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Christians in conceiving that they might be At the anniversary meeting of the Wesclassed among the objects of a sound and leyan Methodist Missionary Society, held genuine couversion to the Saviour. in Bristol, May, 1837, a donation of £5
Mr. Dunlop confined his inquiries to the from the temperance society was presented third class. He had not only extensive to the treasurer, with the following note: general opportunities of obtaining informa- “ The enclosed sum of £5 is presented by tion on this subject, but enjoyed three spe- the members of the Bristol Teetotal Society cial occasions of information in the summer as a donation, in aid of the Wesleyan Misof 1838; viz., at the meetings of temperance sions; most of the contributors to this sum delegates, from various parts, in London, are labouring men, and several of them reLiverpool, and Glasgow. He explained, in formed drunkards, who, while gratefully acthe most distinct manner he could, that his knowledging that abstinence from intoxicatinvestigation was restricted to the third ing liquor has been the means of preparing class above mentioned, and found that the their minds for the reception of the glad average amount of cases of that description tidings of the Gospel, conceive that there might be fairly taken at seven in the hun- can be no better way for them to express dred of all who had become pledged mem- their sense of the divine goodness and bers of teetotal societies, who had been led, mercy towards themselves, than by contriin furtherance of their good resolutions, buting, according to their humble means, under the sound of the Gospel, and that to convey the same blessed tidings to their under circumstances of seriousness and so- perishing fellow-sinners in heathen lands." briety favourable to its reception. Mr. This is not a solitary instance. ContribuDunlop, therefore, calculated, that if the tions to benevolent and religious objects are members of total abstinence societies in 1838 frequently made under similar circumamounted to one million, an estimate not stances. overrated, the pleasing cases in the third In the United States, the temperance reclass would amount to somewhat more than formation has been attended with equally seventy thousand. The above estimate did pleasing results. A distinguished gentlenot include Ireland, nor, indeed, many places man, from the State of New York, writes: in Great Britain where revivals of religion, “ The great and good work of the Lord goes on a large scale, had resulted from the opera- on in the midst of us; and the temperance tions of temperance.
movement, like John the Baptist, prepares In those parts of the colonies where the the way of the Lord. One might follow in total abstinence reformation has made pro- the wake of this movement, and say, “The gress, the same results have been manifested. kingdom of heaven is at hand.'” Another
The Rev. James Cox, Wesleyan Mission- gentleman, from a different part of the State, ary, in a letter dated, St. Kitt's, West Indies, writes: " In this country, it is notorious that Nov., 1841, writes as follows: “The prin- those towns which have been the most acciple of total abstinence from all intoxicat- tive in the temperance cause, have been the ing liquor is progressing in these parts. most blessed by the Holy Spirit. In all the In our church, in this island, comprising towns in this country there have been revithree thousand five hundred members, the vals; and, as a general remark, it may be most pious, respectable, and intelligent, in- said, that in every town those neighbourcluding all our leaders, local preachers, hoods which have done most in the promostewards, &c., are all teetotalers ; and this tion of temperance have been most blessed is one reason, among others, that we are in religious matters. In C, the Spirit enabled to propose to our missionary.com- has seemed to follow the temperance effort mittee, in London, to support this mission from neighbourhood to neighbourhood, and without any expense to the parent society, so in other places. In short, so manifest is after the present year! The work of God the connection between temperance and has spread among us greatly during the revivals of religion in this country, that we last year or two; we have had an accession no more expect the latter where the former of more than five hundred members to our does not exist, than we expect snow in sumchurches; and (which is still better) tee- mer. This is of course a general remark. totalism mightily contributes to their stabi. There are, undoubtedly, exceptions." lity and purity. Oh! when will Christian A third document corroborates the above ministers, generally, awake to the import- statements: “A gentleman from Tennessee ance of this principle? Our Moravian writes, that the formation of a temperance brethren are also advocating the good cause society in his vicinity was followed by such in their congregations. In my native a revival of religion, as in those parts was islands, the Bermudas, through the active never before known; that in numerous other exertions of the Rev. Mr. Pugh, Wesleyan places where temperance societies were Missionary, teetotalism is widely spreading, formed, they were followed by the same gloand doing much good. The excellent go- rious results; and that in a compass of about vernor lately gave him fifty dollars for the three miles, as the result apparently of the purchase of tracts, &c. Three clergymen temperance reformation, more than three of the Church of England have espoused hundred persons were hopefully added to the blessed cause."
the Lord. And so generally has it been fol
lowed by such results, that it is spoken of vation, and experience, I have reached in various countries, and even on opposite a very firm and powerful conviction. I sides of the globe, as John the Baptist pre- believe that, next to the glorious Gospel, paring the way of the Lord. Whether the God could not bless the human race so much reason of this can be philosophically and as by the abolition of all intoxicating satisfactorily explained or not, the fact is spirits.” settled, that intoxicating liquor tends, from Numerous documents testify to the infirbeginning to end, to increase human wicked-ence of the temperance reformation on the ness, and also to render that wickedness per- good conduct and general welfare of the
The men, therefore, who make it, people. In Ireland these changes have and the men who furnish it, to be used as a manifested themselves to a remarkable drink, are, by their whole influence in doing degree. The amiable and distinguished this, increasing the vices and augmenting authoress, Maria Edgeworth, remarks, in the woes of mankind. And though some reference to the village of Edgeworthstown, of them profess to be friends of temperance, as follows: "The appearance of the workand to wish to have it prevail and become ing people, their quiet demeanour at maruniversal, they are taking the very course kets and fairs, has wonderfully improved in for ever to prevent it.”
general; and, to the knowledge of this The pastor of the church in Lisbon, New family, many notorious drinkers, and some, Hampshire, still more recently (1842) gives as it was thought, confirmed drunkards, an account of a revival in that place, have been completely reformed by taking in which about one hundred and twenty the pledge. They have become able and were added to the church. He remarks: willing to work, and to take care of their " Indeed, temperance and religion go hand farms and business, are decently clothed, in hand. The most abandoned to intoxica- and healthy, and happy, and now make tion are reclaimed, church members, see their wives and children happy; instead of, the light, acknowledge their errors, es- as before the reformation, miserable and pouse the cause of temperance, and witness half heart-broken. It is amazing, and that they experience a new and blessed em- proves the power of moral and religious ployment, and that their feet stand in influence and motive, beyond any other larger places than before.”
example on record in history." Many excellent and pious men, both in Mr. John Cadbury, of Birmingham, during this country and in America, testify to a visit to the western part of Ireland, in these blessed results. The venerable Tho- August, 1842, among other interesting demas Clarkson, the anti-slavery patriarch, tails remarks: “I was much pleased in a in his eighty-second year, thus writes: visit I paid to an extremely poor district, on “Though abstinence from fermented liquors, the first day of the week, to find the chilon the plan of the society, be not a teacher dren generally clean washed and neatly of moral duties, yet it has been found to be dressed, and the adult part of the people a great auxiliary to the conversion of sin- well dressed in suits of good broad cloth.
For it is a fact, that where drunk- On inquiry, I was told they were enabled ards have been brought into sober habits to do this by means of a plan very extenby the institution, many thousands of them sively put in practice by some of the shophave gone to different places of worship keepers, whose confidence in sobriety has which they never frequented before. Thus induced them to supply a suit of clothes, to teetotalism, though it be not a teacher of be paid for by weekly instalments; and I the doctrines of Christianity, is constantly was glad to hear, also, that contracts so putting its converts into a situation to made had rarely been violated. This speaks hear and to know them, and to reap the well for their honour and honesty." "And spiritual advantages which such instruc- again: “I uniformly found them ready to tion may afford. Thousands are thus re- join heartily in my recommendation of formed whom it is found that Christianity teetotalism. They often pointed to their had not yet touched.”
bed, to a table, a few chairs and decent The Rev. W. Jay, of Bath, thus adds clothes, as the fruits of abstinence from his personal as well as general testimony: whisky. Almost every hut, even the “ I am thankful that, all through life, I very poorest, contained a range of shelves have been a very temperate man, and for against the walls, filled with painted dishes, more than twenty-five years, generally, a plates, cups, saucers, &c., and around the teetotaler, but for the last six years I have other parts of the wall were highly-coloured been one constantly and entirely. To this pictures.” (now I am past seventy) I ascribe, under God, Mr. Robert Charleton, of Bristol, during the glow of health, evenness of spirits, a tour lately made in the south of Ireland, freshness of feeling, ease of application, made similar observations. “ One of the and comparative inexhaustion by public most striking results,” he remarks, “is the labours, I now enjoy.
improved aspect of the habitations of the The subject of teetotalism I have exa- poor. We visited many in the most inferior mined, physically, morally, and christianly; portions of the city of Limerick, and found and after all my reading, reflection, obser- scarcely a cabin destitute of a clean and
134 106 132 118
comfortable bed, and not only many of them
847 supplied with the requisite articles of fur
1838 niture, but with a good stock of earthen-'
708 ware; which, being arranged on the shelves,
529 in regular rows, gives
an air of great neatness and comfort. The children healthy
Diminution in 1838
201 and clean, and in general fairly clad, few;
60 exhibiting that ragged appearance formerly
193 so general among this class. Great num
125 bers, who were formerly in abject poverty, are now able to support their families in
In 1837, for example, there were of cases credit; and the quantity of oats saved from of drunkenness, 847 males and 134 females; distillation has been so great as to leave in in 1841, 424 males and 98 females; showing the country a larger proportion of grain, the ratio of decrease in males one-half, and which is now available for food.”
in females one-third. Daring this period, Mr. John Petherick, manager of the moreover, the number of inhabitants greatly Knockmahon Mines, remarks, in reference to increased. the men under his employ, as follows: “The In reference to Preston, The Morning vast improvement, both in the appearance Chronicle remarked, not long ago: “ This and habits of the people, since they became town, which, six years ago, was one of the temperate, is almost beyond belief; from most drunken and profligate, is now one of being a most dissolute, idle, and untractable the most sober and orderly towns in the set of workmen, whom no advice could in- kingdom. The best proof of this is the fluence, or example improve-clothed in fact, that for the last six assizes held at rags, and living, in many respects, worse, as Lancaster, instead of there being more regards personal comforts, even than the criminals from Preston than from
other beasts of the field, and of course utterly, di- town, which was formerly the case, there vested of every feeling of self-respect, they have been no criminals at all, and the judges are now the most industrious, orderly, and on the bench have publicly adverted to this well-clad people in the empire, and they remarkable change, and attributed it chiefly appear to appreciate so thoroughly the great to the influence of the temperance society, improvement of their condition, consequent in first making the people sober, and thus on the adoption of temperate habits, that I reclaiming them from all their various have the most perfect confidence in the per- prepensities.” manence of this change. They have sub- The diminution of crime in Ireland, since scribed funds for the erection of a temper- the temperance reformation has been yet ance hall and reading-room, which is now more extarordinary: in the course of building, and will be com- 'Lord Morpeth, in 1840, after detailing pleted very shortly, the expense of which particulars of the returns of outrages rewill exceed £300."
ported to the constabulary office, by which Testimonies to the same effect, from vari- it appeared, that, since 1836, they had ous writers, are very numerous. They uni- diminished one third, remarked, that “ of formly agree that an amazing change has the heaviest offences, such as homicides, taken place in the habits of the people of
outrages pon the person, assault with Ireland. Proportionate changes have at- intent to murder, aggravated assaults, cuttended the progress of temperance principles ting and maiming, there were in Great Britain. 3. The effects of temperance principles in In 1837
12,096 the diminution of disorder and crime. Co.
11,058 pious statistical evidence is on record to
1,077 show that crime has diminished in propor
1840 tion to the spread of temperance principles. In Aberdeen, as before shown, there has
“Some months ago," says one of the been a diminution since the operation of the Dublin prints, “one of the gaols, the Smithsociety of more than one half of the houses field penitentiary, was entirely closed; and for the sale of strong drinks; and, remarks in the Richmond bridewell, 100 cells were the Rev. R. G. Mason, “ the reduction of empty, the committals to prison having crime has been in proportion to the diminu- fallen off 1,200 in the course of one year. tion of public-houses."
The number of The numbers committed there for the same convictions in 1837, was no less than 402; period in three successive years were as In 1840, it was but 215.
follows: “1839, 3,202; 1840, 2,018; 1841, In Hull, a remarkable diminution of dis- 1,604. This may be regarded as tolerably order has attended the spread of teetotal- positive proof that crime is decreasing in ism, as the following digest of reports of proportion as temperance prevails.” prisoners taken into custody for drunkenness. The returns of the metropolitan police by the police will show:
show, that, in six districts, the number of houses closed in one year formed a total of 237.
The assizes for March, 1840, in various Green said: “Gentlemen of the grand jury, counties, exhibit, to a remarkable extent, I do not find on the face of the calendar the intluence of the temperance reform in anything, which calls for any observation the diminution of crime. The following from me.” extracts from the public papers exhibit a II.-Counties where the temperance restriking contrast:
form had not been established. 1.—Counties in which the temperance re- DUNDALK ASSIZES.-Honourable Justice form had made progress.
Torrens: “Mr. Foreman, and gentlemen of 1.-County of Cork.-Judge Perrin, the grand jury, I wish I could congratulate one of the ablest, most observant, and pains- you on the state of your county, but I cannot, taking judges on the bench, in Ireland, in in consequence of the number and magniaddressing the grand jury of the county of tude of the crimes that appear on your Cork, said, “ Gentlemen, I do not find any calendar; I find on it burglaries, robberies, case in the calendar calling for particular murder, all of which will come before you." observation by me. It is most satisfactory, Cavan.-Baron Foster: “ Thirteen pergentlemen, to find there is not a single sons received sentence for unlawful conwhite-boy case, nor a charge of a tumul- duct; the cases and offences are numerous; tuous character.”
you will devote immediate attention to the 2.-County KERRY.The same learned consideration of the cases." judge said: “Gentlemen of the grand jury, The same delightful change in the the tranquil state of your county is highly moral condition of the people did not desatisfactory, highly creditable to the inha- crease in 1841, as the following document bitants at large, for their moral, orderly, will show:sober, and peaceful conduct.”
MR. JUSTICE CRAMPTON, at Clare 3.—COUNTY CLARE.-Judge Perrin re- congratulated the grand jury on the ceived a magnificent pair of gloves from improved moral habits of the people since the high sheriff and grand jury of the he before presided in the county, and the County Clare, on the assizes having proved light state of the calendar for the present maiden.
assizes.” 4.-WATERFORD ASSIZES terminated BARON RICHARDS, at Wexford: “ As yesterday, with a result highly gratifying far as he could judge from the calendar to every one anxious to bear his testimony and from inquiries he had made, the country to the improved sobriety and morals of the presented a most enviable state of tranquilpeople, since the very Rev. T. Mathew's lity.” visit to Waterford. The grand jury of The Dublin Evening Post, in reference this city are about to memorialize the Lord to the above, remarks: “that the grand Lieutenant of Ireland, to diminish the num- jury, nearly to a man conservative, refused ber of police stationed in that city, that force to present for increased accommodation in being unnecessary, in consequence of the the gaol, and stated in open court to the great decrease of drunkenness; similar re- judge, that it was upon the ground that the presentations will be made from great increased tranquillity and absence of crime towns all over the south of Ireland.
in the country rendered such an expendi5.--DROGHEDA ASSIZES. — Judge Burton ture unnecessary.” said, “there was no criminal case whatever The Waterford Mirror says: “There is on the calendar.”
not a single prisoner for trial at our ap6. and 7.-COUNTY AND CITY
of proaching assizes. In the country the LIMERICK.-Judge Perry told the grand number is very small, and the cases trivial jury, he felt very great pleasure in congra- in character."-Waterford contains more tulating them on the orderly, sober, tran- than 30,000 inhabitants. quil, and peaceable state of that very popu- The Sligo Chan.pion says:-" The crown lous city and its liberties.
business is a mere trifle; we have not a -WICKLOW.-Judge Crampton said, dozen cases for trial, nearly all of which he felt happy to say there was nothing on are for petty larcenies.” the face of the calendar wbich required the The Dublin Evening Post says:-“At smallest observations from the court. Kerry assizes, the prisoners for trial are
9.-LONGFORD Assizes.-Baron Pene- twenty. In Clonmel (South Tipperary) the father congratulated the grand jury on the calendar contains but forty-eight, a fifth absence of crime, and the general tranquil- of the usual number in former times, for it lity which prevailed.
should be borne in mind that eight months 10.-MEATH ASSIZES.—There was not have elapsed since the summer assizes." a case of a criminal nature whatever.
The number of persons charged with the 11.-County Down Assizes.-Judge crime of murder within the Dublin police Burton said, “ Mr. Foreman, and gentlemen district, was, in 1838, fourteen; in 1839, of the grand jury, I have looked over the four; in 1840, two; and in 1841, in the calendar, and it is gratifying to me that whole metropolitan district, only one indiyour efforts to promote tranquillity have vidual was charged with the same fearful been attended with so satisfactory a result.” crime. This diminution of crime kept pace
12. - MAYO ASSIZES. Mr. Serjeant with the progress of the temperance move
ment. The decrease in burglaries was in, of December in the same year, remarks: almost equal proportion. In 1839, thelIn a highly respectable importing house number of individuals arrested upon charges in the city, the retail alone of coffee, tea, of burglary was seventy-six; in 1840, they sugar, and cocoa, has increased to an enorhad decreased to forty-eight; and in 1841, mous extent; that of coffee, for instance, they had diminished to the comparatively 1 cwt. per diem; tea, one-half to threesmall number of fifteen.
quarters of a chest, ditto; sugar in the same In the year 1838, there were forty-seven ratio." persons charged with breaking into and “Our meat shambles,” says a writer stealing from dwellings; in 1841, tb.ese cases from Dungarvan, Nov., 1839, "are crowded had diminished to four.
with the wives and daughters of tradesmen, There were eight cases of arson in 1838; labourers, and fishermen, laying out the and in 1841 there was only one case. money hitherto spent in whisky. The sale
The addresses of the barristers, or chair- of tea, coffee, bread, oatmeal, and all other men of quarter sessions, to the grand juries necessaries which may be deemed luxuries assembled in the different towns, in 1841, to the humbler classes, has increased in a afforded the most animating and encourag- ratio of 60 per cent, while the business of ing proofs of the benefits which have been petty session courts, within a circuit of fifconferred by the temperance reformation. teen miles about Youghal and Dungarvan, Mr. Hawley, Q. C., chairman of Tipperary has decreased in a ratio of 80 per cent.” sessions, described at considerable length the A gentleman writing from Dublin in 1842 change that had taken place in the habits observes: “I am informed, by a very respectof the people. “ The factions, with all able baker, that in consequence of an intheir train of evil consequences, their bar-creasing demand for soft bread, since the barising effects on the habits of the people, people left off drinking, he has now six men their violence, their mutilations, their homi- more in his employ than he used to have, cides, have wholly disappeared.” “ The in order to answer the increasing demands temperance movement has gone back to a of the people." chief source of crime, restoring reason to The Lincoln Mercury, for 1842, relates that supremacy which drunkenness de- the following interesting fact:.“ The advanposed."
tages of the spread of teetotalism in Ireland Mr. Purcell OʻGormon, at Kilkenny, ob- are strikingly illustrated in the improved served, in reference to the astonishing dimi- condition of many of the agricultural lanution of crime which had taken place, that bourers who annually visit England at this the following were the results of the calen- season of the year, compared with the dars for 1839 and 1840. “In the former, wretched state in which all for many years the number of cases was fifty-one. For appeared, with rags barely suffcient to January alone there were thirty-two. For cover them, and their pallid looks indicatJanuary 1840, there were only nine charged, ing their lcve of ardent drink; articles of and four found guilty. For July, there grocery were rarely needed; but now coffee were but four cases. For October, there and sugar have supplanted gin and whisky. were but four,-in fact only two. For the This pleasing alteration forced itself on the present January, there was but a single notice of the principal tea-dealer in Boston, case of assault." At other towns, the re-to whose shop multitudes of the sons of ports were also most favourable.
Erin have applied for the useful articles he 4. The influence of temperance operations vends, and a few days since one man puron trade, wages, and the savings of the chased for himself and comrades thirty-five poor.-The following interesting documents packages of coffee and sugar at one time.” will illustrate this subject: in reference to The revenue returns bear out these stateAberdeen, the Rev. R. G. Mason, in a let-ments. In 1839, the revenue from whisky ter dated from that city in 1840, remarks: was £1,510,092; in 1842, it was £964,711; “By the blessing of God on our prudent or, a decrease of £545,381. The revenue and persevering exertions, we are really from tea in 1841 produced £453,924. In achieving wonders on every hand. Moral 1842, however, it was £534,563, being an and mental reform seems to be the all in all increase in one year of £80,000. A Dublin of the neighbourhood; and the benefit that paper remarks, that the revenue returns for thousands are deriving from the cause is the port of Dublin, for the quarter ending truly astonishing. The bakers are selling October 10th, 1842, show an increase of more bread, the butchers are killing more £10,000 over the corresponding period of meat, and the tailors are making more 1841. “ The great consumption of tea and clothes.”
sugar, which may be attributed entirely to The Waterford Chronicle of November, the improved habits of the working classes 1839, states, in reference to this subject: in Ireland, has alone caused this very pleas“We notice coffee shops already driving asing result to the Excbequer." thriving trade; the bakeries obliged to do The report of the temperance society double work; the shambles scarcely equal for the city of Waterford, for the year 1841, to the demand; the grocers quite satisfied states: În this city and suburbs there are with themselves.” Again, the same paper, now at least £100,000 worth of value in the