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during the prevalence of severe snow storms. it, they rather increase them. They add an He thus remarks :-" It was a received internal fire to the external heat of the sun; opinion all over the country, that sundry they dispose the system to fevers and inlives were lost, and a great many more flammations of the most dangerous kind ; endangered, by the administering of ardent they produce preternatural sweats which spirits to the sufferers, while in a state of weaken the frame, instead of an uniform and exhaustion.

a practice against gentle perspiration which exhilirates the which I entered my vehement protest. A body. Half the diseases which are said to little bread and sweet milk, or even a little be produced by warm weather, I am perbread and cold water, proved a much safer suaded are produced by the spirits which are restorative in the fields. Some, who took a swallowed to lessen its effects upon the glass of spirits that night, never spoke system."'* another word, even though they were con- “ Rum,” remarks Dr. Bell, “ whether tinuing to walk and converse when their used habitually, moderately, or in excessive friends found them. On the other hand, quantities, in the West Indies, always there was one woman who left her children diminishes the strength of the body, and and followed her husband's dog, who brought renders men more susceptible of disease, and her to his master, lying in a state of in- unfit for any service in which vigour or sensibility. He had fallen down bareheaded activity is required.” among the snow, and was all covered over, Dr. Mosely, in his work on Tropical save one corner of his plaid. She had diseases, thus remarks :-“I aver, from my nothing better to take with her when she set own knowledge and custom, as well as the out, than a bottle of sweet milk, and a little custom and observation of many other oatmeal cake, and yet with the help of these, people, that those who drink nothing but she so far recruited his spirits as to get him water, or make it their principal drink, are safe home, though not without long and but little affected by the climate, and can active perseverance. She took two little undergo the greatest fatigue without inconvials with her, and in these she heated the venience, and are never subject to troublemilk in her bosom. That man would not, some or dangerous diseases." in future, be disposed to laugh at the Henry Marshall, Esq., Deputy Inspector silliness of the fair sex.

General of Army Hospitals, a writer of disThese illustrations, it is presumed, are tinguished merit, who, it appears from his own sufficiently powerful, to demonstrate the in- statement, was subjected to great exertion as jurious nature of alcoholic stimulants, when well as heat in a tropical climate, observes, administered to prevent the effects of severe “ So far from being calculated to assist the cold, either as a precautionary preservative, human body in enduring fatigue, I have or as a means of restoring the system from myself marched on foot with troops in actual physical exhaustion. On the contrary, it is service, in a tropical climate whose mean seen, that they diminish and destroy that temperature is considerably higher than that vital power which nature, with astonishing of Jamaica, without any other beverage than care, nurses up for extraordinary emergencies. water, and occasionally a cup of coffee, I The most powerful preserving influence from have always found that the strongest liquors cold is best attained by the moderate use of were the most enervating, and this, in whatsuitable and nutritious food. The natural ever quantity they were consumed : for the powers of the system are thus efficiently daily use of spirits is an evil habit, which aided, and there are few physical trials, even retains its pernicious character through all of an unusually depressing description, which its gradations ; indulged in at all, it can man is not thereby enabled to encounter and produce nothing better than a diluted or

mitigated degree of mischief.'! III. The practice of indulging in the use of Sir James M'Gregor adds the following intoxicating liquors in hot climates, and important testimony, in an account which during extreme heat, from whatever circum- he gives of the march of a division of the stance it may arise, has been productive of British army in Egypt, which was sent from very injurious consequences. No more Hindostan, to co-operate with the main army decisive evidence can be found of this fact, in opposing the French, under Napoleon :than the experience of those, who have “ After crossing the great desert, in July, resided for a considerable length of time in 1801, from a difficulty in procuring carriage, the East or West Indies, and other similar no ardent spirit was issued to the troops in climates. In warm latitudes, those persons Upper Egypt. At this time, there was who refrain from the use of intoxicating much duty of fatigue, which, for want of liquors, and are content with the use of pure followers, was done by the soldiers themwater, and similar simple diluents, are not selves. The other duties were severe upon only much more free from disease, but are them ; they were frequently exercised, and enabled thereby to resist, to a greater extent, much in the sun ; the heat was excessive: the enervating influence of excessive heat. in the soldiers' tents, in the middle of the

“ It is absurd,” remarks Dr. Rush, “to suppose that spirituous liquors lessen the


* Enquiry into the effects of Spirituous Li. effects of heat upon the body. So far from

quors, &c.

day, the mercury in the thermometer of temperance in a hot one.-The natives of Farenheit, stood at from 114° to 118°, but India suffer not from diseased liver. The at no time was the Indian army in so Egyptians are seldom attacked with the healthy a state.”

bilious and other fevers prevalent among the Dr. Corbyn states, that he resided twenty Pranks. In fact, the diseases from which years in India, eleven of which he had passed we suffer in the East, are attributable in under canvass, and, in consequence, is most cases to our own excesses. In all warm acquainted with the difference which exists climates the digestion of strangers becomes between European and Sepoy regiments. more or less impaired, the tone of the The Sepoys worked night and day, and, at stomach, as well as of the whole system is this period drank only water. The Euro-relaxed. It is in vain to seek to invigorate peans, on the contrary, indulged freely in by stimulants, or to restore strength by the intoxicating liquors. As a proof, however, most nutritious diet: the digestion is now that they can do much better without them, unequal to it and the quantity of animal Dr. Corbyn alludes to the custom of kegging food should be considerably decreased."* in India, that is, the men make vows that A recent traveller, whose writings are well they will not drink for a year together. known to the public, thus remarks in favour During this time they are remarked as being of temperance :-"I eat moderately, and the finest men in the regiment.

never drink wine, spirits, or fermented Dr. James Johnson, who, from his exten- liquors in any climate. This abstemiousness sive experience as a physician, and from his has ever proved a faithful friend ; it carried residence in the East Indies, is well qualified me triumphant through the epidemic at to express an opinion on this subject, Malaga, where death made such havoc about remarks :-—"The grand secret, or funda- the beginning of the present century; and it mental rule, for preserving health in hot has since befriended me in many a fit of countries, is, ' to keep the body cool.'“I sickness, brought on by exposure to the have,” he further remarks, “alluded to the noonday sun, to the dew of the night, to the strong sympathy that subsists between the pelting showers, and unwholesome food." skin and several internal organs, as the An illustration similar in its character is stomach, liver, and bowels ; on this princi- found in Keppel's Travels :-" Though ample, common sense alone would point out the ply provided with spirits and all professing propriety of avoiding heating and stimulating allegiance to the bottle, we tried to content drink, for the same reason that we endea- ourselves with water, an experiment which vour to guard against the high temperature we found to answer so well, that while of the climate. In short,” remarks this actually on the road, we entirely abstained distinguished writer,

we from drinking any thing else. To this approach to a perfectly aqueous regimen in circumstance we alone attribute our health, drink, during the first year, at least of our during our long and fatiguing journey."# residence in a hot climate, so much the The testimony of Mr. Hoskins is equally better chance have we of avoiding sickness, conclusive. Well supplied,” he remarks, and the more slowly and gradually we“ with rice, good biscuit, and meat, the deviate from this afterwards, so much the traveller may live tolerably well, even in the more retentive will we be of that invaluable deserts. Since I left Thebes, four months blessing-health.”

and a half ago, I have passed two deserts of “The delusion which has led to the use eight days journey each, and many small of vinous and spirituous potations in hot ones, and have generally been in a miserable climates, is kept up chiefly by this circum- country, yet I have only been one day withstance, that their bad effects are, in reality, out fresh meat, and that by accident. To not so conspicuous as one would expect : court privations is as great folly as to fear they rather predispose to, and aggravate the them when they arrive, and not to submit to various causes of disease resulting from them cheerfully when requisite. I am cer. climate, than produce direct indisposition tain that wine and spirituous liquors are themselves ; consequently superficial obser- injurious in this climate. During the whole vation places their effects to the account of of this journey water has been my only other agents.”

beverage ; and, on the whole, I have enjoyed “ Too often,” says Dr. Madden, “to very tolerable health, considering the excesbanish care, the bottle is had recourse to, sive heat, and the many annoyances and as if vigour was to be found in a stimulus delays, still more injurious in this climate which is succeeded by exhaustion. All the than the fatiguing pace of the camel.”'ll English artizans, who first entered the ser- Dr. Jackson, who travelled 118 miles in vice of Mohammed Ali, have fallen victims to the climate, or rather to their intemper- * Travels in Turkey, Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine,

Travellers may not carry intenc per- in 1824-5-6-7, by R. D. Madden, M.D., vol. i. p. ance to this extent, but they generally wish

+ Waterton's Wanderings in South America, to live as they did at home, to eat the same p. 159, Ed. 1836. quantity of food, and to drink the same Voyage up the Tigris from Bussorah to Bagdad, quantity of wine ; but they must learn that

" the



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272. Ed. 1833.

|| Hoskir's Travels in Ethiopia, Meroe, &c., 1835. what is moderation in a cold climate, is in

in 1820.

p. 28)

Jamaica in four days, and carried at the The German soldiers of the 60th, when I same time baggage equal in weight to the was in the West Indies, of their own accord, common knapsack of a soldier, says :-" In ate, instead of drank, their subsistence the journey which I have just now men- money, and they were greatly healthier than tioned, I probably owe my escape from the British. The drink of the ancient Rosickness to temperance and spare diet. I mans, while serving in the field, was vinegar breakfasted on tea about ten in the morning, and water. On that drink their warriors and made a meal on bread and sallad after I conquered the world ; and, at one time, the had taken up my lodging for the night. If more modern Turks were not very far from I had occasion to drink through the day, accomplishing the same on coffee and sherwater or lemonade was my beverage,” and bet. It is a safe and good rule of health, again, in conclusion," I have introduced my for every one, in all climates, to observe as own experience on the present occasion, dry a diet as their constitution will permit; because it enables me to speak from convic- and the custom of constant drinking, becanse tion, that an English soldier may be ren- the weather is hot, is a most dangerous one; dered capable of going through the severest for the swilling, even of cold water, will premilitary service in the West Indies, and that sently become a habit, and at last a passion, temperance will be one of the best means of from indulgence." enabling him to perform his duty with safety The above illustrations necessarily lead us and effect.

to the conclusion, that intoxicating liquors, Dr. Magrath, of Jamaica, attributes" a are not only not required in tropical climates, great deal of the mortality that occurs in that but are absolutely pernicious, and the most country to the intemperate use of fermented fruitful sources of the disease and mortality, liquors.” His notions of intemperance are which so generally attends the residence of as follows :-" If after taking stimulants, Europeans in those countries. This, no (no matter how small the quantity,) the doubt, arises from a want of due consideraperson feels heated and restless, unless some tion, in regard to the change of diet reother very evident cause can be assigned, he quired on removal to latitudes of this may be assured he has committed an excess, description ; and hence, the same freedom and should accordingly take warning.” has been indulged in regard to food and Again, says this physician, The generality stimulating liquors, as had been practised in of the people would do better by abstaining an atmosphere of a much colder character. altogether from spirit, wine, and malt Hence, also, the rapid inroads which disease liquors.” In reference to the popular pre- makes in tropical climates, on its unfortujudice against water in those climates, Dr. nate victims, and in particular, such diseases Magrath utters the following sensible as originate in the use of intoxicating liquors. remarks :-“ Most persons on their arrival Among this class, none are of more common in the country are told, and believe, that pure occurrence than diseases of the liver. It has water is a deadly poison, and that it is abso- been remarked, that diseases of the liver and lutely necessary to qualify it with a little visceral organs, are more frequent in occur. spirits ; this they do at first with reluctance, rence, and more severe in their character, in but the thirst being excited rather than proportion to the greater or less indulgence allayed by it, they are soon reconciled by use of mankind in the use of intoxicating liquors. to the mixture, and in a short time numbers For this cause, the natives of the more tembecome regular grog-drinkers. That a copious perate parts of the globe, are less subject to draught of cold water may produce injurious these severe scourges of the human race. effects if taken by a person exhausted by Hence, remarks Lady Morgan, “the very fatigue is well known, but unfortunately it is trifling abuse of spirituous liquors which seldom to be procured even sufficiently cool, occurs in France, and the little intercourse and during the twenty years that I have which subsists between that country and the been in the Island, I have never known a West Indies, very much exempt the inhabi. single instance in which it caused mischief or tants from that class of liver complaints, even inconvenience."'*

which are so abundant in England, and Dr. W. Ferguson, Inspector General of which, masked under various insidious forms, Army Hospitals, in an article in the January extend to a vast many different complications Number of the United Service Journal, of disease. The same abstinence also opesays, a certain portion of the soldier's pay, rates to simplify fever, and to render its called subsistence-money, (it used to be ten- connexion with visceral obstructions, less pence a day,) has been allotted by the common and less violent.” country, for the express purpose of his A remarkable instance of the benefit maintenance; but we have fed him and derived from abstinence in warm climates, is made him a present in former times of the related in a work recently published. “A whole, and now, I believe, of somewhat great number of British officers, who sur. apove half of this, to poison himself with ; rendered with General Mathews, and who and most faithfully as he fulfilled the condi- were taken in action with Hyder Ali and his tion, for he has invariably spent it in rum. son, were long kept in the dungeons of



* Jamaica Physical Journal.

* Morgan's France.



Seringapatam,* and it is a curious fact, that are annually engaged for a considerable they returned to the army in perfect health; period. Some recent experiments, however,

all they had to live upon, was a hand- on a large scale, completely demonstrate the ful of rice each, every day, and a little water. fallacy of this delusion. Great numbers of It appears, that when these officers were men labour during the heat of harvest days, captured, many of them laboured under liver assuaging their thirst with nothing stronger complaints, and had also received severe than water, and unanimously testify to the wounds; yet, upon getting back to their superiority of the practice. Dr. Beddoes long regiments, after years of confinement in a ago exposed this delusion, in an interesting dungeon, living all the time on rice and pamphlet, which he published on the subject. water, they found themselves high in rank He remarks, that “the opinion of those who by the death of their brethren, who had been have never endured the labour of the harvest, cheering themselves with good old madeira, without indulging freely in the use of intoxiclaret, champagne, brandy, together with all cating liquors, and, who consequently, know the variety of a groaning table.”'of

little or nothing of the sober side of the A similar instance of the beneficial con- question, cannot reasonably be considered as sequences derived from abstinence, is related of much value.” "The cooler sorts of by Dr. Farre. That physician was once liquor must,'' he remarks, “ undoubtedly be consulted by a master and commander of a tried, before it can be determined which of British merchantman, who was carried into the two is the most suitable to the case ; and Algiers, previous to the chastisement of the I trust I shall go far towards convincing Algerines by Lord Exmouth. The Dey of every thinking reader, and it may stagger Algiers had him immediately stripped naked the most obstinate, if I show that the hardest and chained to another British prisoner, and out of doors summer work, is in some places then placed on the public works, from four perfectly well borne without a single drop in the morning, until four in the afternoon; of strong fermented liquor; and, in others, after which time, he was turned into a cell but very little:”—and also proceeds to state, with his naked companion, until the recom- that he will establish another “most importmencement of his laborious employment. ant point, namely, that in situations like By his side in the cell was placed a pitcher that of our harvest men, and even of water, and a loaf of black bread. Dr. Farre trying, a cool regimen is not only the best, inquired of him, whether he could eat it; but the only properone. After commenting “Oh, yes; it was very sweet, indeed." on the large quantities of drink used by this What did it consist of! “It was made of class of men, Dr. Beddoes goes on to say, the black wheat of Africa, and the vegetable "That the drink of one day, exhausts probably locust; but it was appetite gave it sweetness. more than the sober exertions of three; Now, says Dr. Farre, it is remarkable, that though without such a help, a hot sun, and this man was a prisoner for nine months, a long day's hard labour, are sure to produce while he was fed on one pound of bread and fever enough. This fever should never be a pitcher of water per diem, and had to per- fermented by such things as drive on the form hard work under such a tyrant, and to heart to beat with fresh tury, though, in so my question, did you enjoy health? “Perfect doing, they may give the spirits a momentary health, I had not a day's illness. I was as excitement; it ought, on the contrary, to lean as I could be, but I was perfectly well." be kept down by thin diluting drinks." When he was set at liberty, concludes Dr.“ In some of the hotter countries of Europe, Farre, and he returned to British fare, then where, by our Gloucestershire rule, they he had to consult me as a physician. I ought not to touch anything weaker han

“Dr. Berwick, tells us, in the Life of his gin itself; they do well, notwithstanding, Brother, who, in the civil wars, had for many on vinegar and water, for harvest drivk.” years been confined in a low room in the Before Somersetshire became a great apple Tower, during the usurpation; that at the country, persons who must know and cannot time of his going in, he was under a pthisis design to mislead, assure me, that a pint of atrophy, and dyscacy, and lived on bread and ale a day, was the harvest allowance for a water only, several years there; and yet man. This pint was taken sip by sip, percame out at the restoration, sleek, plump, haps not above a wine glass at a time. and gay.”||

Accordingly, it is attested to me, that in The notion that stimulating liquors those days, Somersetshire labourers did not

necessary support the body in the morning, turn out pale and shaking under great fatigue, in hot weather, is like ghosts, at the crowing of the cock, as very generally entertained in our own country. they now do, and were not liable to the In this description may be included the harvest surfeit. What they took to assuage harvest labour, in which so many thousands thirst, beside their pint of ale, was simple

water. * Chittledroog.

Doctor Beddoes then gives it as his de+ " Forty Years in the World,” by the Author of cided opinion, that strong drinks “are not Sketches in India.

in the smailest quantity necessary for givI Parliamentary Evidence, p. 140.

i Dr. Cheyne's Method of Cure in the Diseases of ing support, under the severest' exertion, the Body and the Mind, p. 211.

whether in the fields, or in the workshop;'



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and as a proof of the latter, furnishes us was generally good, as they said, but the with an interesting trial made by some men, wages being high, they soon retired from employed in one of the great iron works at labour, and then grew very fat, as might have Woolwich :- :-" A single individual prevailed been expected.''* The same plan is purupon his companions, to make the experi- sued at Bedlington iron works, near Newment of milk, as a substitute for porter. castle. No spirituous or malt liquor is ever The result has proved it to be the best allowed to the men at their work. Water means of quenching the violence of thirst, is their sole beverage, even while exposed to and securing them from the feverish heat the most severe heat. The result is equally produced by the immoderate use of fermented decisive. liquors. They have persevered in this simple Dr. Mussey, President of the New and wholesome beverage, with an evident Hampshire Medical Society, received the benefit to their health, and with an increased following information from a commercial ability of exertion." The above fact is friend in Massachusetts. “ I visited,” says related on the authority of Mr. Curwin, he, “ four or five years since, in New of Cumberland, an eminent agricultural Jersey, an iron foundry belonging to Mr. writer of that day, who gives another in- Wood, of Philadelphia. I think there were stance at Workington, the place of his resi. thirty or forty men employed in the dence, in which milk had been introduced establishment, and all they drank was pure in the place of beer, with the happiest re- spring water. I saw them often while sults. • They have given up small-beer in lading out the hot metal, and sweating at its favour; and there has been a great every pore, take a mug, run to the spring, diminution in the quantities made at the and drink very freely of the water.

I breweries."'*

enquired if they did not feel any ill effects “ The hardest work which falls to the lot of from drinking so much cold water. They man,” remarks Mr. Jesse, in his Gleanings answered, No. The furnace went into of Natural History, “is that done at the iron blast in April, and continued till October. foundries," and yet, “ so well do the la- All those employed had the best of health bourers in this department know that they during the whole season, and returned to cannot perform it if they drink even beer, their friends in the autumn with better that their sole beverage during all the hours health and fuller purses than they ever had of this hot and heavy labour is water. before."

Some equally strong facts are adduced by Mr. Buckingham relates an anecdote of Dr. Cheyne, of Dublin.

" I had once,

Dr. Beddoes, which corroborates the above remarks that physician, “ the opportunity statements. On enquiry, Dr. Beddoes of inquiring into the habits of the workmen ascertained that the hardest working men of a large glass factory; they generally were those employed in forging ship anchors, wrought for twenty-four or thirty-six hours at Portsmouth. They were at the same at a time, according as the furnace continued time exposed to great alternations of heat in a proper state, and I found, during this and cold, and were in a constant state of time, which was technically called a journey, excitement and perspiration. Their emthat to supply the waste caused by perspira- ployers allowed them an unlimited supply tion, they drank a large quantity of water, of strong beer. Dr. Beddoes proposed to in the quality of which, they were very the men that six of them should drink only curious : it was the purest and softest water water for one week, and that six others in the district, and was brought from a should continue their usual allowance of distance of three miles. There were three beer. The men, amazed at this proposition, men out of more than one hundred, who exclaimed, "Why you want to kill us! drank nothing but water, the rest drank Do you for a moment suppose it possible porter or ardent spirits ; the three water that we can endure such fatigue--that we drinkers appeared to be of their proper age, can weld a ship's anchor, and drink only while the rest, with scarcely an exception, water? You must surely intend to kill us.' seemed ten or twelve years older than they “ No:” said the doctor, “ I have no such proved to be.”'t

wish or intention. I am a physician, and A friend of Dr. Cheyne's, in a letter ad- shall be careful to watch the progress, so dressed to that physician, adds the following that no injury shall ensue to you.

I will corroborative testimony : Many years put down £50. Try water for one week, ago, I was told by the men who attended if you succeed the £50 is yours ; if not, I the furnaces the iron works Merthyr shall put it back into my pocket.” The Tydvil, in Glamorganshire, that they drank men agreed to make the experiment. The only water, while engaged in their work at two sets of men were pretty much alike the furnaces, the intense heat of which pro- during the first day of the trial, the second duced violent perspiration. Their health day the water drinkers complained less of

fatigue than the others; the third day the

difference was more apparent in favour of * Good advice for the Husbandmen in Harvest, the water drinkers; the fourth and fifth and for all those who labour in Hot-berths, &c., by Dr. Beddoes, Bristol, 1808.

# Letter on the Effects of Wine and Spirits, p. 5.) * Ibid, Appendix.


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