirits, and their religious meetings on board, in more coffee and other warm drinks were given to than one instance remarked (as if of rare them instead. At the expiration of their occurrence,) that their sailors looked more labour, the workmen were so delighted with like healthy, fresh-faced farmers, than men the result of the experiment, as to march in come off a long voyage: the generality of a body, with their foreman at their head, and those seen daily have a thin and worn-down forthwith join the Temperance Society. appearance, particularly when they belong The Limerick Chronicle, for 1837, con- to ships that supply them daily with ardent tains the following equally decisive illustra-spirits."

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tion:-"From the long continuance of wet "It is a mistake," remarks Mr. Jesse in weather, a field of mangel-wurzel, at Cor- his "Gleanings of Natural History,' bally, county Limerick, the property of think that beer is necessary for a hard workJohn Abell, was overflowed. Twenty persons, ing man. At the time I write, there are a of both sexes, were employed to get out the set of men employed in draining, by task crop; and as the preservation of their work, in Richmond, who are patterns of health, from the effect of working in the English labourers. Hard as they work from water, and under almost continued heavy morning to night, and in all weathers, they rain, required some stimulant, he had them supplied with half a pint of hot strong coffee, three times per day. Although they were

seldom drink beer. They boil a large kettle of coffee in their little bivouac in the park, and drink it hot at their meals. This costs them but little; but they do as hard a day's work upon it as any labourers in England,

* Lecture on the Preservation of Health, by Dr. and have continued to do so for three

Garnett, Ed. 1797, p. 54.

years past, under all the disadvantages

arising from wet and cold to which a drainer The consistency also of the facts detailed, is subject. with the physiological constitution of man, The simple reason of these conclusive cannot escape the notice of the most superresults is found in the fact, that the in- ficial observer. From the circumstances of dividuals in question were kept in a state the case, indeed, it would appear, that manof continual activity. By this means, such kind have been too little inclined to give a condition of the circulation was induced the Great Author of our being credit for as enabled the system to resist the effects of providing against the contingencies to which damp and cold. This, indeed, is all that he has made his creatures liable. The subject is required in such cases, with the addition has, however, in every age been submitted of suitable and nutritious beverage, the to the test of severe examination, and ineffects of which, unlike alcoholic stimulants, numerable experiments-the unvarying redo not quickly disappear, and render the sult of which leads us to the inevitable body more than ever susceptible of injurious conclusion,- that intoxicating liquors are, of impressions. all other expedients, the least calculated to

On a candid review of the preceding preserve mankind from those depressing and observations and facts, it will surely be injurious influences of circumstances and acknowledged, that the "strong drink events, to which most human beings in the delusion" has been one of the most falla- course of their existence are, more or less, cious, as well as deep-rooted and fatal, that exposed.

ever took possession of the human mind.

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"Unhappy man, whom sorrows thus, and rage,
Two different ills, alternately engage;
Who drinks, alas! but to forget-nor sees
That melancholy, sloth, severe disease,
Memory confused, and interrupted thought,
Death's harbingers, lie latent in the draught;
And in the flowers that wreath the sparkling bowl
Fell adders hiss, and poisonous serpents roll."


overwhelming influence of long continued
and artificial custom assumes an irresistible

The breach, though small at first, soon opening wide,
In rushes folly with a full-moon tide.

Such has invariably been the experience of mankind in all vicious practices, and such also, has ever been the original of great and ruinous national calamities.

In the present day many artificial and pernicious practices exist in society. Man is peculiarly subject to numerous and strong "The human mind is capable of being excited temptations. His intellectual and moral without the application of gross and violent stimu- powers are in continual quest of variety and lants; and he must have a very faint perception of its beauty and dignity who does not know this, and novelty, and, to escape danger, they require who does not further know, that one being is ele- for their correct guidance frequent examinavated above another in proportion as he possesses tion and judicious restraint. To attain this, this capability." the mind must be uninfluenced by artificial excitement. Every thing, therefore, which "Nothing is so great a friend to the mind of man has a tendency to produce improper exciteas abstinence; it strengthens the memory, clears the apprehension, and sharpens the judgment, and ment, either of mind or of body, or to in a word, gives reason its full scope of acting; and inflame the passions, must be viewed as when reason has that, it is always a diligent and

faithful handmaid to conscience."



dangerous in its consequences. Such has ever been found to be the invariable tendency of strong drink, which ought therefore to be eschewed as our greatest foe.

I. The dangerous effects of moderate indulgence.- The purpose of this section is to examine II. The effects of inebriating liquors on the tem- the effects of intoxicating liquors on indiper and on social intercourse.-III. The false vidual happiness and welfare, and to exhibit

confidence imparted by the use of strong drink,

and its influence on speech.-IV. The effects of the baneful influence which they exercise on strong drink on the moral powers.-V. The effects the intellectual and moral powers of man, as of inebriating liquors on the intellectual faculties.

1. Mental incapacity and inaptitude to acquire well as upon his social virtues and domestic knowledge.-2. Obscurity of mental perception. enjoyments.

-3. Incorrect judgment-4. Impaired memory. Intoxicating liquors cannot be used even -VI. Examples of loose morality combined with in moderate portions, without injury.— intellectual acquirements.-VII. The influence of

intemperance on the character of literary produc- The peculiarly fascinating effect of intions. VIII. The effects of intemperance on ebriating liquor has already been a subject personal and national independence, and on the of consideration. Its approaches slow and insidious, often imperceptible,

social affections.


I. IN the next section, the injurious yet eventually potent, ensnaring, and deeffects of intoxicating liquors on national structive. How few are to be found of those character and prosperity, will be developed, who indulge even in the moderate use of and copiously illustrated. The consequences intoxicating liquors, who are prepared to of indulgence in a national point of view, are assert that they can, at any time, abandon strong and conclusive, and the proposition the habit without some physical or mental forces itself on our notice, that the aggre- struggle. Feelings of this nature are almost gate evil arises from individual example and invariably found to follow the relinquishinfluence. All disastrous national evils ment of even moderate indulgence, and exhave had their origin in practices, which, hibit conclusive evidence of the dangerous to the unreflective, appear unlikely to be character the habit has already begun to attended with injurious effects. The pro- assume. "No man," says Dr. John James, gress of vice, however, is gradual and in- of the United States, "is safe, who cannot sinuating. If its approaches at first excite without inconvenience omit for days and for either alarm or distrust, evil habits soon weeks all kinds of intoxicating drink. No acquire and retain an ascendancy, until the man is safe who cannot sleep without some

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thing generous before he goes to bed; by drank a large quantity without being matefrequent repetition a glass of wine, or a rially affected by it, and that he did not tumbler of beer, becomes dangerous. The leave off drinking wine because he could not moderate use of intoxicating liquor under- bear it, adduced this reason for his abstimines the constitution without exciting the nence-" because it is so much better for a suspicion of the victim, until reformation is man to be sure that he is never to be all but hopeless. No quantity of spirituous intoxicated, never to lose the power of liquors, however small, can with safety be himself. The same distinguished individual, taken daily, much less several times in the on one occasion, when at the dinner-table, day, with impunity. We should never taste was urged by Mrs. Hannah More (the vinous, or other fermented liquors, without company being anxious to elevate his spirits) remembering that danger lurks in every to take a little wine. His reply was, "I cup.' can't take a little, child, therefore I never Parents who indulge in the habit of touch it. Abstinence is as easy to me as moderate drinking, rarely contemplate the temperance would be difficult.' possibility of their children becoming drunk- II. Intoxicating liquors induce depression ards. Forgetful of the fact that evil habits of spirits and irritability of temper.-They are easily acquired, they introduce the wine do not, as is generally supposed, in any bottle, and inculcate the safety and pro-degree contribute to cheerfulness of mind, priety of moderate indulgence. Hence or equanimity of temper. The anitheir children gradually acquire a taste for mation produced by wine is boisterous stimulating liquors, and in innumerable and transitory, and does not confer either instances, become irreclaimable drunkards. lasting strength of intellect or mental reIt may be affirmed, without fear of con- finement. The individual, who in social tradiction, that no individual, at the com-intercourse is dependent on wine for mental mencement of his career of intemperance, cheerfulness, or power of conversation, is ever intended to become an habitual drunk- indeed a pitiable slave. Observe the conduct ard. The moderate use, however, of of such characters at their homes, where the intoxicating liquors, creates the habit, and endearing relations of domestic life ought to hosts of "moderate drinkers" ultimately be found, and you discover that the fretful ecome dissipated characters. A vast uneven temper of the debauchee, does not ariety of facts irresistibly tend to show contribute to the sweet stores of social enjoythat there is no safety in the practice of ment. Numerous examples, within the aumoderate drinking. By total abstinence thor's own observation, might be adduced, alone can permanent and effectual security if necessary, by way of illustration. be attained.


remarks of a learned divine on this subject, will be found to be verified by daily experience :-" Since I have abandoned the use of all fermented drinks, I have made the discovery that I do not get angry."

"Let us bear in mind," says Doctor Bell, "the important fact, that drunkards were at first moderate drinkers. It is moderate drinking then that begins and keeps up drunkenness. It is the belief that each man The celebrated American physician, Dr. is a competent judge in his own case of how Rush, coincides with the views just quoted. much alcoholic poison he can take with "The first effects of spirits upon the mind impunity, that leads so many to their own show themselves in the temper. I have undoing. But, still farther, moderate constantly observed men, who are intoxicated drinkers are the intermediate class between in any degree with spirits, to be peevish and those who have no love for liquor, who, if quarrelsome; after a while they lose the left to themselves would seldom or ever taste moral sense," &c.† Sir A. Carlysle, among it, and the confirmed and grossly intem- other of "the moral effects of fermented perate." The moderate or temperate (so liquors," attributes to them "the produccalled) use of inebriating liquors, forms the tion of a disturbed temper, fretful, unsteady, appetite for intemperance. The nature of or irascible." Perhaps nothing, remarks the Such liquors renders this result almost same writer, contributes so much to moral inevitable, and woeful experience testifies the equability of mind as the total abandonment fact. Artificial appetites constantly in- of strong liquors. The same author, in rease in their demands. Natural appetite his work on the Diseases of Old Age, recease their demands on gratification. To marks, "The use of wine often induces great this we may appropriately apply the words irritability of temper." of our great poet :

The precept that enjoins us abstinence,
Forbids us none but the licentious joy,
Whose fruit, though fair, tempts only to destroy.
Dr. Samuel Johnson having stated in a
conversation with Dr. Boswell, that he

* Medical Opinions. Report of New York City Temperance Society, 1830.

+ Address to the Medical Students Temperance Society of the University of Pennsylvania, 1833.

The author's personal observation has been equally decisive in regard to the uneven tempers of those who indulge even moderately in the use of intoxicating liquor. The mental and physical depression consequent

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on vinous indulgence, forms a strong pre-natural powers, but also to his extreme selfdisposing cause to this inequality of dispo-denial and temperance. The same fact may sition. These unnatural emotions, however, be observed in relation to the most disare seldom exhibited in the conduct of tinguished warriors and statesmen, both in water-drinkers. 66 'There can be no ques- ancient and modern times. tion," observes a writer of considerable Dr. James Johnson relates an instance of eminence," that water is the best and the the superiority displayed in the temper and only drink which nature has designed for cheerfulness of the water drinker over those man. The water-drinker glides tranquilly who indulge in vinous potations. Some through life, without much exhilaration or years ago, when in a large company at depression, and escapes many diseases to Prince of Wales' Island, Dr. Johnson met which otherwise he would be subject. The with a gentleman who was remarkable for wine-drinker experiences short, but vivid his flow of spirits and convivial talents. He periods of rapture, and long intervals of attributed his animation and hilarity to the gloom; he is also more subject to disease. wine, which he supposed him to have taken, The balance of enjoyment then turns de-and expected to see them flag, as is usual, cidedly in favour of the water-drinker, when the first effects of the stimulus had leaving out his temporal prosperity and passed off. Dr. Johnson, however, was future anticipations; and the nearer we keep surprised to find them maintain a uniform to his regimen, the happier we shall be."* level, after many younger heroes had bowed The observations of Dr. Trotter are to the rosy god. To use his own words, forcible and correct :-"My whole ex- he now contrived to get near to him, and perience," he affirms, "assures me that entered into a conversation, when the wine is no friend to vigor or activity of gentleman disclosed the secret, by assuring mind. It whirls the fancy beyond the him that he had drank nothing but water judgment, and leaves body and soul in a for many years in India; as a consequence, state of listless indolence and sloth. The his health was excellent-his spirits were man that, on arduous occasions, is to trust free, and his faculties were unclouded, to his own judgment, must preserve an although far advanced on Time's list; in equilibrium of mind, alike proof against short, he could conscientiously recommend contingencies as internal passion; even the the antediluvian beverage, as he called it, to physician requires this fortitude as much every one that sojourned in a tropical as any individual. He must be prompt in climate.* his decisions-bold in enterprize-fruitful in Of Dr. Barnes, a minister of considerable resources-patient under expectation-not eminence and learning, in Manchester, it is elated with success, or depressed with dis- said, "His temperance approached even to appointment. But if his spirits need a fillip abstemiousness. He never tasted any ferfrom wine, he will never conceive or execute mented or spirituous liquors; yet in the anything magnanimous or grand. In a hours of social enjoyment, none were more survey of my whole acquaintance and friends, uniformly cheerful and animated than himI find that water-drinkers possess the most equal temper and cheerful dispositions."+ Waller is described as one of the most This," says an authority of considerable celebrated wits of the day. This was no weight, we believe will be confirmed by the experience of every person."




easy reputation, as his biographer observes, for a man of seventy to sustain in such Mr. Pinkerton advocates similar views: society as composed the circle of that licenti"We have been told," says that writer, "of ous court. "The vivacity of his conversadecisive measures proposed in parliament by tion was unflagging; and while Buckingham statesmen inflated with the fumes of wine; and others indulged freely in wine, he, but as those measures must have been pre- confining himself to water, was equal to the viously digested, they bear no resemblance highest pitch of their festivity. He was the to the councils and orders of generals in the only water-drinker of that roisterous comfield, where one instant, at any hour of the pany; and Saville used to say that Ned day or night, often decides the fate of a Waller was the only man in England he campaign or a war. Mr. Pinkerton would allow to sit with him without drinkstrengthens his remark by stating that the ing." extraordinary man, at that time at the head

Dr. Samuel Johnson thus expresses him66 'Wine,"

of the French armies, was a model of the self on the subject in question. severest temperance, and that the other he remarks "gives no light, gay, ideal leaders imitated his example. Doubtless hilarity, but tumultuous, noisy, clamorous the Emperor Napoleon owed his unparal- merriment; I admit," he further observes, leled success, not only to his extraordinary" that the spirits are raised by drinking as by the common participation of any pleasure; cock-fighting or bear baiting will raise the

* Civic Life and Sedentary Habits, 1818, by Dr. James Johnson, Editor of the Medico-Chirurgical Review.

Trotter's Essay on Drunkenness, p. 186.
Ree's Encyclopedia. 1819.

*Tropical Hygiene, sect. Drink.

Pinkerton's Recollections of Paris, vol. ii., Barnes, p. 80.

p. 343.

+ Yates' Funeral Discourse on the death of Dr I Bell's Poets.

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