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spirituous liquors; if they produce vigourin sus a beverage which has nothing to tempt labour, it is of a transient nature, and is al- us to drink, except when we are really ways succeeded with a sense of weakness thirsty: At all other times, water is perand fatigue. These facts are founded on fectly'indifferent, or it is disagreeable to us; observation, for I have repeatedly seen those but when we labour under thirst, i. e., men perform the greatest exploits in work, when nature requires drink, nothing is so both as to their degrees and duration, who delicious to a pure, unadulterated taste. never tasted spirituous liquors.”

While we adhere to this simple beverage, Oliver, Dr., Professor of the Theory and we shall be sure to have an unerring Practice of Medicine, Dartmouth College, prompter to remind us when we really reAmerica : “ The waste of the fluid parts of quire drink; and we shall be in no danger our bodies requires the use of drink to re- of being tempted to drink when nature repair it, and we derive a sensible gratifica- quires it not. But the moment we depart tion from quenching our thirst. What use from pure water, we lose this inestimable do we make of this fact? Why, to try if guide, and are left, not to the real instincts we cannot find something that we shall take of nature, but to an artificial taste, in decidpleasure in drinking, whether we are thirsty ing on actions intimately connected with or not; and in this search mankind has health and long life. What is more combeen remarkably successful. To such a de- mon than for a man to take a glass of beer, gree, indeed, have we succeeded in varying or cider, or wine, or rum-and-water, not and increasing a pleasure which was de- because he is thirsty and really needs drink, signed by nature merely as an incentive to but because opportunity makes it conveniquench our thirst, that to quench thirst is ent, and be thinks it will taste well? And become one of the last things that people this is true, not only of fermented or disdrink for. It is seldom, indeed, that people tilled liquors, which are directly injurious in health have any natural thirst, except, in other modes, but, in a less degree, of any perhaps, after exercise or labour in a hot addition made to pure water to make it day. Under all other circumstances, we more palatable. Let me be not misunderanticipate the sensation by drinking before stood: I am far from insinuating that leit comes on, so as but seldom to enjoy the monade, soda-water, and milk-and-water, natural and healthful gratification of drink- are hurtful drinks. Far from it. But I ing because we are thirsty. Who has not say, that in using even these mild and observed the extreme satisfaction which healthful beverages, we lose one important children derive from quenching their thirst advantage we should derive from the use with pure water; and who that has per- of pure water alone. If they are more verted his appetite for drink, by stimu- palatable to us than water (and otherwise lating his palate with bitter beer, sour ci- we should have no motive to use them), we der, rum-and-water, and other brewages of shall be tempted to take them oftener and human invention, but would be a gainer in greater quantities than is required by even on the score of mere animal gratifica- nature, and may thus unconsciously do tion, without any reference to health, if he ourselves an injury. It is rare for a person could bring back his vitiated taste to the to drink a glass of water when he is not simple relish of nature? Children drink thirsty, merely for the pleasure of drinking; because they are dry; grown people drink, and, as thirst is the natural guide, if he whether dry or not, because they have dis- drinks when not thirsty, he takes more covered a way of making drinking pleasant. fluid than nature points out as proper, and Children drink water because this is a be- so far violates one of her obvious laws. verage of nature's own brewing, which she But it may be asked, if any injury can rehas made for the purpose of quenching a sult from drinking more than nature absonatural thirst; grown people drink anything lutely requires ? Not perhaps in particular but water, because this fluid is intended to instances, but the habit of drinking more quench only a natural thirst, and natural may undoubtedly be injurious. It is a sufthirst is a thing which they seldom feel. ficient answer to all these questions to say,

“One of the evils, though not the only that our Creator knows best. Under the nor the greatestone, of perverting the natural guidance of the instincts he has implanted appetite of thirst, is, that it leaves us with in us, we are safe; but as soon as we leave out a guide to direct us when we need drink these, and place ourselves under the direc, and when we do not. There is no danger, tion of our own educated appetites, we are it is true, that this want will lead us into constantly liable to be led into danger. It drinking too little; the danger is, that we is certainly hurtful to drink habitually more shall be betrayed into drinking too much, i.e., than was intended by nature, because it when nature does not require it; and such, imposes upon the constitution the task of no doubt, is frequently the case. If a man removing the excess; or else it is retained is fond of some particular drink (and most in the system and there may lead to dropsy, people have their favourite liquor), he will or to some other of the consequences of be tempted to take it when he does not the plethora, or redundance of fluids in the really need it. This consideration points system.” out the wisdom of nature, in providing for Van Swieten, Physician to Maria Thercsa

Empress of Austria, and author of " Com- thor of the Conspectus Medicina Theore- . mentaries on Boerhaave:” “ Miserable is the tice:” “The sole primitive and mainly nacondition of those who daily indulge them- tural drink is water; which, when pure, selves in the use of wine and spirits, for a whether from a spring or river, has nothing fatal necessity then follows of repeating noxious in it; and is suitable and adapted them; and at length almost the whole sys- to all sick persons, and all stomachs, howtem of the vital and animal actions depends ever delicate and infirm, unless, through upon a continuance of them.”*

depraved habit, fermented liquor should Arbuthnot, a scholar and wit of cele- have become necessary. Pure springbrity, characterized by Dr. Johnson as "a water, when fresh and cold, is the best and man estimable for his learning, amiable for most wholesome drink, and the most gratehis life, and venerable for his piety:" "Water ful to those who are thirsty, whether they alone is the proper drink for every animal.” be sick or well: it quenches thirst, cools the

Leake, Dr., a Physician of note, and author body, dilutes, and thereby obtunds, acriof several important medical works : • Pure mony-often promotes sweat, expels noxiwater is the fluid designed by nature for ous matters, resists putrefaction, aids digesthe nourishment of all bodies, whether tion, and, in fine, strengthens the stomach."* animal or vegetable. Water-drinkers are Cheyne, Dr. George, F.R.S., author of observed to be more healthy and long-lived" An Essay on Health and Long Life," and than others. In such, the faculties of the other well-known works: “Without all per: body and mind are more strong, their adventure, water was the primitive original teeth more white, their breath is more beverage; and it is the only simple fluid sweet, and their sight more perfect than in fitted for diluting, moistening and cooling, those who use fermented liquors and much --the ends of drink appointed by nature. animal food."

Happy had it been for the race of mankind, Parr, Dr., author of the Medical Diction- if other mixed and artificial liquors had ary:“Water, as it is the most ancient, never been invented. It has been an agreeso it is the best and most common fluid for able appearance to me to observe, with drink, and ought to be esteemed the most what freshness and vigour those who, commodious for the preservation of life though eating freely of flesh meat, yet and health.”

drank nothing but this element, have lived, Saunders, Dr., F.R.S., author of a in health and cheerfulness, to a great age. Treatise on Mineral Waters,and the Water alone is sufficient and effectual for

Structure, Economy, and Diseases of the all the purposes of human wants and Liver :" “ Water-drinkers are, in general. drink.” longer livers, are less subject to decay of Reid, Dr., a celebrated Physician, and authe faculties, have better teeth, more regu- thor of several well-known works : “Water lar appetites than those who indulge in a is of inestimable benefit to health; and as more stimulating diluent for their common it neither stimulates the appetite to excess, drink."

nor can produce any perceptible effect on Hufeland, Dr., Physician to the King of the nerves, it is admirably adapted for diet, Prussia, a distinguished Professor, editor of and we ought, perhaps, by right, to make a Medical Journal, and author of "The Art it our sole beverage, as it was with the first of Prolonging Life :” “ The best drink is of mankind, and still is with all the animals. water,-a liquor commonly despised, and Pure water dissolves the food more, and even considered as prejudicial. I will not more readily, than that which is saturated; hesitate, however, to declare it to be one of and likewise absorbs better the acrimony the greatest means for prolonging life. The from the juices ; that is to say, it is more element of water is the greatest and only nutritious, and preserves the juices in their promoter of digestion. By its coldness and natural purity; it penetrates more easily fixed air, it is an excellent strengthener and through the smallest vessels, and removes reviver of the stomach and nerves. On ac obstructions in them; nay, when taken in count of its abundance of fixed air, and the a large quantity, it is a very potent antidote saline particles it contains, it is a powerful to poison. preventive of bile and putrefaction. It as- “From these main properties of water sists all the secretions of the body.” may be deduced all the surprising cures

Fuust, author of a Catechism on Health,” which have been effected by it in so many and Physician to the reigning Count of diseases.” Schaumburg Lippe: “ Cold water is the Richerand, the eminent French Physician, most proper beverage for man as well as and author of several works of great imporanimals—it cools, thins, and clears the tance : “Simple aqueous drinks promote diblood—it keeps the stomach, head, and gestion, by facilitating the solution of the nerves in order, and makes man tranquil, solids, by serving as a vehicle to their diand cheerful.”

vided parts. The least compound drinks Gregory, successor of Cullen, in the Chair are possessed, in different degrees, of the of Practical Medicine, Edinburgh, and au- double property of dissolving solid aliments,


* Commentaries, vol. V., p. 322.

Conspect. Med. Theor., sect. 125-7

and stimulating the digestive organs. The Liquors:" " When mén contented themselves purest water is rendered stimulating by the with water, they had more health and air which it contains in different propor- strength; and, at this day, those who drink tions.”

nothing but water are more healthy and Rostan, a very eminent Physician and live longer than those who drink strong writer : “Water is, beyond question, the liquors, which raise the heat of the stomach most natural drink-that of which man made to excess, whereas water keeps it in due use of in times of primeval manners. Ab- temper. Such, whose blood is inflamed, stemious persons are not pale and weak, as live not so long as those who are of a supposed this effect only occurs when cooler temper; a hot blood being commonly water is drunk to excess. Those who take the cause of flushes, rheums, ill digestion, it in moderation enjoy, to a very high de- pains in the limbs, headache, dimness of the gree, all the faculties, as well moral as in- sight, and especially of hysteric vapours.”. tellectual, and often attain advanced age. Dr. Keill, author of the * Abridgment of the

Mussey, Dr., Professor of Anutomy and Anatony of Human Bodies :" “Water seems Surgery, Dartmouth College, N.H., President the fittest to promote the digestion of food; of the New Hampshire Medical Society, all spirituous liquors having a property by Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences, which they burt rather than help digesand author of a Prize Essuy on Tem- tion.” perance : “Water is as well adapted to Dr. Fothergill, an eminent Physician and man's natural appetite as to the physical writer : “ Nature has pointed out that mild wants of his organs. A natural thirst, and and insipid fluid, water, as the universal the pleasure derived from its gratification, diluent ; and, therefore, most admirably were given us to secure to the vital machi- adapted for our daily beverage.” nery the supply of liquid necessary to its Dr. Mackenzie, author of History of healthy movements. When this natural Health and the Art of Preserving it:“Pure, thirst occurs, no drink tastes so good, and, in light, soft, cold water, from a clear stream, truth, none is so good as water; none pos- drank in such a quantity as to quench their sesses adaptation so exact to the vital neces- thirst, to dilute their food, and to cool their sities of the organs. So long as a fresh head, is the best drink for children, for supply of liquid is not needed, so long there hearty people, and for persons of a hot temis not the least relish for water; it offers no perament.” temptation, while its addition to the circu- Dr. Stukely, a well-known medical writer: lating fluids would be useless or hurtful.” “Water, whether taken ordinarily, or me

Pratt, Dr., Author of “A Treatise on dicinally, and in small proportions, is exMineral Waters :" “ If people would but ac- ceedingly useful. It is the noblest diluent custom thenuselves to drink water, they and digester in the world.” would be more free from many diseases, Dr. L. A. Tissot, author of a work on such as tremblings, palsies, apoplexies, gid- ,, The Diseases of Literary Men." “ Water diness, pains in the head, gout, stone, is a drink nature has given to all nations, dropsy, rheumatism, piles, and such like; made it agreeable to all palates, and enwhich diseases are most common among dowed it with the property of dissolving the them that drink strong drinks, and which aliments. It is an efficacious medicine in all water generally would prevent. Water, cases where moisture is deficient, where we plentifully drauk, strengthens the sto- are troubled with acidities, or where the bile mach, causeth an appetite, preserves the has acquired too much sharpness. It greatly sight, maketh the senses lively, and cleans- assists digestion, prevents obstruction, keeps eth all the passages of the body, especially up all evacuations, makes sleep more calm, those of the kidneys and bladder. Water the head clear, cheerfulness more lasting, is a wholesome drink, or rather the most and the symptoms more gentle. If the effects wholesome, being appointed for man in his of wine are compared with these, we shall best state; which both strongly argue that find every part of the comparison in favour drink to be the most suitable for human of water." nature, answering all the intentions of Dr. Garnett, formerly Professor of Natural common drinks, for it cools, moistens, and Philosophy and Chemistry in the Royal Inqueuches thirst; 'tis clear, thin, and fit to stitution, and author of " A Lecture on the convey the nourishment through the smallest Preservation of Health,&c.: “While we are vessels of the body, and is a drink that is eating, water is certainly the best beverage. a rule to itself, and requires little caution The custom of drinking fermented liquors, in the use of it, since no one will be tempted and particularly wine, during dinner, is a to drink of it more than he needs. In the pri- very pernicious one.

The idea that it asmitive ages of the world, water-drinkers sists digestion is false; those who are acwere the longest livers by some hundreds of quainted with chemistry know that food is years, nor were they so often sick and com- hardened and rendered less digestible by plaining as we are.

these means. If food wants diluting, water Duncan, Dr., author of a Treatise on Hot is the best dilutant, and will prevent the

rising, as it is called, of strong foud much * Art. Eau Dict. de Med.

better than wine or spirits."


Mr. Sandford, author of Remarks on their mind and imagination. By such a Wine and Spirits," says: "The very great regimen did our forefathers arrive to an benefits I have myself experienced, in ex- extreme old age. It was the only step to changing the usual stimulant beverage of be admitted into the order of the Druids, fermented liquors for a more diluting one, or the priests and religious of those days."* leave me no hesitation in pronouncing pure American Indians.-" At the first arrival spring water to be unquestionably (with of the Europeans in America, it was not some few exceptions) the best liquor to be uncommon to find Indians, who were above taken with our meals, though condemned as 100 years old. They lived frugally, prejudicial by some, and rejected for no and drank pure water. Brandy, rum, just reason by others. The following ad-, wine, and all the other strong liquors, were vantages resulting from its use may possibly utterly unknown to them. But since the recommend it to those who are unacquainted Christians have taught them to drink these with its general properties; viz., that it is a liquors, and the Indians have found them great promoter of digestion in healthy sto. but too palatable, those who cannot resist machs, and by its coldness assists to lower their appetites hardly reach half the age of the heat usually generated in this pro- their parents.” 1

It is a powerful preventive of biliary Natives of Shetland.—“ In Shetland, the concretions, or gall-stones, as they are called, inhabitants give an account of one Tairand of urinary calculi, or gravel. It also villa who arrived at the age of 108, and assists all the secretions of the body; and who never drank any malt liquor, distilled as, according to the latest satisfactory ex- waters, nor wine. They say his son lived periments of Lavoisier, oxygen, or vital air, longer than he, and that his grandchildren is a component part of it; by drinking water lived to a great age, and seldom or never we actually receive fresh vital power. It is drank any stronger liquors than milk, a liquor, too, which may be found naturally water, or bland. This last is made of butin all climates, and is agreeable to most pa- termilk mixed with water.”+ lates; many take no other drink during their Natives of Sierra Leone.—“The natives whole lives, and yet enjoy good health, of Sierra Leone, whose climate is said to though engaged in laborious occupation,- be the worst on earth, are very temperate; a proof that water is well suited to answer they subsist entirely on small quantities of every purpose of the animal economy.” boiled rice, with occasional supplies of

Dr. Shirley Palmer : “The question has fruit, and drink only cold water; in consefrequently been put to us, What is the best quence, they are strong and healthy, and fluid to assist in the digestion of solid food? live as long as men in the most propitious and our reply has invariably been, Water, climates."Š pure unadulterated water. And such is the The Kaffres.-"Milk is their ordinary relish, such the zest for food, which the diet, which they always use in a curdled use of this delightful fluid as a beverage state; berries of various descriptions, and gives to a stomach unsodden and unsophis- the seeds of plants, which the natives call ticated by the stimulating compounds of plantains, are also eaten, and a few of the alcohol ; such the latitude of indulgence gramineous roots with which the woods and in solid aliment which it allows; such the the banks of the rivers abound. Occasionally, vigour which it imparts, not only to the too, the palm bread of the Bosjesmans is mind but to the organs of digestion: and found among them. Their total ignorance such the comfort and facility with which it of the use of ardent spirits and fermented enables those organs to perform their all-im- liquors, and their general temperance and portant functions, that the epicure himself activity, preserve them from the ravages of is no less interested than the man of letters many disorders which abound amongst the and the philosopher, in for ever abjuring other native tribes, to say nothing of the the worship of Bacchus, and turning from value of their independence.”ll his hateful and polluted altars to the pure The Circassians.—"Owing to their robust and crystal shrine of the goddess of the frames, and temperate habits, the Circasfountain.”

sians generally attain an advanced age, III. The health and longevity of water their diseases being neither numerous nor drinkers. 1. Nations and Communities.- dangerous. Their favourite beverage is the On this subject, both ancient and modern skou, a species of sour milk peculiar to the history present us with some remarkable East.”T facts.

A few examples only will be ad- The "Brahmins." Their temperance is duced.

so great, that they live upon rice or herbs, The Gauls.—“They generally lived 110 years; which was entirely owing to their * Long Livers, by Eugenius Philalethes; 1722, temperance and mode of living. They la- p. 112. boured much, ate little, and never the flesh part liii., page 494.

+ Kalm's Travels in Pinkerton's Collection, of animals, and drank no wine. They rose # Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, part xvii., p. before the sun; inconstancy, variety, and 693.

$ Monthly Magazine, July, 1815, p. 528. changeableness, so ordinary to their descen

| Barrow's Travels. dants, were not then known, nor agitated | Travels in Circassia, by E. Spencer, 1837.

and upon nothing that has sensitive life. either entered upon their 100th year, or If they fall sick, they count it such a mark had exceeded a complete century. Their of intemperance, that they will frequently names, residences, time of death, &c., are die from shame and sullenness; many have on record. lived 100 and some 200 years."

2. Individuals.-Dr. Farre gives it as his The Society of Friends.—The compara- opinion, that, “by the last grant of Provitive longevity of Quakers, or the Society of dence to man, his life is 120 years; and that, Friends, has been stated in a previous sec- where disease, arising from other causes, tion. As a body, it is well known that they does not shorten it, the reason why so few are remarkable for their regular and tem- attain to that age is to be found in the experate habits. Some years ago, with a view cessive stimulation to which the mass of the to the establishment of a Life Assurance community are continually subject.” The for their own body, they instituted inqui- Psalmist exclaims, “The days of our years ries, which resulted in the following inter-are threescore years and ten, and if by reaesting facts. Among other sources of ir- son of strengtń they be fourscore years, formation which received careful investiga- yet is their strength labour and sorrow!" tion were the public register of the parish Moses, however, who was the author of of Chesterfield in Derbyshire, and that also this psalm, does not intend to refer to the of the Chesterfield monthly meeting of lives of men in general, but to the condition Friends. The united ages of 100 indivi- of the Israelites then in the wilderness. It duals successively buried in Chesterfield was a judgment of the Almighty for the church-yard, ending November 16, 1834, sins of his people: “For we are consumed were 2,515 years and six months. This by thine anger, and by thy wrath are we made the average of each life to be twenty- troubled.”* five years and two months. The above The patriarchs of Scripture were reestimate of course includes a fair average markable for their longevity, and we have of the general population, whether tempe- already seen that water was their ordinary rate or intemperate. Of 100 individuals, beverage. Abraham lived to the age of however, buried amongst the Friends, end- 175 years. Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, also ing the 27th of November, 1834, the total died at an extreme old age. Isaac was at of their ages was 4,790 years and seven his death 180 years old, and Ishmael 137. months, that is, nearly double that of the Jacob attained the age of 147, and his son general population. Only two of the 100 Joseph died at 110. The life of Moses exburied in the Chesterfield church-yard tended to 120 years, and the inspired hisreached 80 years and upwards. Among the torian records of him, that in his declining Friends, 19 had attained to 80 and more. years “his eye was not dim, nor his natural Twelve only of the number buried in the force abated.” Joshua, Daniel, and other church-yard reached the age of 70 and Scripture characters, also lived to an adupwards; but of those who died among the vanced period. Friends, 30 were at least 70 years old. Numerous additional examples of longeThe “Annual Monitor" of the same respect-vity among the ancients are on record. In able society contains an authentic list of the History of the Maccabees, we are told the names, residences, and ages, of such that Mattathias died 146 years old. St. members as have died in each year through- John the Evangelist was more than 100 out Great Britain. In this document for years of age at his death. Simon Cleophas, 1836, rather more than 200 adults are re- successor of St. James, and the second Bicorded, of whom 90 .were from 70 to 98 shop of Jerusalem, was crucified under the years old, or an average of 80 years each. Emperor Trajan, in his 120th year.Of these one-fourth were from 78 to 98, and Narcissus, the successor of Cleophas, died, 10 produced an average of full 94 years. aged 166, under Septimus Severus. Oldus These facts urge strongly the claims of tem- Magnus, records the fact, that David, an perance and regular living. The Quakers, English bishop, died aged 170, St. Paul, although not professedly abstainers from the hermit, died aged 113; his diet was strong drink, yet, as a class, refrain from water and dates. His companion, Cronius, free indulgence in these pernicious com- lived 125 years. St. Anthony lived 105 pounds.

years; bread and water formed his ordinary The temperance and longevity of the food. James, the hermit, to 104 years; St. early settlers of New England, is well Epipharius, tol15; St. Jerome, to about 100; known in the United States. But a few Simeon Stylites, 109; Romualdus, 120; and years ago, the “Journal of Commerce" de- Arsenius, the tutor of the Emperor Arcadius, tailed the circumstance of five persons in to 120 years. Pietro della Valle informs us, New Hampshire, who had attained to the that, in 1626, Father Gaspar Dragonette, age of 110 years. Several of the early set- a jesuit, then aged 120, was not only fresh tlers of that district lived to nearly 100 and strong, but had all his teeth; used no years of age. From 1709 to 1840, 163 spectacles, and daily read his lectures in the persons died in New Hampshire, who had college of Rome with lively and impressive

• Sir William Temple.

* Psalm 90., v. 7. 10.

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