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and I remain a proof of the truth of my own other simple liquors insipid to the taste doctrine, few persons being more exempt dispose very much to the stronger stimulus from dyspepsia."'* To a stomach in a of ardent spirits ; hence, the practice of healthy state, these provocatives are not only smoking cigars has been followed by the use never useful, but always productive of inju- of brandy and water as a common drink.” rious consequences. As mere stimulants, Dr. Agnew also asserts " that the use of the they debilitate the digestive functions, and pipe leads to the immoderate use of ardent require continual increase in quantity, in spirits." A writer in “the Genius of Tem. order to keep up the artificial excitement perance,' an American publication, states which habit has, in some degree, rendered that his practice of smoking and chewing necessary. Hence, arises the practice of tobacco produced a continual thirst for indulgence in intoxicating liquors. Few stimulating drinks; and this tormenting persons indulge freely in the use of condi- thirst (says he) led me into the habit of ments, who are not also partial to alcoholic drinking ale, porter, brandy, and other kinds stimulants. In this manner thousands of of spirit, even to the extent, at times, of drunkards have been formed. The practice partial intoxication." He adds, “I reformed: ought to be abandoned by all temperate per- and after I had subdued this appetite for sons, as in the highest degree dangerous, not tobacco, I lost all desire for stimulating only in regard to its effects in debilitating drinks.the digestive functions, but in the temptation Dr. M'Allister, in a valuable Essay on which it offers to the formation of intemperate Tobacco, one section of which treats on its habits.

as paving the way to drunkenness," 2. The use of tobacco presents another relates the following instructive example : popular, yet dangerous, inducement to in- "I am well acquainted with a man in a temperance.

neighbouring county, whose intellectual enTobacco belongs to the class of narcotic dowments would do honour to any station, stimulants. As a medicine, it is occasionally and who has accumulated a handsome employed by the profession. As a provocative estate ; but whose habits, of late, give to drinking, it has been condemned by the unerring premonition to his friends of a wisest of men. Sylvester, in allusion to this mournful result. This man informed me well known property of tobacco, playfully, that it was the fatal thirst occasioned by but ingeniously, derives its name from smoking his segar, in fashionable society, Bacchus :

that had brought him into his present " Which of their weapons hath the conquest got, wretched and miserable condition. WithOver their wits; the pipe or else the pot! out any desire for ardent spirit, he first Seems to allude to, and include the same :

sipped a little gin and water, to allay the Tobacco, as T4 Baxx°-one would say;

disagreeable sensation brought on by smokTo cup-god Bacchus dedicated aye.

Jing, as water was altogether too insipid Raphael Thorius attributes the discorery to answer the purpose. Thus he went on of this noxious herb to Bacchus, Silenus, from year to year, increasing his stimulus and the Satyrs, the representatives of drunk from one degree to another, until he lost all enness, gluttony and lust. Dr. Adam Clarke control over himself, and now he stands as says, "so inseparable an attendant is drinking a beacon, warning others to avoid the same on smoking, that, in some places, the same

road to destruction."'* word expresses both : thus, peend, in the

The amount of intemperance arising from Bengalee language, signifies to drink and to this cause, if followed to its actual issues, smoke.”+ “It is with pain of heart," adds would be truly startling. One writer on the same distinguished writer, “that I am

the subject, is of opinion that it would obliged to say, I have known several, who, amount to not less than one-tenth of the through their immoderate attachment to the drunkards annually made throughout this pipe, have become mere sots. There are nation. The practice is, beyond all doubt, others who are walking unconcernedly in the a fruitful source of intemperance, and ought, same dangerous road. I tremble for them." therefore, to be disused by every one who The late Governor Sullivan,

of America, in regards the welfare and happiness of either speaking of the use of tobacco, remarks, himself or his fellow-creatures. “The tobacco pipe excites a demand for an

3. The use of opium, in its various forms, extraordinary qnantity of some beverage to may also very properly be included in the supply the waste of glandular secretion, in class of physical causes of intemperance. proportion to the expense of saliva: ardent

The consumption of opium in this, and in spirits are the common substitutes ; and the other countries, has, of late years, frightfully smoker is often reduced to a state of dram- increased. One principal source of the drinking, and finishes his life as a sot.” habit may, no doubt, be traced to the fact, Dr. Rush observes, that "smoking and that it forms an important constituent of a chewing tobacco, by rendering water and great variety of the patent and popular

For even the derivation of the name

medicines now so commonly vended in this * Dr. Trotter's View of the Nervous Temperament,

* A Dissertation on the Medica Properties, and + Dissertation on the use and abuse of tobacco, Injurious Effects of the Habitual use of Tobacco, wy Dr. Adam Clarke, p. 43, od. 1887.

by A. M'Allister, M.D. 1830.

p. 77.

not uncommon.

kingdom. The public generally are aware source at least of the consumption of opium of its medicinal properties, and injudiciously in this country. William Hare, a "licensed" make use of it, not only in cases of extreme brewer, residing in Old Kent Road, was necessity, but even on ordinary occasions. summoned on an information, charging him Laudanum, a preparation which merely con- with using deleterious ingredients in the sists of a solution of opium in spirits of manufacture of beer. It appeared on evi. wine, is one of the most common forms in dence that one barrel of the defendant's beer which it is thus used.

on being tested, “was found to contain A recent writer, makes the following re- vitriol and a preparation of opium.” There marks, regarding the use of opium in the is reason to suppose that this horrid practice United States :-“I cannot refrain,” says he," from remarking, since it seems to me 4. The immense consumption of spirituof the greatest importance that universal ous, patent, or quack medicines, contributes attention be directed to the subject, the im- greatly to create the appetite for alcoholic moderate use of opium in various shapes, stimulants. chiefly by way of laudanum, in families, and A vast proportion of these popular remeespecially with infants, without the advice dies consists principally of some medicinal of proper physicians. My inquiries into articles disguised in a powerful solution of this subject have led me to the conviction ardent spirits. The difference between that innumerable parents create in their habitually taking some of these nostrums children that diseased craving for stimulants, and indulging in dram-drinking is, in effect, which with so many individuals ends in open but very small. The reason of their cele. and violent intemperance, and with many brity is no doubt to be found in the stimulus more in a constant use of ardent spirits not they impart, which by its insidious and much less injurious in its consequences.”* apparently beneficial effects, induces the “ Next to the evils produced by alcoholic inexperienced to place implicit reliance on drinks in this country," (America) says Dr. their medicinal powers. Of this description Lee, “ those originating from the use of is the celebrated “ Solomon's Balm of opium, in its different forms, should un- Gilead,” which is well known to be princi. doubtedly be classed. Since it has become pally composed of brandy, and to be used unfashionable to take intoxicating liquors, a by many as a substitute for that spirituous substitute has been sought and found in product. Among the same class, may be opium. Of the immense quantities of this included all the various compounds at drug imported into the United States, there present sold under the names of Balsams," is good reason to believe, that but a very ** Cordials,'

," “Tinctures," Drops," and small portion, indeed a mere fractional part, Elixirs." Most cough medicines, for in. is consumed by the advice of physicians. All stance, thus vended, consist of two classes, in a greater or less degree, resort to three simple cough substances, opium, the it, as a solace in grief, a remedy for pain, universal popular panacea in such cases, to cheer the spirits, to brighten the intellect, and a large proportion of ardent spirits. to blunt morbid sensibility, to drown reflec- Infants' preservatives also are generally tion ; in short, to change and pervert our composed of some trifling stomachic, comnature, and dim the reflection of God's bined with a preparation of opium in a image within us. Although its effects are weak solution of ardent spirit. Indeed, not as brutalizing and debasing as those of the whole system of popular quack medi. alcoholic stimulants, still they are most de- cine is comprehended in a small compass. structive to health and happiness. Dr. -spirituous stimulants and opium, or such Madden states, that but few opium eaters in medicines as by their potent influence Turkey live to be over thirty years of age. easily secure the admiration of the vulgar. It is worthy of serious consideration, whether The following illustrations are extracted opium ought not to be included in the from Gray's Supplement to the Pharmatemperance pledge."'t

copæia, a work of undoubted respectability. The members of temperance societies in Hill's Balsam of Honey.- Balsam of this country have also been charged with Tolu 1 pound; honey 1 pound ; rectified having had recourse to this pernicious prac- spirits of wine, one gallon, used in "coughs tice as a substitute for intoxicating liquors. and colds."* No evidence, however, has been adduced to Ford's Balsam of Horehound.-Hore. substantiate this statement. The source, hound and liquorice root, of each 3 pounds, moreover, from whence it originated, a water sufficient in quantity to strain six pints, paper under the immediate patronage of the then infuse. To the infusion add proof ** National Association of Licensed Victu- spirit 12 pints, camphire one ounce and two allers,” rendered the allegation more than a drachms, opium purified, and gum benjamin, matter of doubt and suspicion. About the of each one ounce, dried squills two ounces, same period a police Report, in the Morn- oil of anise seed one ounce, honey three ing Chronicle, dated February 5th, 1840, pounds and a half.t directed the attention of the public to one Gout Cordial.-Rhubarb root, senna,

# Lieber's relation between Education and Crime. Gray's Supplement, &c. p. 405. + Bacchus. American Ed. p. 179.

Ibid.

or

coriander seeds, fennel seeds, cochineal, of friends, and having expressed contrition for each two ounces ; liquorice root, saffron, of their former unguarded conduct, were aseach one ounce, raisins two pounds and a sisted by them, and again placed in comhalf, rectified spirit of wine two gallons.* paratively respectable circumstances. The

Of a similar character are the following kindness of these friends soon prospered popular specifics: Bateman's Pectoral drops, their business, and they regained their Jesuit's Drops, Huxham's Compound Tinc- previous secular and religious standing in ture of Bark, Daffy's Elixir, Squire's Elixir, society. Unfortunately, however, the wife Friar's Balsam, and a host of others; all of thought her indigestion and unpleasant which contain a greater or less quantity of feelings had returned, were returning, or ardent spirits.

would soon return; and she once more These observations will enable us to esti- thought of the “ cordial,” with desire and mate, with tolerable accuracy, the amount of terror. After some little consultation, they intemperance which arises in the present day agreed that, as they had experience, they from so injurious a practice. Thousands of might once more recur to the practice withparents are at the present time unthinkingly out danger. Not to be tedious, adds Dr. training up their children to be drunkards, Clarke, another bottle was bought, and by creating in them from an early period, another, and a dozen, and a gross, and in an appetite for stimulating substances. this way they once more drunk out all their

Dr. Adam Clarke, in his memoir of his property, and terminated their lives in Portsearly life, relates an interesting but melan- mouth common workhouse.* choly case of this description. An indi. V. The present system of the medical vidual and his wife, members of a religious profession, it is to be feared, has been prosociety, resided on Portsmouth Common, in ductive of much intemperance. decent and respectable circumstances. The Medical men, like the rest of mankind, wife was frequently troubled with indiges- have long laboured under the general detion. She consulted with a neighbour, who lusion. Stimulants at one period were informed her that she had been afflicted almost looked upon by the profession as with a similar complaint, and advised her to general specifics. The doctrines of Brown purchase a bottle called “Godfrey's Cor- form an example in point, but Brown himself dial," from which she had received consider- fell a victim to habits of intemperance. The able benefit. This remedy recommended, use of wine in cases of fever, originated at an was, to use the words of Dr. Clarke," a fine early period. Pliny, the elder, remarks, spirituous saccharine opiate," and being “ Cardiacorum morbo, unicam spem in vino taken as directed, it acted “as an elegantesse, certum est.'The writings of Aretaus dram.” The effects were so pleasing, that and Cælius Aurelianus bear similar testithe woman declared, that she would never mony. Even physicians of modern times, be without it in the house. In a short time, who have strongly recommended abstinence the disorder again made its appearance, and from intoxicating liquors on ordinary occathe favourite remedy was as before applied to, sions, have been impressed with the opinion and received additional praises. By-and-bye, that it was an exceedingly valuable remedy the husband himself complained of being in cases of fever. Among the latter class, unwell, and the wife strongly urged him to may be included Dr. Trotter, who looked try the effects of her favourite application. upon wine, when“ directed with due preHe, of course, must take a stronger dose. caution, by far the most efficacious remedy The result was qually pleasing. They in the low typhus fever.”I Previous to agreed to take it in company. The wife, this, he states, that persons “ labouring although not cured, was very much re- under typhus fever very frequently consume lieved ; and bottles were purchased and from four to six pounds of wine in the taken in quick succession. The husband twenty-four hours, without producing any found it necessary also to have recourse to injurious results."'|| the same; and by this time they could bear Most medical men, in the present day, a double dose. By-and-bye more and more deprecate the practice which Dr. Trotter so was taken, for former doses did not give warmly countenances. Dr. Cheyne, late of relief as usual, but the increased dose did ; Dublin, in an excellent Essay on the effects no customers to the quack medicine were of wine and spirits, ably comments on the equal to these individuals. They bought it absurdity and dangerous consequences of at last by the dozen, if not by the gross ! this popular error. “ The faculty,says Scores of pounds were soon expended on he, “are, in some measure, accountable for this carminative opiate, till at last they had opinions very generally held, relative to the expended on it their whole substance. Even innocuous character of wine and ardent their furniture went by degrees, till ulti- spirits ; the benefits which have been supmately they were reduced to absolute want, posed to flow from their liberal use in and were obliged to take refuge in the poorhouse. In this place the unhappy couple

* Life of Dr. Adam Clarke, 1833. were visited by some charitable and pious + Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. xxiii. c. 2.

| Essay on Drunkenness, p. 41; also Medicina

Nautica, vol. i. art. Typhus. * Gray's Supplement, &c. p. 504.

1 Ibid.

p.

40.

medicine, and especially in those diseases found in a report of the Baltimore Almswhich were once universally, and are still house Infirmary. In this charity, there vulgarly, supposed to depend upon mere were, in the years 1828 and 1829, four weakness, have invested these agents with thousand and forty patients ; and as a proof attributes to which they have no claim; and that the medical treatment pursued in this hence, as we physicians no longer employ hospital was successful, it may be stated, them as we were wont to do, we ought not to that of this number only three hundred and rest satisfied with a mere acknowledgment twenty-two died, one hundred and two of of error; but we ought also to make every which cases consisted of pulmonary conretribution in our power, for having so long sumption. During the two years in question, upheld one of the most fatal delusions the whole of the spirituous liquor used did which ever took possession of the human not amount to more than thirty gallons, in mind." “ Let us,” continues the same addition to a quantity of whiskey, solely physician, “contrast the quantity of wine employed in the preparation of stimulating employed in the treatment of fevers, in the liniments, and other medicinal preparations. present day, with that which was consumed This among four thousand and forty patithirty years ago. There lies before me a ents, during two years, amounts to fifteen table constructed at a fever hospital in gallons per year only, and not more than Dublin, from which it would appear, that one quarter of a glass of spirits for each for nearly 1500 patients, a great number of patient during the period of twelve months. the cases being spotted, there were ordered Even this small amount will be materially 17,147 ounces of wine, which is considerably diminished, when the quantity, in all proless than a pint each. From my recollec- bability, drunk by the attendants and other tion of former times, I can aver that those domestics of the establisment is also taken patients would, thirty years ago, have been into consideration. allowed at an average, at least a pint of Mr. T. Beaumont, of Bradford, President wine a day, which would have caused great of the Bradford Medical Association, a gentleincrease of suffering, and probably great man whose professional skill is only equalled increase of mortality also. Now that we are by his spirit of benevolence, observes, that enabled, by superior opportunities of ob- " in the treatment of almost all diseases, a servation, and by our dissections, to fix the stimulating regimen is decidedly hurtful.” seat of fever, and to show that the disease, This writer makes the following judicious in many of its grand divisions, resides in remarks :-"I can readily suppose that some one organ, and not in the whole body, many recoveries have been protracted, if not we can actually demonstrate the pernicious prevented, by siezing the first opportunity effects of wine."'* And further, “ With that presented itself, on the subsidence of many an unfortunate patient, the immediate the more active symptoms; for commencing cause of death was not the fever, but intoxi- a course of stimulation, by which the dying cation during fever, while all who escaped embers of the disorders have been again were supposed to owe their recovery to lighted up; and secondary symptoms have wine. Our excellent fever hospitals have at been established, which have either terlast opened our eyes, and we now look minated in death, or in the establishment of with as much disgust on our former mal. a sequela, of difficult and uncertain removal. practices, as, I trust, a more temperate for the most part, therefore, I am of generation will, upon the excesses of their opinion, that CONVALESCENCE from fevers progenitors.”'t

and other active complaints, would be In cases of fever with high excitement, greatl moted by a light and nutritious the proportionate collapse which naturally diet, to the exclusion of all alcoholic stimufollows, often requires a small proportion of lants. Indeed, both distilled and fermented wine or other cordial, to let down the mor- liquors, should be entirely banished from the bid action of the system, or in other words, sick room, except in very peculiar cases, to keep up the patient's strength; and which of course are of comparatively rare hence, as Dr. Cheyne correctly remarks, occurrence. All things considered, I be“ in the natural extension of the error, it is lieve it would be found, as a general rule, supposed, that as strong liquors sustain to which there are exceptions of course, those debilitated by disease, much more will that the recovery of patients from almost they add to natural vigour, and support a every disorder, will be more successfully healthy man during an exertion of body, promoted by avoiding altogether the use of under which his unassisted powers of con- these beverages, which have been so long stitution would fail.” This fatal error, for- considered, as almost the most importarit tunately for mankind, is now being rapidly adjuvants in such circumstances; and of exploded.

the injurious tendency of which, iny eta An additional proof, in corroboration of observation and experience, has furaished the diminished consumption of spirituous striking and undeniable evidence."'* liquors in the treatment of disease, may be It is a matter of pleasing congratulation

* A Letter on the Effects of Wine and Spirits. Dublin, 1829, pp. 2, 3.

* Essay on the Nature and Prope«ties of Alco. + Idem. p. 4.

holic Drinks, pp. 40, il, 1838

He very

that the practices now referred to have been that medical men have done considerable considerably disused among the more en-injury to society by the frequent recomlightened section of the medical profession. mendation which they have given to the use Much, however, yet remains to be accom- of ardent spirit and other kinds of intoxicatplished. An examination of the authorized ing liquors to their patients, not on special books of the profession, and in particular of occasions only, but as a portion of their the London Pharmacopæia, displays a most ordinary diet. By this means many indiextensive use of alcohol in various medicinal viduals unfortunately acquire a taste for inepreparations. In this authentic and colle- briating compounds, and eventually become giate authority, no less than one hundred drunkards. and thirty compounds are exhibited and Dr. Falconer observes that some medical sanctioned, of which spirit of wine forms the men have unfortunately been led to give a vehicle and preserving component. These most exceptionable direction with respect to may be enumerated under the following diet, that of substituting brandy, or rum heads:

diluted with water, for common drink; and Tinctures, in number, 81 it is not only prescribed in extraordinary Wines,

ditto
12

cases, as a temporary expedient, but is freSpirits, ditto 37

quently directed in almost all cases of any

weakness in the stomach or digestive organ, Total 130 as a perpetual article of diet. The bulk of the people in the present day justly adds, that no circumstance ever ocmake use of some of these preparations, for curred in medicine more injurious to the example, paregoric elixir, (tinct. camphoræ science, or fatal to mankind, than this uncomp.) tincture of rhubarb, (tinct. rhæi,) fortunate piece of advice.* Dr. Fothergill and laudanum, (tinct. opii.) almost as com- and Dr. Ferriar, two physicians of considermonly and indiscriminately as the most able eminence, both advert to the injurious familiar articles of diet. In most druggists' consequences arising from this practice, dispensaries it is common for individuals to Dr. Fothergill acknowledged that he had purchase these articles, and to swallow them made many drunkards by having advised on the premises; as inconsiderably indeed, persons in certain complaints to drink a and as unconcernedly, as the votary of little spirit and water. What they had Bacchus indulges in his noxious putation. used at first as a medicine they continued to Drug establishments thus form powerful indulge in, from contracted taste and habit. auxiliaries to this appetite-creating cause of Adair in his Medical Cautions, states, that intemperance.

Dr. Fothergill made this declaration some“ The habitual use of tinctures and medi- time before his death, and although one of cinal drams,” says Dr. Reid, in his work on the first to sanction the practice, he sincerely Nervous Affections, “can be regarded only repented of the injury his example had creas a more specious and decorous mode of ated.f Dr. Ferriar remarks that the lives intemperance. In this may be said to con- of many patients have been embittered by sist the privileged debauchery of many a the thoughtless encouragement which some nervous valetudinarian.

A female of de- practitioners have given to the use of ardent corum and delicacy, may thus most effec-spirits, and that he himself had seen most tually ruin her health, without in the slightest melancholy instances in which habits of degree impairing her reputation. She may dram-drinking had been thus acquired, under allay the qualms of the stomach, without the the sanction of their medical attendants, by danger of occasioning any disagreeable persons not only temperate, but delicate in qualms of conscience.

their moral habits. The prescriptions of medical men are often Dr. Mussey, of America, relates an inprincipally composed of these spirituous stance of this kind, which came under his cons pounds. By this means they unde- own observation. I once knew, says he, a signedly become the means of creating a man who had been for some time in the taste for stimulating drinks. Several testi- habit of intemperate drinking, and who had, monies in point, of men of high rank in the attimes, remonstrances of conscience. These profession are now adduced.”

admonitions, together with the motives and " There can be no doubt,” says Dr. encouragements held up to him by bis kind Trotter, “ that many persons have to date and good wife, induced him to make a their first propensity to drinking to the solemn vow, “ that, by the help of God, he too frequent use of spirituous tinctures would never again drink anything stronger as medicines, rashly prescribed for hys- than beer, unless prescribed for him as a terical and hypochondriacal complaints.” medicine by a physician.” He regarded the “ There are patients,” he further observes, vow, became sober and apparently religious, 6 who

continually craving after and for several years sustained the character medical novelties, and are in the prac- of a devout man. At length, he lost, by tice of taking every article that is warming and cordial.* It is to be feared, also

* Dr. Falconer's Observations on some of the articles of diet and regimen, usually recommended

to valetudinarians, p. 43. &c. * Trotter's Essay on Drunkenness, p. 190. † Adair's Medical Cautions, second Ed. p. 345.

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