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stand me not. At present I am sowing upon United Kingdom. With this vast amount the highway; they hear the Word, but of glaring immorality in operation, how is afterwards Satan comes and takes it out of it possible that the labours of devoted ministheir hearts, lest they should believe and be ters of God can be attended with success ? saved." *

“There are those,” says an old Their several spheres of exertion are surdivine, (Watson, 1662,) who steep sermons rounded on all sides by obstacles of a disin drink; they drink away convictions, and, couraging and insurmountable nature ; while like the wounded deer, run to drink. The temptations are unceasingly held out to tavern bell, I fear, does more hurt than the allure the unsuspecting and unwary from the church bell does good.”

paths of righteousness, temperance,and peace. This almost universal source of ministerial The habitual drunkard is seldom induced grief and unfruitfulness, is not confined to to enter the house of God. He refuses to any denomination of Christians, or portion hear the word of divine truth, opposed, as of the world, as the following examples will he is aware it is, to the soul-destroying vice sufficiently demonstrate. A minister of of sensual indulgence. Thus the opportunity the Established Church, in Dublin, thus to admonish the drunkard to escape from writes :—October 20th, 1833, Sunday night. his horrible and degrading slavery seldom “Never since I entered this city, did I occurs, and the besotted wretch is too often witness such an outrageous and open vio-left, even in his sober moments, pitied indeed, lation of the Sabbath, as I did this evening, or justly despised, but unaided and unon my way to and from divine service! All the warned, to abandon his guilty career. dram shops and whiskey shops appeared to The cause of religion and morality, howbe open and illuminated; they were filled ever, does not suffer only from the personal with besotted creatures, who were shouting degradation of those wretched victims of and huzzaing, to the great terror of the intemperance, whose individual

cases, peaceable inhabitants, and annoyance of the lamentable though they be, are in fact, less female passengers, going to their respective to be mourned over, than the destructive places of worship. It is almost in vain for and pernicious influence which they exercise us to preach peace and soberness, if this on society. Every drunkard or sensual soul-destroying vice of drunkenness be en- character, paradoxical as it may appear, couraged by legal enactments. It would presents a dangerous source of temptation really appear this night, without exaggeration, to the neighbourhood in which he resides, that the flood-gates of hell were opened in and in particular to the family among whom our city, so fiendish, so tumultuous, and so unhappily he is domesticated. The devirulent were the wicked votaries who issued moniacal sin of drunkenness produces effects from these shops.” —

characteristic of all sinful habits, namely, In London, and other large towns, similar those who are enthralled in it having scenes may be witnessed each returning a tendency to draw others into the same Sabbath. Multitudes of wretched creatures melancholy and enslaving snares; hence eagerly enter those splendid Juggernauts of every drunkard presents a vortex of tempour land, the modern gin-palaces, and swallow tation to the more temperate members of with avidity the fiery poison which is pre- society, who are placed within the sphere of pared for their use. Sunday,” remarks a its attraction, and in whom the grace of God graphic writer, " is especially devoted to the does not prevail as the proper and efficacious worship of this great Spirit (Gin); and antidote. when the early Sabbath bells announce the The example of the drunkard, is indeed, arrival of that day, then do the lower orders at all times, calculated to excite the keenest begin to shake off the beery slumbers of the feelings of reprobation and disgust, in the midnight pay-table, and wander forth in minds of reflecting and pious men; yet, in maudlin, unwashed multitudes, to the the present day, the vice of intemperance temples of the great Gin; and there you has become so familiar to the eye, that it may see them, the aged and the infant of a appears to have lost, even to Christian conspan long, old men and maidens, grandsires templation, some of the most revolting and grandams, fathers and mothers, hus- shades of its awfully degrading character. bands, wives, and children, crawling and if this were otherwise, it can scarcely be jostling, and sucking in the portion of the imagined that a vice so opposed in all its spirit, which the flaunting priestesses of the bearings to the principles and practices of temple dole out to them in return for their Chistianity, and so destructive to all moral copper offerings.”

respectability and worth; would be viewed This picture, heart-rending and lamentable with such apparent unconcern by the great as it may appear, is but a correct represen- majority of the Christian community. tation of scenes which present themselves to The machinery now in operation to promote Christian observation, each coming Sabbath, the sale of intoxicating liquors, and the conin almost every large town throughout the sequences thereby resulting to the community

are truly appalling, and are calculated to * The Life and Persecutions of Martin Boos. alarm the minds of all sincere followers of

+ Letter from the Rev. Mr. Scott, of Dublin, the self-denying Jesus. curate of St. Andrews.-Saunders's News Letter.

At a moderate | Sunday in London, 1833.

calculation there are in England and Wales not less than 100,000 of these establish-| Supposing that the whole ments ; a number, which amounts to nearly of this sum was paid out of one to every twentieth house. In Ireland the expense of whiskey, there and Scotland, the number is often greater, still remains

33,100 0 and especially in the large towns. At a still Suppose that the parish more moderate calculation, there are not less contribute to Bible, Missionthan 500,000 or 600,000 habitual drunkards ary, and other similar societies 1,100 0 in the United Kingdom, in addition to a The entire sum expended larger proportion of those, who, by the by the Sunday School Society habits and practices of the nation, are gradu- on all Sunday Schools in Ireally preparing to fill up the ranks of those land, only amounts per year to 3,000 0 individuals, who, by intemperance, have been rapidly hastened, or are now on their

£4,100 0 way, to a premature grave. In addition to Which being added to the former balance of this awful array of evil, may be included an £33,100, there yet remains out of the conincalculable amount of injury, resulting sumption of spirits in this single parish from the pernicious effects of evil example. £29,000.

In opposition to this vast amount of After bestowing a pension of £50 per hostility to the spread of the Gospel, may annum to each spirit seller in Belfast, to be placed not more than 20,000 places of prevent them from doing injury to their religious worship, and not more than 30,000 fellow-creatures, there would remain the individuals exclusively engaged in the pro- sum of £12,500 every year, which would mulgation of divine truth. Hence it will be be sufficient to give £l to every head of a seen, that in the present day, the agents family in the parish, for any useful or chaactively employed to promote the kingdom ritable purpose.* of Satan, are actually about four times more In the year 1830, says the Rev. E. numerous than the instruments by wbich Bickersteth, the aggregate sum given to all salvation is announced to multitudes of the religious institutions put together, averperishing sinners. With these facts in view, aged but sixpence a year for each individual ! can it excite surprise that the labours of The bare duties on British and foreign Christian ministers and professors have spirits, amounted to thirteen times as hitherto been so little commensurate with much !" the results which might otherwise have been Not more than half a million sterling, anticipated ? The contributions also made per annum, remarks Mr. Baker, is contri. in support of the Gospel are trifling compared buted to the support of all the religious with the immense expenditure annually institutions of the present day, which are taking place on articles not only unnecessary designed to make an aggressive movement to mankind, but in the highest degree per- upon the empire of darkness and of sin. nicious and destructive to their temporal This is about a sixth part of what the inand eternal interests.

habitants of London expend Gin; a It has been estimated, that for the sixteenth part of what Ireland expends in period of twenty years after the establish- Whiskey; and not more than half of what ment of the Church Missionary Society, the inhabitants of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and there was collected for it throughout the Greenock, alone, devote to the same body whole nation £250,000 ; while during the and soul destroying poison ! + same period in this country, there was no During the last year, observes the same less a sum than £375,000,000 expended in writer, the free contributions to the Rethe purchase of ardent spirits.

ligious Tract Society, amounted to little The following estimate is made by Pro- more than half the sum which is sometimes fessor Edgar, of Belfast :

expended in the fitting-up and embellishAt a moderate calculation the cost every ments of a single Gin-palace. I Exclusive year to the parish of Belfast, for distilled of legacies, the sum contributed to this exspirits alone, is £44,500.

cellent institution was £5,741 4s. 6d. The cost of four large

In the three towns of Edinburgh, Glasgow, charitable institutions for the

and Greenock, there were expended in the relief and support of the

year 1829 one million sterling in spirituous destitute poor of Belfast, does

liquors alone. This amounts to twice the not amount to more than.. * 5,400 0 sum expressly devoted to Christianize the The support of ministers of

world. religion, and other religious

The police establishment of the metropolis instructors in the same parish,

of Christian England, costs nearly six does not exceed

4,500 0 thousand pounds more than is given to The expense of the Royal

support the six principal societies established College, of which Dr. Edgar

in London for the extension of the Gospel is one of the Professors, to

in Foreign Lands. Government, is

1,500 0

* Parliamentary Report, p. 88.

+ Idolatry of Britain, p. 81. £11,400 01

Idem, p. 81.

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The Expenditure of the

and the name of the Saviour brought into Church Missionary So

contempt by sensual and lukewarm prociety, London Missionary

fessors. Society, and Wesleyan

The facts adduced in this section, suffice Missionary Society, last

to show that the use of intoxicating liquors year amounted to 204,093 4 3 has, in all ages of the world, been the The expenditure of the

greatest of all obstacles to the diffusion of Christian Instruction So

Christianity. Every lawful means, thereciety, District Visiting

fore, of removing this Anti-Christian curse Society, and the London

ought immediately to be adopted, and City Mission, to

6,326 2 5 earnestly prosecuted by every sincere fol.

lower of the Lord Jesus Christ. Personal £210,419 6 8 sacrifice, if required, should be brought to

bear on this all-important question. The The Total Expenditure of

important duty of example among Christians the Metropolitan Police

carries with it immense responsibility; and in 1836

216,313 15 5 it is to this, in conjunction with their preExcess of Expenditure for

ceptive exhortations and authoritative influ. the Police

5,894 8 9 ence, in subservience to the divine blessing, The purity of the Christian church has that the success of this great enterprise too long been impaired by the Bacchanalian must be indebted, if it should ever accompractices with which it has been associated, plish its glorious object.

:

DIVISION THE SECOND.

MORAL CAUSES OP INTEMPERANCE.

SECTION I.

II. The ancient poets materially contributed to the currency of this delusion. Horace, in one of his odes, contends that

indulgence in wine is the most effectual Is it a custom ?

method of driving away care and sorrow :Aye, marry, is't;

Neque But to my mind,-though I am native here

Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines.* And to the manner born,-it is a custom More honour'd in the breach than the observance. That celebrated poet sounds the praise of This heavy headed revel, east and west

intemperance in the following manner :Makes us traduced and tax'd of other nations; They class us drunkards, and with swinish phrase “ Ebrietas quid non designat? operta recludit Soil our addition : and, indeed, it takes

Spes jubet esse ratas : in prælia trudit inertem, From our achievements though performed at height, Sollicitis animis onus eximit : addocet artes. The pith and marrow of our attribute.-SHAKSPERE. Facundi calices, quem non fecere disertum!

Contracta quem non in paupertate solutum."

Ovid also thus wreathes the cup with I. Delusive notions of strong drink a cause of intemperance.-II. The praise of inebriating liquors praise by poets, a fruitful source of intemperance.- Vina parant animos, faciuntque coloribus aptos. III. Ignorance and poverty, toil and care, causes Cura fugit, multo diluiturque mero. of intemperance.-IV. The sensuality and earth- Tunc veniunt risus, tunc pauper cornua sumit, liness of the community considered as a cause.

Tunc dolor et curæ, rugaque frontis abit. V. The association of indulgence with the social

Tunc aperit mentes, ævo rarissima nostro habits of life a prolific source of intemperance.

Simplicitas, artes excutiente Deo." VI. Festive indulgence a common cause of intemperance.--VII. The practice of toasts and The odes of Anacreon are familar to every drinking healths, an occasion of intemperance. votary of Bacchus, and are constantly echoed -VIII. Emulation in drinking and erroneous notions of hospitality considered as causes.-

in praise of wine. Athenæus, however, states, IX. The facilities afforded for the sale of intoxi- of the drinking songs of Anacreon, that he cating liquors and the allurements of publicans, feigned them, and that he lived in a common causes of intemperance.

temperate manner.f His effusions, as well I. INTEMPERANCE exercises a baneful as those of Horace, abound with glow. influence on national and individual welfare. ing encomiums on wine and its convivial An investigation, therefore, of the causes associations, but rarely, if ever, do they prewhich produce and foster this injurious sent to their readers a faithful representavice, is of paramount importance, especially tion of the reverse side of the picture. The to those who suggest remedial measures. poets of old unfortunately embodied in atA primary cause of intemperance will be tractive imagery, sentiments rather in acfound to consist in the desire to alleviate cordance with the vitiated notions of the bodily pain, or assuage mental anguish. age in which they flourished, than in unison Heedless of the consequences, the temporary with the pure principles of virtue and relief which they afford induce mankind, morality. on almost every ordinary occasion, to resort The productions of modern poets are not to the use of alcoholic stimulants. One less injurious in their tendency, and greatly prominent cause of intemperance is dis- contribute to the credit and support of this covered in the delusive notions which have popular fallacy. Some writers identify the obtained, in all ages of the world, in relation use of intoxicating liquors with the comfort to the beneficial properties of intoxicating and happiness of the more humble classes of liquors. These notions are not only mate- society, and delight to associate it with all rially strengthened by, but in a great mea- their festive occasions. Thus, by one writer, sure depend upon, the immediate and agree. it is described as the poor man's able effects which they produce on the “ Sweet oblivion of his daily care," animal powers. Like the waters of Lethe, while a flattering illusion is cast over the they have been supposed to impart oblivion opposite picture of the endless miseries to the soul, and freedom from the anxieties which result from unlawful indulgence. and cares of life :

Bloomfield, in his popular poem,

" the FarAnimæ quibus altera fato mer's Boy," speaks of malt liquor as Corpora debentur, Lethei ad fluminis undam Securos latices, et longa oblivio potant.*

sovereign cordial ;' and Goldsmith un

# Lib. i. ode 18. Virgil Æneid, lib. vi. v. 713.

+ Deipnost. x. 7.

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fortunately supports the same delusion.same nation, thus deplores the tendency of The latter writer thus laments the declining Burns' verses ;prosperity of the village ale-house :

"Robin Burns, in many a ditty, " Low lies that house where nut-brown draughts

Loudly sings in whisky's praise; inspired,

Sweet the sang! the mair's the pity, Where grey-beard mirth and smiling toil retired;

E'er on it he war'd sic lays." Where village statesmen talk'd with looks profound,

III. Ignorance and poverty, combined And news, much older than the ale, went round with extreme toil and care, form a prolific Obscure it sinks, nor shall it more impart and very general source of Intemperance. An hour's importance to the poor man's heart."

Ignorance and sensuality are ever united. A moment's reflection will convince the Men possessed neither of moral principle impartial mind of the injurious tendency nor of intellectual strength, are but too of sentiments thus conveyed in captivating prone to seek enjoyment in sensual gratificalanguage, no less false in their sympathy, tion. The transitory pleasures of sense than pernicious in their influence. In this often engage the attention, and captivate manner, however, the sanction of superior the affections, while the nobler and more talents is too often lent to perpetuate à vice durable enjoyments of intellectual cultivation, most odious in its character, and destructive are but too little estimated or relished. in its effects.

Excessive toil and care form other powerThe poetry of Burns, the Bard of Scot- ful auxiliaries to intemperance. The lives land, has contributed, perhaps more than of a large proportion of the operative part any other of like nature, to perpetuate and of the community are, in general, passed in strengthen the practice of drinking. He mere animal exertion, with few opportunithus addresses whiskey, as the muse which ties, or even motives, for moral or intellectual inspired his lays.

improvement. The habitations of this class

are too frequently found devoid of those O, thou my muse! guid auld Scotch drink:

domestic comforts which other branches of Whether thro' wimpling worms thou jink, Or, richly brown, ream o'er the brink, society possess. The duty of providing for In glorious feam,

numerous family often presses heavily Inspire me, till I lisp and wink,

upon them, while, in many cases, there is To sing thy name!”

but a scanty supply of labour for furnishing The two succeeding verses contain strong still scantier means of support. encomiums on this fell destroyer of human excite little surprise, therefore, that in too happiness

many instances these unfortunate individuals

resort to such attractive means of temporary “Food fills the wame, an' keeps us livin: Tho' life's a gift no worth receivin',

relief from their distresses, as may opporWhen heavy dragg'd wi' pine and grievin'; tunely be presented to their notice, and But oil'd by thee,

placed within their reach. Fascinating inThe wheels o' life gae down-hill scrievin', Wi' rattlin glee.

ducements to intemperance are held out at

houses established and licensed for the sale “ Thou clears the head o' doited lear; Thou cheers the heart o' drooping care;

of intoxicating liquors. At these seductive Thou strings the nerves o' labour sair,

abodes, the infatuated votaries of strong At's weary toil;

drink, endeavour, for a few moments, to Thou even brightens dark despair

banish the cares and sorrows with which Wi' gloomy smile."

they are depressed. An intelligent writer The next verse depicts in expressive lan- observes, “that the moral inducements for guage the estimation in which whiskey is held drinking inebriating compounds, are much in his native land.

more prevalent than even the physical pretences.

" " The desire,” he further remarks, “Thou art the life o' public haunts; But thee, what were our fairs and rants ?

“ for oblivion of care, of irksome business Ev'n godly meetings o' the saints,

and of laborious thought; expectation of By thee inspired,

drowning sorrow, and of repelling misforWhen gaping they besiege the tents, Are doubly fired.”

tune; the wish to feel ourselves prosperous,

or to be flattered by pleasing hopes, are the Burns thus concludes,

chief reasons for desiring strong liquors.* “Fortune! if thou'll but gie me still

Even individuals more elevated in the scale Hale breeks, a scone, and whisky gill,

of society, it is to be feared, endeavour to And rowth o'rhyme to rave at will, Take a' the rest,

obtain relief from toil and care by undue And deal't about as thy blind skill

indulgence in sensual pleasure. It is a Directs the best."

correct observation, that exhausting toils The writings of this poet abound with unfit the mind to withstand temptation, and delusive praises of strong drink; and it is a great portion of mankind are found but not unreasonable to suppose that thousands too willing to alleviate the ills of life with so of his countrymen, while admiring the soothing, but deceitful, an antidote, as is beauty of his language, have imbibed notions, presented to them in the form of intoxicating and adopted practices, which have proved liquors. injurious in their tendency, and fatal in their

* Lecture on Fermented Liquors, by Sir A. Carresults. Hector M.Neil, a rhymster of the lyle.

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