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cottages of the labouring classes, in clothes the above meeting, that he had received and furniture, over and above what they orders to erect a large paper-mill which possessed two years ago, besides a consider-would cost 4,000l.; and also that he had able increase of lodgments in the savings' got orders from gentlemen to build flour bank, made principally by the working and oatmeal mills. We rejoice to hear classes. The healthy state of the city such tidings from Ireland, and trust she during this inclement year, and the last re- will go on increasing in happiness and port of the fever hospital, speak loudly in peace, and true piety, till she indeed befavour of the cause.
come, what we hope she will yet be, great, The following extract from a recent re- glorious, and free. port of the Irish Mining Company, is im- With regard to wages, the report of the portant. After stating that the profits for Waterford Temperance Society informs us, the last half year amount to nearly 23,0001., that, at the Knockmahon Mines, “the a sum considerably exceeding that produced average amount of wages now paid monthly during any similar period, the directors at those mines is about 2,3001. Heretocandidly admit, that's a considerable part fore, the same number of persons, at the has arisen from the increased productiveness same sort of work, earned usually about of the mines, and additional economy in 1,900/n; besides, it is supposed that out of working them; which latter has been this they commonly spent, in using intoxigreatly facilitated by the more sober and cating liquors, about 500l. a month." industrious habits of the men employed, The increased savings of the poor is who have thereby participated in the com- forcibly displayed in the state of the savings' pany's profits, as well as by an increase in banks deposits. The following table is the market value of mineral produce.”
derived from the books of the Meatb-street In regard to the diminished exports of Savings' Bank Association, which has three food, a Dublin paper remarks: “The wheat branches; viz., one in Meath-street, one and flour exported to England in 1833, in Abbey-street (late Marlborough-street amounted to 844,211 barrels; in 1841, it branch), and one in Linen Hall-street. amounted only to 218,700 barrels, which It contains a period of three months; that tells greatly for the increased degree of is, the months of July, August, and Sepcomfort, as well as improved habits of the tember, in each of the three years. people.”
No. of Depositors. Another Dublin paper remarks as follows: “The beneficial influence which total ab- Meatb-street.
2323 2409 3019 stinence has exerted on trade, more espe. Abbey-street.
3419 3504 4030 cially home manufactures, in Ireland, is Linen Hall-street .. 1522 15201904 most gratifying. From the report of a late meeting of the Dublin Board of Trade,
Total 7264 7433 8953 published in the Dublin Weekly Herald, we learn that a great improvement has taken place in different branches of business in The pressure of the depositors in the that city, especially in those which are con- Abbey-street branch has since become so cerned in the production or sale of necessa- great that the committee have had to open ries. There has been a great revival expe- the bank another morning in the week. rienced in the Irish cloth trade, and the de- In 1841 the deposits amounted to 9,585l. mand for it, and other Irish manufactures, The smallness of the deposits shows that is now so great, that it is proposed to hold they were made chiefly by persons in humble a weekly wholesale market in Dublin, for life. The years 1840 and 1841, of course, the convenience of the dealers in these represent the period when the temperance goods. There are some very large hat reform had made considerable progress. manufactories in Dublin, and they are all The Rev. Mr. Mathews, the distinguished brisk and doing much more business than promoter of this great change, remarks:formerly. As an instance of the good “ Not less than three or four hundred teetotalism has done to shopkeepers, it was new books have been opened in the Cork stated to the meeting by the chairman, that Savings Bank since the spread of tempeMr. Hawkshaw, a draper in Francis-street, rance there.” In Limerick, the deposits of had, during the last three months, increased the savings' bank are nearly quadrupled his sales sixteen times the amount of what within the last three months, says the they were in corresponding periods of last • Chronicle' of that town. This is ceryear.
tainly a strong proof of the improved habits “ Public works are also going on, and of the people; for, from whence, in a land capitalists are beginning to employ their swarming with pauperism, or, as professor money in commercial pursuits, so that lu- Edgar once not inaptly styled it,
a land crative occupation will speedily be provided of whisky, beggary, and crime,” could for thousands of the unemployed natives, the pecuniary savings arise, if not from the and the good effects of this will soon be seen abandoned use of alcoholic liquors? in their improved moral and social condi- 5. The effects of temperance principles tion. Mr. Sheridan, the builder, stated, at' on the diminution of disease and mortality.
The report of the American Temperance troops have been on half, and the followers Union states that in Lyme, New Hampshire, on quarter, rations, and for many weeks in which had been sold annually about they have been able to obtain little or 6,000 gallons, the quantity sold that year was nothing in the bazaars to eke out this 600 gallons. “ The bill of mortality, which scanty provision. I will not mention, as a had, for six years, upon an average, been privation, the European troops from the annually 243, was reduced for two years same period having been without their to 17}; in 1826, the year before the for- allowance of spirits, because I verily believe mation of the temperance society, the this circumstance and their constant emnumber of deaths under forty years of age ployment have contributed to keep them was fifteen; in 1828 it was only nine.” in the highest health and the most remarkThe same report adds, “ that had every able state of discipline. Crime has been town in the United States pursued a simi- almost unknown among them; but they lar course, that is, used but one-tenth the have felt severely, though they never murusual quantity of ardent spirits, and had it mured, the diminution of their quantity of been followed by a similar result, the animal food, and the total want of coffee, number of deaths, that year, would have tea, sugar, and flour.” been lessened more than 70,000.”
Mr. Atkinson in his recent work on In the Connecticut state prison, with an Affganistan remarks:-“ Only thirty-eight average of 120 convicts—more than 90 of wound cases were received into our field whom were notoriously intemperate cha- hospital (at Ghuznee); six of them belongracters before their confinement--not one ing to her Majesty's 13th Light Infantry, of whom was permitted to taste a drop of two to her Majesty's 2nd or Queen's, twentyinebriating liquor after he entered the con- seven to the European Regiment, and three fines of the prison, there was no death for sepoys of the 48th Regiment N. I. Three sixteen months, and but one death for men of the European Regiment died in about two years.
the hospital; one from a match-lock ball Mr. Bell, surgeon to the Cameronian re- passing through his chest and injuring the giment, at Fort William, Bengal, relates back-bone, and the two others from matchthe following remarkable diminution of lock balls penetrating the abdomen, so as to disease among the solders, since the esta- occasion the protrusion of the bowels. blishment of a temperance society in 1837:- Happily the gun-shot wounds, the most
dangerous, were few. All the sword-cuts, Liver Complants. Consumption of Spirits.
which were very numerous, and many of 1832 ....111
them very deep, united in the most satis140 10,000 to 14,000 gallons.factory manner, which we decidedly attri1834 135
buted to the men having been without rum 1837 $2} 2,000 to 3,000 gallons. missariat having none to give them. In
for the previous six weeks, the comThe mean of the three years, when the action to produce fever, and interrupt the
consequence, there was no inflammatory large quantity of spirits was used, is 128 adhesion of the parts; a strong argument cases;
while in the two years of tempe- in favour of teetotalism.” rance the number of cases is sixty-six, or
The following corroborative testimony about one-half.
is extracted from a letter dated Jellalabad, The following additional table shows the and written by G. Godfrey, serjeant, 13th effects of diminishing alcoholic consumption L. I., June, 1841:—“The work that was upon the troops in Bengal:
done by our men from November to April,
in and about the fort, was surprising (even Sick p.Sick re. Temp.
to themselves); the duty was very severe, Society. Regt. Society. per cent and the rations inferior, and at times short January.
8.15 of the full allowance. During that time no February 1840 2639 2.27 8.27 spirits were served out.
There were no March.
8.66 court-martials, and never was the regiment April
10.28 in such good health, as I can remember. May. 1282
5.24 10.66 The effect of abstinence from intoxicating June. 1364
10.35 liquor was plainly seen and acknowledged
by officers and men.” In a previous section the influence of Mr. James Haughton, of Dublin, whose temperance so highly favourable to recovery connection with the fever hospital in Corkfrom wounds and other accidents was illus- street, as one of the board of managers of trated by several interesting examples. that valuable institution, reinarks, in a letter The following two testimonies, in refe- dated April, 1842: “ Teetotalism has almost rence to our soldiers in India, are equally banished that frightful disease, delirium forcible. Sir Robert Sale in his despatch, tremens, from among the poor of our city. dated 16th of April, 1842, writes as Previous to the temperance reformation, follows:-“ From the time that the brigade cases of this most fearful disorder were most threw itself into Jellalabad, the native frequent: often as many as four, five, or six
WATER THE MOST SUITABLE BEVERAGE FOR MAN.
in a week, during the whole of the last year. more important aspect. In the meanwhile, I have not been able to ascertain that even it is desirable that the officers of all our one bad case has been known in the hospital; public institutions should carefully collate a few (not more, I believe, than three or all the facts which bear upon this important four), of a mild character, have been re- question. The interests of humanity deceived. I need scarcely make any comment mand it at their hands. on this fact.”
In a letter written at Dublin, March, 1841, a resident of that city states: “Our public hospitals bear abundant evidence, also, of the improved health of the people.
SECTION V. I was informed lately, by a young surgeon, that the want of broken limbs, &c., &c., is severely felt, as subjects for young practitioners; also, that there is a greatly increased difficulty in getting bodies for dissection. In our largest hospital, there has been but one case of delirium tremens (wbis-whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.
Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging, and ky fever) for several months, and even
PROVERBS. that a doubtful one; although formerly it was not uncommon to have twenty or thirty Here's that which is too weak to be a sinner at one time. Deaths from fever have much honest water-which ne’er left man i' the mire.
SUAKS PEARE. decreased." Mr. Cadbury, of Birmingham, in his visit
Though I look old, yet I am strong and lusty: of inquiry to Ireland, states, in reference
For in my youth I never did apply to Limerick: “There is now no brandishing
Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood; of shillelaghs, no rows, less crime, fewer
Nor did not, with unbashful forehead woo
The means of weakness and debility; inmates of the prisons, a great diminution Therefore my age is as lusty winter of accidents and broken limbs resulting Frosty but kindly.-SHAKSPEARE. from them; less disease, and a great falling off in the consumption of drugs.”
Mr. Robert Charlton observes, in refer- 1. The suitableness and excellence of water as a ence to the same city: “The diminution of
beverage.--II. Testimonies of eminent writers disease is another striking feature to be no- on the subject.--III. The health and longevity ticed. A druggist at Limerick gave me to
of water drinkers. 1. Nations and Communities.
2. Individuals. understand, that the consumption of medicine at the dispensaries is wonderfully re- 1. The suitableness and excellence of waduced, and that the number of broken limbs, ter as a beverage.—The virtues and exceland other casualties, is now so small that lence of water have been lauded from an the surgeons at the Limerick, hospital have early period, whether as a beverage or as a comparatively nothing to do." One of the correspondents of a recent cribes it as
medicinal agent. The poet with truth desDublin paper writes as follows: “Our hos
The crystal element, pitals are giving striking evidence of the
The chief ingredient in heaven's various works ; effects of temperance. I was conversing The vehicle the source of nutriment with one of the founders of the House of And life to all that vegetate or live.
ARMSTRONG. Recovery,' and with which he has long been connected. He was quite uneasy at the Water is the natural and most suitable drink large old establishment of physicians, for man, and was the primitive beverage of nurses, and servants, being still kept up, the early ages of mankind. The records of while there is so little for them to do! The history testify to its early and general use average number of fever patients does not among heathen nations. The pages of now, he says, exceed 100 to 110, while it Holy Writ teem with allusions to this scripused to be 300 to 400. This, I believe, is tural beverage. It was the drink of the a pretty fair specimen of other hospitals, patriarchs. Solomon, in reference to its in&c. The young surgeons are in a despair- vigorating properties, says, “As cold water ing state for want of a supply of patients to a thirsty soul, so is goodness from a far with broken limbs, of whom, in bye-gone country.” The prophet Isaiah, in depicting days, there was abundance."
the blessedness of the Church when under Much additional statistical and documen- God's peculiar favour, represents the Altary evidence on all the subjects treated in mighty as saying, “I will pour water upon this section might be added. The forego- him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ing facts, however, will suffice to show the land.” The sacred historian informs us, nature and effects of that moral and physi- that when Samuel was wearied with the cal regeneration which has already made slaughter of the Philistines, so as to feel such rapid strides. A few years more suc- ready to perish, “God clave a hollow place cess, and the statistical information, which in the jaw, and there came water thereout, is now necessarily meagre, will assume a and when he had drunk, his spirit came
again, and he revived." It was the drink persons only, whose vital powers are at a low of the Israelites in their passage through ebb, are evil consequences likely to result. the wilderness. Elijah, although supplied The committee of the New York Temperwith food by miraculous interposition, as- ance Society, some years ago, after extensuaged the demands of thirst from the brook sive investigation, ascertained that “of the Cherith. Obadiah supplied the hundred published accounts of sudden deaths during prophets of the Lord with“ bread and water” the excessive heat of the summer, in every for their food. It was the beverage of the instance where the death was ascribed to smith while working at the forge in the the drinking cold water, or to the direct time of Isaiah. Eliphaz preferred the un-effect of the beat, the deceased was in the just charge against Job,” “Thou hast not habitual use of ardent spirit; and not one ingiven water to the weary to drink.” God stance was on record of such a death where himself is characterised as “the fountain of the person was in the habit of entire abstiliving waters.” The Saviour of mankind, nence.' The Journal of Humanity for when languid and fatigued, partook of this August 1830, contains the following corrorefreshing beverage at the hands of the Sa-borative statement: “ Nine cases of death, marian woman, and he declared, that who- from drinking cold water, have occurred soever should give but a cup of it to one of among the labourers engaged in excavating his disciples should by no means lose his the sections of the Bristol and Morris (New reward.
Jersey) canal, adjoining this place. We The nature and characteristics of water are assured by highly respectable physicians, stamp it as designed by Providence for the that, in ninety-three cases out of a hundred, use of man. Of all other drinks it is the the victims of cold water-drinking are those most healthful and refreshing in its effects. who have been addicted to the free use of It is not only agreeable in its taste, but ardent spirits." presents no temptation to excess.
Water," In the same journal, in a letter from remarks old Tryon, “throughout the world Greenwich, Connecticut, of July, 1830, it is in primitive times, and in most countries to stated, that “ during the preceding week, of this very day, has been, and is esteemed, excessively hot weather, no man who had the best drink, for that it gives to such as been of cold water character for any length drink it a full satisfaction; whereas, all of time had given out; that two persons other sorts of drinks especially that exceed had died in the vicinity, but that both were in any particular quality, do leave some of intemperate habits; that others had stopdesire behind, after a man has drank them, ped work, but all of them were given to the to drink more, though perhaps already he use of strong drink.” Again: the edition hath exceeded in quantity: Water is of the same journal of September, 1830, the only drink provided by the hand of Om-states the fact," that nine-tenths, if not all, nipotence for the innumerable objects of of the deaths from drinking cold water his creation,-a signal proof that no other happen among those who are in the habibeverage is necessary for the wants and tual use of ardent spirits. These stateconveniences of man. Food, in exhaustless ments are important and verified by everyvariety, in every clime and portion of the day experience. globe, is provided for his sustenance: the II. Testimonies of eminent medical wrionly fluid supplied by the agency of heaven ters on the subject:-Boerhaave, the disis the crystal element of nature !
and lecturer on the The virtues and advantages of water are Theory and Practice of Medicine, Leyden
University: “ If drink be merely required 1. Water, of all other kinds of liquor, for allaying thirst and dryness, and dimibest quenches thirst.
nishing the tenacity and acrimony of the 2. It is the most suitable liquid to sup- fluids, then is cold water, when limpid, ply that waste of the moist or watery parts light, and without smell and taste, and of the human system which it continually obtained from a clear running stream, the sustains.
best drink for a robust man. Food, not 3. It is the best dilutant of food, and too fat, or gross, and water as a drink, materially promotes the functions of diges-render our bodies the most firm and tion.
4. Water possesses important medicinal Hoffman, Frederick, Professor of Physic properties, as universal experience testifies. at Halle, and Physician to the King of Prus
The due use of water tends to promote sia : “Pure and light waters are agreeable health, comfort, and long life.
to the different natures and constitutions of A groundless prejudice exists in the pub- all men. “No remedy can more effectually lic mind against the use of water, from the secure health and prevent diseases, than errcneous supposition that it is a dangerous pure water. The drinking of water is serbeverage in hot weather, or during severe viceable in every complexion. Water proves work. The temperate man, however, may agreeable to persons of all ages. Drinkers use it with perfect freedom. In intemperate of water, provided it be pure and excellent, * Way to Health, &c., p. 245.
* Institutiones Medicæ, Leyden; 1713.
are more healthy and longer-lived than such and furnishing the most simple, the most as drink wine or malt liquors; it generally bland, and manifestly the most suitable supgives them a better appetite, and renders ply to the secretory vessels, and general them plump and fleshy. Those who drink humidity of the body. In a word, good water are observed to have much whiter water is the only fit and salutary liquor for and sounder teeth than others. Drinkers the ordinary uses of man; all others are of water are brisker and more alert, in all noxious, and that in proportion as they the actions both of mind and body, than such recede in their qualities from water. There as use malt liquors. Water is a remedy is no animal, man excepted, who does not suited to all persons at all times; there is reject these artificial liquors, (wine, and no better preservative from distempers; it other fermented liquors,) with disgust; and is assuredly serviceable, both in acute and from an impartial survey of human society chronic diseases; and its use answers to all in general, it will be found, that those who indications, both of preservation and cure, use water only, as their general beverage, The major part of the efficacy of mineral are, cæteris paribus, the most free from waters is, beyond all dispute, owing to the disease; and retain the vigour of life, and quantity of pure elementary water they its different functions, to a more advanced contain.”*
age.” Zimmerman, Physician to Frederick the Londe, a French writer, and author of a Great, King of Prussia, and author of the work on Hygiene : “Water is, of all drinks, celebrated work on “Solitude :” “Water is that which, by its constant use, is best fitted the most suitable drink for man; and does to aid in prolonging the life of man. not chill the ardour of genius. Demos- Kitchener, Dr., author of “ Directions for thenes' sole drink was water.”+
Invigorating and Prolonging Life," &c. Floyer, Sir John, a celebrated Physician," Among other innumerable advantages and author of a work on the History of which the water-drinker enjoys, he saves Cold Bathing :
“ Water-drinkers are tem- a considerable sum of money per annum, perate in their actions, prudent and ingenious; which the beer and wine drinker wastes, they live safe from those diseases which as much to the detriment of his health as affect the head, such as apoplexies, palsies, the diminution of his finances; moreover, pain, blindness, deafness, gout, convulsions, nothing deteriorates the sense of taste so trembling, and madness.—Water resists much as strong liquors; the water-drinker putrefaction, and cools burning heats and enjoys an exquisite sensibility of palate, and thirsts; and after dinner it helps digestion. relish for plain food, that the wine-drinker To the use of this, children ought to be has no idea of.—Happy are the young and bred from their cradles, because all strong healthy, who are wise enough to be conliquors are injurious to the constitution of vinced that water is the best drink, and salt children, whose spirits they inflame, and the best sauce. render them mad, foolish, rash, tender, and Barton, Dr., author of a work, entitled intemperate in their passions.”
“ Hints for Naval Officers cruising in the Cullen, Dr., Professor of Medicine, Uni- West Indies :” “ A more robust and vigorous versity of Edinburgh, and author of celebrated state of health could scarcely be found ihan works entitled, “Ă Treatise on the Materia generally prevailed (among the officers of Medica,” and “First Lines of the Practice a vessel called The Brandy-Wine, during a of Physic :." "Simple water, such as nature cruise) in the steerage, with one exception affords it, is, without any addition, the pro- of convulsive disease; and yet, these genper drink of mankind. All drinks which tlemen are well deserving tħe remark, one supply the necessary liquid, (that is for and all, of most entire temperance, having the support of the functions of the animal drank water only in their messes during economy,) do it only by the quantity of the whole cruise. I am of opinion, that elementary water they severally contain.”I young officers should drink nothing, habi
A Physician's Observations communicated tually, but water; because, I think water is to Sir J. Sinclair, and published by him decidedly the most conducive to vigorous with others of a similar nature, in his “ Code health.” of Health and Longevity :” “In regard to diet, Rush, Dr, the American Hippocrates, with a view to the preservation of health, and author of several well-known works : no one rule is of so much importance, as to " I maintain, with confidence, that spirituavoid all sorts of compound liquors, water ous liquors do not lessen the effects of being the only wholesome beverage, the hard labour upon the body. Look at the best solvent and diluent of the solid portions horse, with every muscle of his body swelof our food; supporting the tone of the led from morning till night, in the plough stomach, without exhausting its vigour; or the team; does he make signs for spirits
to enable him to cleave the earth or to
climb a hill?--No. He requires nothing * Dissertatio Physico-Medica, vol. ii. New Ex- but cool water and substantial food. There periments and Observations upon Mineral Waters. is neither strength nor nourishment in
† Treatise on Experience in general, and especially in the Healing Art. Chapter “ On Drinks.” * Mat. Med., part i., chap. 3.
* Noveaux Elemens d'Hygiene, tom. I., p. 150.