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myself in a certain condition, which I can brave troops, denied himself, from a very only describe by saying, that I felt no early period of his life, the use of all inexertion could kill me, although I constantly toxicating liquors. Bolivar, who was capable arrived so completely exhausted, that I could of enduring great fatigue, and was, morenot speak, yet a few hours sleep on my sad- over, a horseman of unusual boldness, was dle, or on the ground, always so completely extremely abstemious. General Elliot, (afterrestored me, that for a week I could daily wards Lord Heathfield,) is said to have be upon my horse before sunrise, could ride been the most abstemious man of his age. till two or three hours after sunset, and have He never indulged in any kind of intoxicatreally tired out ten or twelve horses. This ing liquor, and by his temperate habits will explain the immense distances which acquired such hardiness of body, as rendered people in South America are said to ride, undertakings which would be to others of which I am confident could only be done on much difficulty, to him not only easy of acbeef and water."*

complishment, but healthful and agreeable. The fallacious notion that the fatigue of Of Don Pedro, Colonel Hodges, in his recent travelling is lessened by the use of wine, is publication thus speaks, “ I must notice his completely disproved, by a trial of the extreme temperance, He never takes wine, contrary practice. “ The delusion of this water is his usual beverage; even coffee he practice," remarks Dr. Cheyne, of Dublin, abstains from. Health the most vigorous, “ I was first led to suspect, by the result of and uninterrupted, is the almost necessary a long journey which I once made in the consequence of his mode of living: His mail coach, while in a state of great anxiety. strength of muscle is very considerable, and I travelled nearly 700 miles, almost without he takes no small delight in lifting and carrystopping, having been five nights out of six ing heavy weights, and performing other in the coach, during which time, I could not similar feats, to prove his bodily powers." have slept half as much as usual, and the Brindley, the celebrated engineer, obsleep Iobtained was unsound and interrupted. served, in the various public works in which During the whole time, I lived chiefly on he was engaged, where the workmen were bread and tea, with a small portion of animal paid by the piece, and each man consequently food once a day. I drank no malt liquor, exerted himself to earn as much as possible, wine, or spirits. At the end of my expedi- those from the North of Lancashire and tion I was scarcely more exhausted than Yorkshire, who partook of their customary when I set out. During the journey I had fare,—oat cake and hasty pudding, with several opportunities of seeing persons who water for their drink, sustained more exergorged themselves two or three times a day, tion and obtained greater wages than others and guzzled as much as the time while the who lived on bread, cheese, bacon, and beer, carriage halted, would permit them to do, the usual diet of the labourers of the South. completely worn out by journeying for one A volume might be filled with illustrations or two nights.”+

of a similar character. They most decidedly Dr. Carrick, Senior Physician to the show that alcoholic stimulants are not neBristol Infirmary, says, “ There are whole cessary to attain the greatest amount of nations where spirituous or fermented drinks animal strength, or to enable men to sustain are unknown or unused; yet in these nations the greatest portion of corporeal fatigue. there are laborious occupations, and strong II. A very popular and deep-rooted notion and healthy people: an irresistible proof,'obtains, that mankind cannot exist in a state that such liquors are not necessary to man. of health, in cold climates, and during Although the smith, the glass-blower, or extreme cold, without the use and aid of the coal-heaver may be able to do more intoxicating liquors.

66 There cannot be a work in a short time by the force of liquor, greater error, observes Dr. Rush, “than he would be able to work more hours in the to suppose that spirituous liquors lessen the day, and more days in the year without it; effects of cold on the body. On the conwould have done more work by the end of trary, they always render the body more the year, and certainly would live many liable to be affected and injured by cold. more years to work; and not only live, but The temporary warmth they produce is live in the enjoyment of comparative health, always succeeded by chilliness.f Intoxicatwealth, and comfort."

ing liquors produce only a temporary Almost all of our modern warriors cele- stimulus, which is quickly succeeded by brated in the pages of history, found that by animal depression. They cannot, therefore, abstinence from intoxicating liquors aloně, impart any permanently beneficial influence, they were enabled to undergo the vast “ Not a more dangerous opinion exists,” reamount of labour which they were called marks a British General Officer, “ than the upon to perform. Charles XII., King of notion that the habitual use of spirituous Sweden, who endured bodily exertion almost liquors prevents the effects of cold." superhuman in its character, under circum- One of their first effects, indeed, is to stances which destroyed thousands of his deprive the system of that self-resisting

* Rough Notes taken during some rapid Journies * Expedition to Portugal, by Col. Hodges. across the Pampas, and among the Andes, p. 29. + Inquiry into the effects of Spirituous Liquors

† Letter on the effects of Wine and Spirits, p. 7. by B. Rush, M.D.


power with which nature has endowed it for at the ship, after an absence of nearly nine extraordinary occasions.

days, and found everything right, and all in A number of interesting facts have of late good health. If it is but justice to the men years come to light in relation to this im- to say that they exerted themselves to the portant question, which demonstrate in the utmost, they deserve even more praise for a most indisputable manner, the positive in- very different display of obedience and selfjury which arises from the use of stimulating devotedness. As I was the only person who liquors in northern latitudes.

drank no spirits, and was the only person Dr. Aikin was one of the writers who first who had not inflamed eyes, I

represented attempted to draw the attention of the that the use of grog was the cause, and public to this fatal delusion. He details therefore proposed that they should abandon several striking examples of unsuccessful this indulgence; showing, further, that alvoyages made to the high northern latitudes though I was very much the oldest of the the failure of which, he distinctly shows, was party, I bore fatigue better than any of principally to be attributed to the free use them. There was no hesitation in acquiesof ardent spirits. On the contrary, he cing; and the merit was the greater, since, found that in those cases where the men independently of the surrender of a seaman's drank nothing but water, they were best fixed habits, ihey had always considered this enabled to endure the vicissitudes of cold and the chief part of their support. Thus we wet, and were successful in their expedition.* brought back all of this stock which had not

The Rev. Dr. Scoresby, vicar of Bradford, been consumed the first day.” was for many years a resident in the high “ It is difficult to persuade men, even northern latitudes. The following is the though they should not be habitual drinkers result of his experience, as stated in his ex- of spirits, that the use of these liquors is amination before the Committee of the debilitating instead of the reverse. The House of Commons, in 1834:7 “My immediate stimulus gives a temporary principal experience has been in severely courage, and its effect is mistaken for an cold climates, and there it is observable, infusion of new strength; but the slightest that there is a very pernicious effect in the attention will show how exactly the result is reaction, after the use of ardent spirits.” “I the reverse. It is sufficient to give men did not use them myself, and I was better, under hard and steady labour, a draught of I conceive, without the use of them.” “ 1 the usual grog, or a dram, to perceive that, am well assured that such beverages as tea often in a few minutes, they become languid, or coifee, or I doubt not, milk and water, are and, as they generally term it, faint; losing in every way superior, both for comfort and their strength in reality, while they attribute health, for persons exposed to the weather, that to the continuance of the fatiguing exor other severity--spirits are decidedly in- ertions. He who will make the correspondjurious in cold climates. The men who ing experiments on two equal boats' crews, have been assisted by such stimulus, have rowing in a heavy sea, will soon be conbeen the first who were rendered incapable vinced that the water drinkers will far of duty. They became perfectly stupid, out-do the others.”* skulked into different parts of the ship to November 26th, 1831, Captain Ross, get out of the way, and were generally found after surveying a number of experiments, asleep." “ In the case of a storm, or adopted with a view of preserving the health sudden difficulty, I should most decidedly of the men during their protracted and severe prefer the water drinkers to those who were exposure to cold, of from 50° to 80° below under the influence of any stimulant. The the freezing point, says, page 616, “ Yet, latter are unspeakably more liable to acci- if I still add the restriction at first in the dents."

use of spirits, and at length the final abanSir John Ross, also from personal ex-donment of this false and pernicious stiperience, arrives at the same conclusion. mulus, I have little doubt that I thus cast When in the arctic regions, and subjected off one of the causes, which, if it may not to severe labour, he proposed to his men absolutely generate scurvy, materially as(having previously tried, with success, the sists others in the production of that disexperiment upon himself,) that they should ease.”* abandon the use of spirituous liquors; which The writer of a publication of great was done with the most gratifying results. weight, after narrating the results of a Previous to this event, Sir John Ross en-number of attempts to winter in the Arctic gaged in an overland expedition, through dif- Regions, observes :—“ The three principal ficultins of the most formidable description. circumstances which distinguish the fatal The men suffered from inflamed eyes, a com- attempts from those which succeeded, are, mon occurrence to the party when exposed to that in the former instances, the men fed on the snow and heavy wind. June 7th, 1830, salt provisions, drank spirituous liquors, Captain Ross remarks, “At seven we arrived and lived in indolence; whereas the men

who survived the winter, and were but

slightly affected by, or altogether escaped * Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. i. + Parliamentary Evidence, pp. 488, &c.

* Sir John Ross's Arctic Expedition.


the scurvy, fed upon fresh animal food, or Dr. Mitchel, in reference to facts respectat least preserved without salt; they drank ing ships crews wintering in icy regions, water only, and used much exercise. On observes :-“That in all the frequent at. the value of fresh meat and exercise as tempts to sustain the intense cold of winter preventives of disease, it is unnecessary to in the arctic regions, particularly in Hudson's comment. With respect to the use of Bay, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, those spirituous liquors, the preceding facts are crews or companies which had been well extremely important and satisfactory. These supplied with provisions and liquors, and pernicious liquors, indeed, are now generally enabled thereby to indulge in indolence and understood to be prejudicial, during severe free drinking, have generally perished; and continued cold, although they may while at the same time, the greatest number afford some support against the temporary of survivers have been uniformly found effects of cold and moisture. The brief among those who were accidentlly thrown elevation of spirits which they produce is a upon the inhospitable shores ; destitute of very fallacious token of their good effects, food and spirituous liquors, compelled to as it is always succeeded by the greater maintain an incessant struggle against the depression, and therefore tends rather to rigours of the climate in procuring food, exhaust than to invigorate the principle of and obliged to use water alone as a drink.'

Numerous examples might be adduced to The Rev. Richard Knill, Missionary at show that these injurious results do not, as is St. Petersburgh, states, that the Russians generally supposed, altogether arise from have found by experience, that ardent spirits the excessive use of spirituous liquors. The are exceedingly injurious to soldiers, when following instance is convincing, and to the exposed to severe cold. When a regiment is point: A brig from Russia, laden with iron, about to march in the winter season, orders ran aground upon a sand bank near Newport are invariably given, that on the previous Island, North America. The master was day no soldier shall be allowed to take the desirous to unload and get her off; the smallest quantity of spirits. Mr. Knill weather, however, was extremly cold, and further states, that during the war with none could be found to undertake the task, Poland, he saw a regiment assembled in the as the vessel was at a distance from the morning, and before marching, the corporal shore, covered with ice, and exposed to the smelt the breath of each man; and the few full effect of the wind and cold. An indi. who had taken spirits were directly turned (vidual, a packet master of Newport, who out of the ranks, as the cold would most abstained from the use of spirituous liquors, certainly prove fatal to them.

at length engaged to unload the brig, and In 1619, the crew of a Danish ship of procure his men to do the work. Six men sixty men, well supplied with provision and were employed in the hold, which (the ardent spirit, attempted to pass the winter vessel being bilged,) was full of water. They at Hudson's Bay, but fifty-eight of them began the work with the free, but temdied before the spring, while in the case of perate use, of ardent spirit, supposing they an English crew of twenty-two men, in the would need it then, if ever. But after two same circumstances, but destitute of distilled hours' labour, they all gave out, chilled spirit, only two died. In another instance, through. After having refreshed and warmed of eight English men, also without spirituous themselves, they proceeded to make a second liquors, who wintered in the same bay, the attempt, but at this time used cider only whole survived, and returned to England; during the day. After this experiment, and four Russians left without ardent spirits they succeeded better, but still suffered or provisions, in Spitsbergen, lived for a much from the effects of cold. On the period of six years, and were also at length second day, the men consented to follow restored to their country. In the winter of the directions of their employer, and drank 1796, a vessel was wrecked on an island off nothing but milk porridge, made rich, and the coast of Massachusets; there were taken as hot as the stomach would bear it. seven persons on board; it was night, five Although the weather was equally as severe of them resolved to quit the wreck, and seek as before, they were, after this change in shelter on shore. To prepare for the attempt, their diet, enabled to continue their work four of them drank freely of spirits, the from four to seven hours at a time, and then fifth would drink none. They all leaped came up from it not at all chilled. With into the water, one was drowned before this simple beverage handed round every he reached the shore; the other four came half-hour, they continued their work from to land, and, in a deep snow and piercing day to day, with not one drop of intoxicating cold, directed their course to a distant light. liquor, until the iron was all handed out, and All that drank spirits failed, stopped, and brought on shore. Not one of them had a froze, one after another; the man that drank finger frozen. none reached the house, and about two A sea-captain of Boston, Massachussets, years ago was still alive.”'t

informed Dr. Mussey, that on a memorable

cold Friday, in the year 1816, he was on * Rees' Encyclopædia, article “Cold.'

the homeward passage off the American + Essay by a Medical Practitioner, Glasgow. coast not far from the latitude of Boston. The next extract is made from the account * Scottish Temperance Record, vol. ij. p.

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Much ice made upon the ship, and every of the wreck of the Medusa, published in person on board was more or less frozen' 1816. “They (the only four men who were with the exception of two individuals, who left on the wreck) lived in separate corners were the only two on board the vessel that of the vessel, which they never quitted but drank no spirit.

to procure food; and this consisted only of “The brig Globe, Captain Moore,” states tallow and a little bacon. If, on these the anniversary Report of the Pennsylvania occasions, they accidentally met, they used Temperance Society for 1831, “has lately to run at each other with drawn knives, so returned from a voyage to the Pacific Ocean. completely had selfishness and ferocity She had on board a crew of ten persons, and stifled that sympathy which fellow sufferers was absent nearly eighteen months. She are generally disposed to feel to each other. was, during the voyage, in nearly all the It is a remarkable fact, that as long as these climates of the world ; had not one person men abstained from strong liquor, they sick on board, and brought the crew all back were able to support the hardships of their orderly and obedient. All these advantages situation in a surprising manner; but when Captain Moore attributes, in a great measure, they began to drink brandy, their strength to the absence of spirituous liquors. There daily and rapidly diminished.” was not one drop used in all that time: It is well known that in the disastrous indeed, there was

board the retreat of Napoleon's army, during the vessel.

Russian campaign, scarcely one of those The following extract is made from a escaped death who indulged in ardent spirits. statement in the European Magazine, and Count de Quirkville, of Normandy, one of London Review for November, 1811.- the few officers of the royal legion, who “Having passed the greater part of fourteen survived that expedition, states, that he winters in the district of Maine, in the attributes his fortunate escape, in a great latitude of 44° north, where Fahrenheit's measure, to his never having drunk any thermometer has been known 36° below spirits during the retreat, but only water.* Zero, and where a person engaged in any Fortunate, indeed, would it have been for active pursuit, must frequently, in the thousands, who fell victims to that me. course of every winter, be exposed to cold, lancholy expedition, had they pursued the greater than 20° below Zero.

Under such same plan. circumstances, all prudent people abstain Barron Larrey informs us that during this from the use of ardent spirits, and make memorable retreat, the Germans, Dutch, great use of coffee, it being the general and other soldiers from the North, who incustom in travelling (which is almost always dulged in the use of ardent spirits, sunk in open sledges) to have coffee as a beverage under the effects of cold almost in batallions, for dinner, instead of any other; and the while their more temperate associates from effect I have always heard attributed to it, the South, who continued their accustomed and which it certainly had on myself, is, to abstemious habits, almost altogether escaped produce a general glow over the whole the fate of their less prudent comrades. surface of the body, which lasts for a con- Dr. Cheyne, whose medical skill and acsiderable time; while the effect of spirituous curacy as a writer, renders it the more liquors, under the same temperature, only valuable, relates the following fact :produces a sensation of heat in the mouth, “Many years ago, in the county of Galway, throat, and stomach; which, by destroying two extensive graziers met at dinner, when, the equilibrium of the system, renders the upon a discussion taking place between them, effect of cold much more sensible on the respecting the best method of enabling their extremities. That this is the effect of herdsmen to endure the cold, watching, and spirituous liquors, too many fatal instances fatigue, to which they were exposed in can be adduced ; one of which fell under my driving cattle to Ballinasloe, it was resolved own observation, and in which I was con- upon by one of the graziers that he would cerned as a witness.

supply his herdsmen with abundance of good “ Twenty-five persons volunteered their and wholesome food, but give them only services to cut a vessel out of the ice, in an water to drink : while the other determined exceedingly severe winter night. At day- he would give his men an abundant supply light, only nine were able to persevere in the of whiskey. Accordingly, the two sorts of attempt; and, on enquiry, it appeared that berdsmen set off, at the same time, to the none of these had tasted spirits. All the October fair at Ballinasloe. They were all rest bad, in a greater or less degree, made able-bodied young men, of similar habits ; use of them; and had there not been in the journey which they had to perform was habited buildings near where they were of the same length, the fatigue the same; employed, several must have perished. the weather was wet and inclement; they Those who had abstained, took a breakfast were all drenched with wet, and obliged to of strong hot coffee, and with that meal only sit up all the night in their soaked garments. completed a severe exertion of twenty-four On carefully contrasting the water-drinkers hours, wet the whole time, and exposed to with the whiskey-drinkers, the result was a degree of cold much below Zero."


decidedly in favour of the former, who were occasionally, but very rarely, a sixpenny in full vigour, had never quitted their posts, glass of white wine and water; supper, conand bore up well to the last; while the sisting of tea or gruel, and bread and butter. others were so completely exhausted, that I suppose there is not a man in England can during part of the time at the fair they were enjoy better health than I do. I am always useless, and on their return home were cheerful. I never found myself so strong scarcely able to drag one leg after the as since ! adopted this course, nor so comother."

fortable in all respects. I commenced it on The same results have been found to my marriage, above eight years ago, and attend similar experiments in our own have never had cause to repent. I had, country. Coachmen, who travel both by before that time, been accustomed to live day and night, during the most severe frosts rather freely. I calculated that I spent, on of winter, are enabled the better to with the average (and believe that a great prostand the effects of cold, by entirely abstain - portion of guards and coachmen do the same, ing from all kinds of alcoholic stimulants, and many spend more,) three shillings a day and partaking only of tea, coffee, or simple for drink. Since I have adopted my present water, Several instances of this kind, are, plan, I have a box in my bed-room, of which at the present period, to be found in I consider the contents to be devoted to my Lancashire, and, indeed, in many parts of children, as their money. Into this, every the United Kingdom. These individuals night I drop three shillings, always saying, unanimously add their testimony to the Three glasses of brandy and water.' The safety and benefit of the practice. During amount of three glasses of brandy and water, the very severe frost which happened about at the year's end, I find to be exactly fiftythe commencement of the present century, four pounds fifteen shillings. I live in an the hackney coachmen of London suffered exceedingly comfortable house. I have the exceedingly from the practice of indulging happiest home that ever blessed man, and in the use of ardent spirits ; many, indeed, my wife and children always know, when I died, in consequence of dram-drinking. return home from my journey, who is Those, however, who resorted to the use of coming; I come home always the same, not tea, which was done in a few cases, not only one night sober, another stupified and cross, weathered the cold, but acquired health and and another noisy and drunken.

I always activity from their regimen.*

rise to a moment with ease, without being The Rev. Dr. Molesworth, vicar of called, at six in the morning. I mind my Rochdale, in his interesting popular period- business, and I find that the way I live is ical, the “ Penny Sunday Reader, tells us both pleasant and advantageous. My wife that on one occasion he, when travelling, and family like it, my employers like it, happened to be on the coach-box, and observed the public like it, and I like it myself. It the manly, independent, quiet, and sensible has kept me in health of body, peace of bearing of the coachman--a man apparently mind, and continual cheerfulness and between thirty and forty years of age. He content." was struck with the exact punctuality with A few days after this, Dr. Molesworth, which he kept his time at each stage-not a in conversation, was told the following minute before or after. Dr. Molesworth anecdote :also noticed, that with steady driving they You know, Sir, the driver the fourpassed several other coaches, while their horse baggage-van?” We replied that we drivers were in at the road-side public- had oftentimes observed him, heard that he houses, and that his coachman never drank was a very steady trustworthy man, and that anywhere, or lost a moment, which he might many wondered at his being so strong at his be compelled to make up by unduly urging age, and his being able to carry on his his master's cattle. On a request being made, occupation. “Well, Sir," continued he, the man, in a perfectly unaffected and artless “I used to water that man's horses fifty manner, gave the following account of years ago, and all the coachmen and guards himself :

used to joke and jeer at him, because he “I drive every day (Sundays not excepted) would not drink any spirits. They nickninety-four miles, and have not been off the named him Teakettle Tom! They used to road for one single day, either from pleasure set up a laugh over the drink, and call out or sickness, for three years. Next Sunday to him, · Here comes Teakettle Tom!' But I am to have my first rest during that period. they are all dead; and here he is alive and I never drink any spirits or malt liquor; well, and at his time of life able to drive and neither do I eat animal food more than once a do more work than many young coachmen; day. I never take eggs for breakfast, nor do I and whenever he chooses to go home and eat or drink any thing between my three rest, he has got a comfortable house of his meals, viz., breakfast, consisting of tea and own, and enough to keep it warm.” bread and butter; dinner, at which I take, A most striking corroboration of these usually, a very little toast and water, and statements is afforded by James Hogg, the

Ettrick shepherd, in relation to the suffer* Inquiries into the

Effects of Fermented Liquors, ings which the shepherds of the Highlands by Basil Montague, 2nd Edition, 1813.

and other parts of Scotland experience,

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