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degrees, his religious sensibility grew dull supposed to be deranged; but, on visiting and stupid, heedless alike of religion, and him, I found he had delirium tremens, a of the daily attention to business necessary disease which is the peculiar product of for the support of his family; and, eventu- drunkenness. Upon stating the fact to his ally, died besotted with rum. When family, they remarked that it was utterly warned of his danger, soon after it was impossible, for that he took but two glasses known that he had returned to his of sherry at his dinner, and never tasted cups, he assigned as a reason, the pre- spirits. It afterwards appeared, upon enscription of a physician, which was made quiry, that the individual, who was in one of on his application for relief from mild dys- the public offices, had been frightened at the pepsia.*

idea of cholera, and being told that brandy Dr. J. Baxter, of the United States, ob- was the best preventive, he had, on coming serves:—“I am so far from thinking that to town to his office, taken a minute quanthe use of ardent spirit is beneficial in cases tity of brandy, never taking it at home or to of dyspepsia, and chronic debility, that I excess; but he so acquired the habit of consider it an absolute evil frequently pro- taking a little every day, that he could not ductive of both, and often, under the form dispense with the stimulus. In six months of bitters, cordials, &c., prolonging and he was attacked with delirium tremens, and increasing such complaints indefinitely. I narrowly escaped with his life.” have no doubt that physicians have often Mr. Upton, a medical man in extensive opened the way to, and encouraged, tippling practice in and about the metropolis for and drunkenness, by the prescription of about thirty years, made, in 1817, the foltinctures, cordials, tonics, &c., and to which lowing statement to J. Poynder, Esq., late. the doctrines and theories of the old school Under-Sheriff for London and Middlesex:but too much led.”

“ A vast number of women have been Dr. Bell, of America, Editor of the Jour-taught to drink, in the middle and the higher nal of Health, remarks: “ Physicians have classes, by taking indiscriminately quack much to answer for when they recommend medicines, containing alcohol, hot seeds, and to, or allow, their patients to make use of essential oils; such as Rymer's Tincture, for spirituous or wine bitters, either with a view gout in the stomach, Šolomon's Balm of of accelerating their convalescence after ac- Gilead, &c. I have professionally known cute diseases, or of giving strength and tone, these articles taken to a degree of intoxicaas the phrase is, to the stomach, in those tion and inducing habits of dram-drinking. of a more lingering character. By this I have been informed, from very good aupractice they make drunkards of many good thority, that Dr. Solomon has laid the and even pious men, who are not themselves foundation of this destructive habit in some aware of their danger, until the habit has thousands of people in Liverpool and its become too inveterate and deeply fixed for environs. I have known many respectable its abandonment. They do this, moreover, characters who have, I believe, from ignowithout any justifiable reason or palliative rance, fallen into this snare, where close motive, since such remedies as those just application to any particular pursuit, which indicated are rarely if ever called for. We has a tendency to produce sinking in the have seen the functions of many stomachs stomach, has led, imperceptibly, to an inirrecoverably destroyed by the use of bitter dulgence in this bewitching liquor.” tinctures; and, in other cases, relief only "I am afraid,” says a well-known phyobtained, by entirely desisting from their sician, “ that the practisers of physic, have use: but in no instance, are we aware that inadvertently, been instrumental, by giving their administration was imperatively re- compound waters, (spirituous liquors) as quired. They are often recommended and medicines, in introducing the execrable advertised as cures for dyspepsia or indi- custom of drinking drams, which at present gestion. Now we have no hesitation in does not only prevail amongst the vulgar, saying, that if a healthy person wishes to but has made no small progress among peocreate for himself dyspepsia, or convert a ple of rank and distinction; inasmuch, that mild into an obstinate attack of the disease, if it increases for forty years more, in prohe has only to take to the use of bitter portion as it has done for the last half centinctures, or bitters, as they are commonly tury, there will be no occasion for a second called.”+

deluge, or a conflagration, to exterminate the Dr. Gordon mentions a case which may whole human species from the face of the well serve as a warning to persons placed in earth; for those, who are habituated to like circumstances :- "I was requested,” drams, in a certain degree, cannot long subto see an individual who was sist themselves, and are absolutely deprived

of all hopes of leaving behind them a tolerably healthful progeny.”[

“So apprehensive am I,” says Dr. Rush, * Address on Ardent Spirits; read before the New Hampshire Medical Society, and published at their request, by R. D. Mussey, M.D., President of the Society, and Professor of Anatomy and * Parliamentary Report, p. 196. Surgery in Dartmouth College.

+ Pharmac. Universalis, by R. James, M.D. † Journal of Health, vol. I, p. 200, 1830.

66

says he,

1752.

cause.

" of the danger of contracting a love for portion of alcohol they contain, it appears spirituous liquors by accustoming the to admit of a fair inquiry, whether they stomach to their stimulus, that I think the would not be better expunged from the fewer medicines we exhibit in spirituous Pharmacopæia. To attempt to cure intervehicles the better.'

mittent fever by the unaided powers of I never prescribed ardent spirits,” ob- tincture of bark and quassia, would be conserves Dr. Farre, “but as a medicine, and sidered unwise by any one; while, at the I have been often prevented from prescrib- same time, these are abundantly sufficient ing ardent spirits, when I thought them to produce a habit of intemperance, and, necessary in moderate quantities, for fear of not very unfrequently, are really its efficient the habit."*

One of your committee has met The duties of a medical man are of a with a case, where an individual of the most peculiarly responsible character, and his correct and delicate deportment, actually influence carries with it a vast amount of acquired habits of intemperance and was good or evil, in relation to the interests of brought to the brink of the grave, by the society. It is, therefore, a matter of para- means, unsuspected by herself, of the commount necessity, that his conduct and advice pound spirits of lavender." should be so carefully regulated, as not to The Committee of the New York Tembe productive of injurious consequences. perance Society, in their Report for 1835, The health, and, in some respects, the morals state, that A celebrated professor of of the public, are entrusted to the charge of Materia Medica,” more than twenty years the medical profession; and this highly ago, declared his opinion, that “a large important trust ought to be guarded with proportion of the drunkards were made so circumspection and zeal. It is a fortunate by the prescriptions of medical men.The circumstance, that the attention of medical Medical Society of the city and county of men has, of late years, been directed, with New York, after quoting the above and some degree of earnestness, to this subject. other authorities on the same point, make In this they not only perform a duty which the following declaration : “The daily and they owe to the public, but as they are habitual use of ardent spirits, as a medicine, bound, make amends for errors and their and especially in the form of bitters, cordials, consequences, which have been too long and elixirs, of which alcohol in some form is continued under the sanction of their the base; and with which quack medicines, authority.

the country has been deluged, is one of the These views are not promulgated by most prominent causes of forming intemisolated individuals only, as the testimonies perate habits and appetites, and ought to be of medical societies, that have especially universally abjured.” investigated the subject, will sufficiently The following resolutions of the Mas. demonstrate.

sachussetts Medical Society are corroborative The Western District, New-Hampshire of the same view of the subject : “ That this Medical Society, passed the following Society agree to discourage the use of ardent among other resolutions agreed to on this spirits as much as lies in their power; and · subject :-“That we disapprove of the for this purpose, to discontinue the employformer practice of physicians, which is too ment of spirituous preparations of medicine much adopted by some of the present day, when they can find substitutes ;' and also, of prescribing ardent spirits, either in their “ that the excessive and constant use of wine simple state or medicated with bitters, &c., is, in the opinion of this Society, a cause of to patients in chronic affections and in the many diseases; and that, though it is useful stage of convalescence of most diseases, as in some of them (as in the stage of weakness the operation tends to confirm or reproduce in fever) its use is, in some cases, often the primary complaint, and what is not less carried too far, and continued too long." pernicious, to create an habitual desire for The annual Report of the Committee of their continuance, till the subjects of this ill. directors of the Lunatic Asylum, Glasgow, advised practice insensibly become slaves for 1829, on which Committee are placed to intemperance."

two medical professors, a physician and The following remarks are extracted from several surgeons, states the following among the Report of the Committee of the Phila- other causes of insanity :- :-“ Some allege, delphia Medical Society, 1829:--The that they became addicted to the use of spirituous nature of tinctures alone, forms intoxicating liquors, for the purpose of a strong objection to them as a class of relieving bodily pain and languor, or the remedies. There is no doubt that many depression of mind occasioned by afflicting cases of intemperance have owed their events. Some ascribe their evil propensity origin particularly to the use of bitter tinc- to bad example; some to the pernicious tures. Considering the small amount of custom of having been indulged with the useful medicinal matter which enters into frequent use of ardent spirits in their early these latter compounds, and the large pro- years : and not a few females, to the use of

palatable cordials, administered to them

remedially, and especially during in-lying, Parliament. Report, p. 102.

by kind but injudicious friends :" and the

Report afterwards adds, "great care ought intoxicating liquors, are those by which to be taken to guard against the insidious their necessity is urged as a restorative of approaches of the enemy in disguise, whether strength in cases of extraordinary physical in the inviting form of some luscious liqueur, exertion. or under the friendly aspect of stomachic I. One of the most deeply rooted of these tincture, or cordial balm."

notions is, that which supposes stimulating This branch of our inquiry may be very liquors to be beneficial in enabling men to appropriately concluded by a quotation from endure a greater amount of physical exeran Essay of very great value and importance, tion. Intoxicating liquors merely stimulate written by Dr. Mussey : “So long,” says he, or accelerate the vital actions, and do not "as alcohol retains a place among sick increase the actual strength of the physical patients, so long there will be drunkards; powers ; on the contrary, by calling those and who would undertake to estimate the powers into unnatural action, they diminish amount of responsibility assumed by that their permanent capability, and thus exhaust physician, who prescribes to the enfeebled that vital energy, which, unless thus imdyspeptic patient the daily use of spirit, properly interfered with, is capable of underwhile, at the same time, he knows that this going extraordinary and long-continued exsimple prescription may ultimately ruin his ertion, supported and renovated only by health, make him a vagabond, shorten his plain and wholesome nutriment. life, and cut him off from the hope of This important fact was well known to heaven. Time was when it was used only the ancients, among whom physical improveas a medicine, and who will dare to offer a ment was made a regular branch of education, guarantee that it shall not again overspread and who knew by experience that those who the world with disease and death?” “Ardent abstain altogether from the use of intoxispirit,' adds this patriotic physician, cating liquors, are best enabled to attain the "already under sentence of public con- greatest amount of physical strength. demnation, and with the prospect of under-Cyrus, after the Medes and Hyrcanians had going an entire exclusion from the social returned from pursuing the Assyrians, and circle, and the domestic fireside--still lingers were sat down to a repast, desired them to in the sick chamber, the companion and send some bread only to the Persians, who pretended friend of its suffering inmates. Would then be sufficiently provided with all It rests with medical men to say how long they required, either for eating or drinking. this unalterable, unrelenting foe of the Hunger was their only sauce, and the human race, shall remain secure in this water which they were enabled to procure sacred, but usurped retreat. They have the from the river was their only drink. To power, and theirs is the duty to perform the such a diet they had been accustomed from mighty exorcism. Let the united effort the earliest period of their lives. The Roman soon be made, and the fiend be thrust forth soldiers, during their arduous and successful from this strong but unnatural alliance and campaigns, made use of vinegar and water companionship with men, and cast into that only, in order to assuage their thirst. Each "outer darkness' which lies beyond the soldier was obliged to carry a bottle of precincts of human suffering and human vinegar on his person, and when necessary, enjoyment.'

he mixed a small portion of it with water.* The Carthaginian soldiers were expressly

forbidden to taste wine during their camSECTION III.

paigns. The same may be said of other POPULAR FALLACIES A CAUSE OF INTEMPERANCE. mighty nations among the ancients.

What

armies, the narrations of whose exploits are Pure water is the best for persons of all tempera- recorded in history, ever endured anything of the blood, on which the due performance of like the amount of labour, or signalised every animal function depends. Water drinkers themselves by victories so triumphant in are not only the most active and vigorous, but the their character, as those of these celebrated most healthy and cheerful.-FREDERICK HOFFMAN.

nations? Facts of this nature present the The more simply life is supported the better, and he is happy who considers water the best drink.- most indubitable proof, that in ancient Dr. Paris.

times the use of intoxicating liquors was not

considered necessary for the preservation of 1. That Intoxicating liquors are beneficial in en- bodily health, nor were they, on any occasion,

abling men to endure a greater amount of made use of to enable mankind to endure physical exertion.-II. That Inebriating com- extraordinary fatigue. pounds counteract the effects of cold.-III. That Strong drink is beneficial in hot weather or

After their numerous victories, and when in tropical regions.-IV. That Intoxicating liquor they had in some degree become vitiated by is a safe remedy in severe colds or in circum- the enervating customs of the nations whom stances of laborious employment in cold and damp situations.

they had conquered, the Roman soldiers

acquired a love of wine. When the people AMONG the numerous objections made in complained to the Emperor Augustus of the reference to an abandonment of the use of dearness and scarcity of wine, he replied,

Temperance Prize Essay, by Dr. Mussey. Washington, 1835.

Lips. De Re Militari Romanæ.

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• My son-in-law, Agrippa, has preserved had not unfrequently found his companions you from thirst by the canals which he has dead by his side. Not many years ago, he made for you.' A well-merited reproof and above one hundred and thirty others, of their unworthy and degenerate conduct. left England, for active service abroad; of

The Emperor Pescennius Niger, made these, five were then living; and he attributed use of a similar observation. He was the preservation of their lives to their having remarkable for his love of discipline, and entirely abstained from the use of strong in conformity with the ancient regulation 'drink. A gentleman who heard this internever suffered his soldiers to drink wine; esting statement, adds the following corwater mingled with vinegar was their cus- roborative testimony :-He had served for tomary beverage. This gave considerable the period of thirteen years in the hottest umbrage to the soldiers. Niger, however, climates; he had since been exposed to the resolutely insisted on their compliance. On severest winters of Canada, and to the rapid one occasion, some soldiers who guarded changes of the American climate; he had the frontiers of Egypt, requested him to nine times crossed the Atlantic ; and supply them with some wine; “What do attributed his sound health, being then in you say?" he replied ; “you have the his fiftieth year, to his having abstained delicious waters of the Nile, and wine is entirely from the use of intoxicating liquors. unnecessary for you." At another time, Dr. Jackson, a gentleman of great emi. some of his troops having been conquered nence, in a communication addressed to by the Saracens, by way of excuse, pretended Sir J. Sinclair remarks:—“I have wanthat this event was owing to their interdic- dered a good deal about the world, and never tion from wine. " An excellent reason,'

,” followed any prescribed rule in anything ; said Niger, in reply, “ for your conquerors my health has been tried in all ways; and drink nothing but water!”

by the aids of temperance and hard work, I Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, A.D. 61– have worn out two armies, in two wars, and urged the subsequent degeneracy of the probably could wear out another, before my Romans, as an argument against their period of old age arrives ; I eat no animal prowess in battle.

While preparing for food, drink no wine or malt liquor, or action, to avenge the wrongs which had been spirits of any kind : I wear no flannel, and inflicted on her people by their cruel con- neither regard wind nor rain, heat nor cold, querors, this intrepid female made an where business is in the

way. This ineloquent appeal to her army, in the course dividual was at one period head of the medical of which she drew a striking comparison staff in the West Indies. He also served in between the effeminate habits of the Romans, the Southern districts of the United States, and the simple but invigorating practices of during the revolutionary war. of her own country. " To us," she observed, “For weeks together," says a recent writer,

every herb and root are food; every juice “I seldom entered a house which was not the is our oil, and WATER IS OUR WINE.". scene of human suffering. Associating with παν σε υδωρ οινος. .

disease and pestilence, I conversed at the The experience of modern armies, in bed-side of the fever patient, and rubbed the most respects corresponds with that of the muscles of the victim of cholera.--I had ancients. The soldiers of Oliver Cromwell, for been exposed to the effects of solar heat, example, during their laborious campaigns, night-damp, rain, cold, hunger, and fatigue. carried with them knapsacks containing Few people, perhaps, ever enjoyed so large oaten meal, which when hungry they mixed a measure of health as fell to my lot during with water. On this diet, for a considerable my wanderings in the western parts of inperiod, they principally subsisted, and sus- habited America, and at no period of life tained great fatigue in the full vigour of did I possess so much mental and bodily health. Such also at that, and earlier vigour. While I gratefully acknowledge my as well as later times, was the constant health and strength to have emanated from practice of the Scotch armies, whose athletic divine agency, I may state my habits were powers are quite proverbial.

strictly temperate, having denied myself Dr. J. Barker, of the United States, every liquid but water and tea. The tram. relates that when General Jackson was once mels of society prevented me trying the asked, if soldiers required spirituous liquors, effects of absolute temperance at an earlier that commander immediately remarked, he period, but they exceeded my expectations, had observed, that in hard duty and excessive and from experience I recommend tempercold, those performed the one, and endured ance to all who wish to enjoy life.+ the other better, who drank nothing but The testimony of such nations as in the water.

present day, abstain entirely from the use of A respectable individual who had been intoxicating liquors, is highly worthy of for thirty years in the army, informed Pro- consideration. Among these, we have several fessor Edgar, of Ireland, that he had been examples of a very interesting and conclusive in twenty-seven general engagements, had character. suffered every vicissitude of weather, and

* Code of Health and Longevity, by Sir. J

Sinclair, p. 387. * Sucton. in vitâ Augusti

+ Shirref's Tour through North America, in 1832

Mr. Buckingham states that in his Eastern of porter. The idea, concludes this writer, Travels, he met with men among the that a person's strength is increased by such nations of water-drinkers, whose height excesses must therefore be futile; and a seldom averaged less than from five feet Chinese porter, with his tea, is another proof eight inches to six feet, and whose general of the opposite position.* robust and healthy appearance exhibited a The Bedouin Arabs also, whose duties are very remarkable contrast with the sickly, of the most fatiguing and harassing descripemaciated bodies of the Europeans. In tion, perform their labours in the most Hindostan, for instance, though the labour cheerful manner, with very little nutritious is as severe as in any part of the world, and food, and with no drink stronger than water. performed principally under the influence of A modern traveller thus describes them : a vertical and burning sun, yet the inha- _"The Bedouins of the caravan, whose bitants drink only water. One species of duty it is to drive the camels, are the most exertion to which they are subject is un- indefatigable fellows in the world; from known in England, and strikingly exbibits daylight in the morning, they are on foot in their muscular force and capability. When the front, shouting constantly to keep the individuals undertake long and fatiguing animals together. On finishing the journey, journies, such, for instance, as from Calcutta they unload them, and arrange the camp, to Delhi, they are not carried by horses in then follow them to pasture, and tend them carriages, but by men, in palanquins, who, lest they stray, till nightfall; when they naked to the waist, walk, or rather trot at gather into their proper places, and rub tar the rate of five or six miles an hour, the over those that have the mange, or have perspiration trickling from their pores like been sheared. They sleep in the midst of rain, and yet these men drink nothing their charge, ready to jump up on the least stronger than water.

noise or motion, and take their turn in the During Mr. Buckingham's residence at guards of the night. An hour before the Calcutta, a number of men came down from camp is in motion, they are on the alert in the Himalaya mountains, for the purpose of the morning, to commence the labour of a exhibiting their strength. Mr. Buckingham new day. They sleep like dogs whenever and several Europeans went to see them, they have a moment to spare, and endure and he was astonished and delighted to all this with no other food than coarse bread witness such beautiful figures. “There and a few vegetables ; and with nothing to they stood,” says he, “like the statue of drink beyond the indifferent water of the Hercules, with all their muscular powers way.”'t finely developed, their broad and expansive Among other interesting facts of a similar shoulders and breasts, with their firm muscles description, may be cited one concerning the like rolling waves, and such as he had never Gauchos, inhabitants of the Pampas, related before seen, but in the sculpture of the by Sir Francis Head, who himself witnessed ancients. The Europeans anxious to test their interesting habits. Riding, it appears, their strength, selected some of the best men forms their principal, and indeed almost they could from among the English grena- their only exercise. They will continue on diers, and the vessels in the harbour, in horseback day after day, galloping over their order to excel them in feats of strength; boundless plains, under a burning sun, and but with all the efforts they could make, in performing labours almost of an incredible lifting, hurling the discus, vaulting, running, description. Sir Francis, very forcibly and wrestling, each of the Indians in question, points us to the cause of this extraordinary was found equal to one and three quarters physical capacity. “As the constant food of our men. The former, nevertheless, had of the Gaucho is beef and water, his confrom their infancy upwards, never tasted stitution is so strong, that he is able to anything stronger than water."

endure great fatigue, and the distances he Smollett, in his Travels to Italy, remarks, will ride, and the number of hours he will in opposition to the general notion that beer remain on horseback, would hardly be strengthens as well as refreshes the animal credited.” frame, that the porters of Constantinople, Sir Francis Head then proceeds to add who never drink anything stronger than water, his own testimony in proof of the correctwill carry a load of seven hundred weight, ness of the above remarks. “When I first which he observes, is a labour that no crossed the Pampas, I went with a carriage, English porter would attempt to undertake. and although I had been accustomed to

Mr. Pinkerton observes, that in the riding all my life, I could not at all ride Southeru climates, where the vice of drunk with the Peons (drivers of the carriage) and enness is almost a stranger, even a porter after galloping five or six hours, was obliged or a drayman will prefer a glass of ice or to get into the carriage; but after I had lemonade to any strong beverage whatever ; been riding for three or four months, and and with this light regimen, he further had lived upon beef and water, I found remarks, the Turkish porters are said to be the strongest in Europe, and to carry burdens which would appal an English 1802-3-4-5. Vol. ii. chap. 25, p. 340.

* Pinkerton's Recollections of Paris, in the year's lighterman, after he had swallowed four pots † Skinner's Travels, vol. ii. p. 109.

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