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Forty-three bakers, tailors, carpenters, rious and heating employment of the manushoemakers, paviors, watchmen, straw- facture of gas,) all of whom unanimously bleachers and blockers, housemaids, grooms, agree in the statement, that they are in butchers, sawyers, bricklayers, dressmakers, better health, and are able to do tắeir work surgeons, ministers, and others of various much better, without the use of intoxicating avocations, signed the annexed testimonial: drink than with it. “ We, the undermentioned, members of the “That very important class, the fishermen Dunstable society, having tried fully the of our town, are probably exposed to the total abstinence principle, can bear testimony greatest hardships, and the greatest incleto the advantages we have derived, and our mency of weather, of any that we could ability to follow our usual avocations more refer to. Many of these have united themefficiently without the use of any intoxicat- selves with us, and, notwithstanding the ing liquors."

severe nature of their employment, and the The annexed testimonial from Oswestry, privations they have to endure, to which signed by one hundred and thirty-one indi- landsmen are strangers, they state that viduals, of various avocations, of whom there is no difficulty in performing the seventy-eight had tried the principle for hardest labour without the aid of the intoxinot less than three and a half years, and cating glass ; that though it may stimuthirty-one from two to two and a half years, late them for a time, it soon loses its effect, is equally strong: “We, the undersigned, and makes them less able to endure exhaving tried fully the total abstinence posure than before they took it.” This tesprinciple, can bear testimony to the advan- timony is remarkably confirmed by a very tages we have derived from it, and our interesting communication recently received ability to labour more efficiently without from St. Ives, in Cornwall, in which it is the use of intoxicating liquors." Among stated, that of the many hundred fishermen those who signed the above document were who belong to that port, upwards of threeabout twelve agriculturists who had worked fourths are pledged teetotalers; and their several harvests on the principle, twenty- testimony is, that, placed under any privaseven colliers, six blacksmiths, and num- tion, or placed in the most trying circumbers of labourers, lime-burners, carpenters, stances, they can get through their labour bricklayers, stone-masons, machine-makers, much better without intoxicating drinks butchers, gardeners, farmers, millers, engi- than with them. The letter further states, neers, skinners, waggoners, and workmen that the fishermen of St. Ives have had and shopkeepers of various descriptions. the most severe trials on the cold water

G. S. Kenrick, Esq., late of the Varteg principle. “ There have been times, when Iron Works, April, 1840, states the follow- they have been in the fishing-boats for ing facts: “Our society consists of persons sixteen hours, without fire, or anything employed in the iron-works, embracing a warm, and yet have sustained no incongreat variety of occupations, and I should venience. During the pilchard fishery, in say that about two-thirds of them are col- the winter months, (an employ which was liers and miners, who work very hard with thought impossible to be performed without the mandrel and sledge, for twelve hours a the use of drinks,) men have been carrying day, and these men keep their pledge well; the fish in baskets, from the shore, through they find themselves full as well in health, the water, for six, eight, and even ten hours and capable of doing more work, for they a day, without one drop of the drunkard's lose no time in the public houses. There drink; and, in some instances, on nothing are many other societies at the iron-works, but cold water and bread.” from here to Merthyr, to which the same In the “Report” annexed to the comobservations will apply. I am in possession munication referred to, it is stated, that of declarations, signed by pudlers and fire "out of eighty-eight vessels belonging to men, from here to Merthyr, who have been that port, seventy-four sail without the teetotalers from two to three years, and who use of the poisonous draugth, their crews say they can do their work with more ease, being nearly all teetotalers, and forty-four and enjoy better health, than when they of the masters are pledged members;" and made use of the drunkard's drink.” that “ during the last pilchard fishery, so

The third annual report of the Scarbo. great was the reformation effected, that, rough Society, published 1840, contains the out of two thousand persons then emfollowing statement: “We have in our ployed, there was scarcely a drunkard to be ranks, sailors, carpenters, fishermen, brick- seen.' layers, stone-masons, sawyers, shoemakers, The following testimony, from resitailors, whitesmiths, and many others, (in- dents at Douglas, Isle of Man, corroborates cluding one who is engaged in the very labo- | the above document:

“ We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, hereby certify, that we have been in the habit of using intoxicating liquors for many years, while employed in the cod and herring fisheries upon the coasts of this Ísland; that we have also adopted and acted upon the principle of total abstinence from all intoxicating, liquors for many months; and we give it as our unanimous opinion, fron personal experience,

53 years

20 years

Two years.

Five years.

Two years.


that we have felt no inconvenience or loss of health by abandoning the drunkard's drink; but, on the contrary, have been better able to attend to our duties, while we can endure more fatigue and toil, both by night and by, day, and in every respect we feel more happy in mind, healthy in body, and comfortable in circumstances, than when we spent our time and money at the public house. This declaration we make before the world, conscious of the advantages resulting from the adoption of total abstinence from all that can intoxicate.

“Signed in Douglas, in the Isle of Man, on the 12th day of September, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, Name.

Used Liquors.

Thomas Shimmin, Peel,

Nine months.
James Cain, Peel,


Six months.
William Corkill, Peel, 42


Three years.
Thomas Craine, Michael, 50


Six months.
William Craine, Ramsey, 31


Eleven months.
William Quayle, do. 57

William Goldsmith, do. 30


Fifteen months.
Thomas Cain, Patrick, 40

Robert Kelly, Douglas, 41


Fifteen months.
John Cannell, Colby,


One year & half.
James Renny, Chester, 47

Robert Tear, Ramsey,


One year & half.” These interesting testimonials might be ligion, good conduct, and the general welfare of multiplied to an almost unlimited extent.

the people. 3. The effects of temperance princi

ples in the diminution of disorder and crime. Those adduced, however, illustrate the be- The influence of temperance operations on trade, nefits of a principle embraced with the wages, and the savings of the poor. 5. The effects happiest results by tens of thousands of of temperance principles in the diminution of

disease and mortality. our hard-working men in various parts of the United Kingdom.

I. The constitution and principles of temperance societies.In consequence of the dreadful prevalence of intemperance, temperance societies were established in Ger.

many, in the sixteenth century. The SECTION IV.

nobility and upper classes, in particular,

were addicted to the vice of intemperTHE NATURE AND OPERATIONS OF TEMPERANCE ance. The first association of this kind, of

which we have any account, was instituted by Sigismond de Dietrichstein, under the

auspices of St. Christopher, A.D. 1517.I own myself a friend to the laying down of (strict) Maurice Landgrave of Hesse formed, A.D. rules, and rigidly abiding by them. Indefinite re- 1600, a similar association, under the name solutions of abstemiousness are apt to yield to ex- of “The Order of Temperance.” Several traordinary occasions; and extraordinary occasions of the reigning princes, and many of the to occur perpetually. rule is, the more tenacious we grow of it; and many principal nobles of Germany, ranked among a man will abstain rather than break his rule, who lits supporters. The first law of this assowould not easily be brought to exercise the same ciation was as follows: “Be it ordained, tion, that, when our rule is once known, we are that every member of this society pledges provided with an answer to every importunity. himself, from its institution, which dates

PALEY's Moral PHILOSOPHY. December 25th, 1600, never to become inI have long been a convert, from a conviction, toxicated.” The other rules of this associfounded on experience and observation, that they ation, however, strangely contrast with its (the total abstinence societies) are most instrumen- professed object as specified in its first retal in raising thousands and tens of thousands from gulation. Each member was limited to habits, and converting sinners from the ways of fourteen glasses of wine daily. A knight, vice to those of religion. I need scarcely add, that for example, was allowed at each meal I think every clergyman wko has the welfare of his (twice a day) seven bocaux, or glasses of parishoners at heart, and is really zealous, in the wine, which were to be drunk in not less Cause of his profession, ought to give them his sup- than three draughts. The size of the cups port.-THE BISHOP OF NORWICH.

is not specified. Beer, mineral water,

toast-and-water, and other beverages, were I. The constitution and principles of temperance permitted at meals

. Spanish wines, howsocieties.- II. The inefficiency of temperance so- ever, and brandy, Geneva, and strong malt cieties based on the moderate use of inebriating liquors, such as London porter, which was liquors.—III. Details of the operations of tem- in repute abroad even at that early period, perance societies. 1. General statistical facts on the progress of the cause. 2. The influence of and Hamburgh double ales, were intertemperance operations on education, morals, re- dicted. The members were bound, by their


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pledge, for the space of two years. A third the only practicable and efficacious means institution of this kind was established and of eradicating the evil of intemperance. patronized by Count Palatine, Frederick The operations of these societies, in Amethe Fifth. It was denominated “The Golden rica, have been eminently attended with Ring.” These associations were not only success. In Great Britain, and also in limited in their usefulness, but transitory ticular in Ireland, these operations have in their existence. In the year 1691, the had a salutary and beneficial effect. Duke Ernest Augustus, of Brunswick, “ The highly-instructed and intelligent Lunenberg, issued an edict to regulate and men through a series of generations shall diminish the sale of brandy, in which it have directly within their view an enormous was stated that “ brandy was then no longer nuisance and iniquity, and yet shall very used by the common people as a means of rarely think of it, and never be made restassisting digestion, for which alone it was less by its annoyance; and so its odiousoriginally recommended, but as a daily be- ness shall never be decidedly apprehended verage, and a means of getting drunk.” till some individual or two, as by the acquiThe first edict, however, respecting brandy- sition of a new moral sense, receive a sudden drinking, is dated A.D. 1360.

intuition of its nature, a disclosure of its The appalling extent of intemperance, in most interior essence and malignity—the esthe early part of the nineteenth century, sence and malignity of that very thing throughout a large portion of the globe, and which has been offering its quality to view, particularly in England and in America, without the least reserve, and in the most first led to the establishment of modern flagrant signs, to millions of observers. temperance societies. Hitherto, all attempts The institution of temperance societies at reform had been looked upon as imprac- demands our serious consideration, not only ticable. In America, this melancholy state as a means of self-preservation, but also of morals was regarded by wise and reflect- from its paramount importance as a measure ing persons with equal alarm and despair. calculated to ensure the safety of our fami

The social habits of life, the solemn cere- lies, and the welfare and happiness of future monies of death, even the sacred offices generations. Sensual temptations, in conof religion, were almost universally conta-nexion with the pernicious and enslaving minated with this all-pervading and demo-usages of intemperance, so prevalent in this ralising vice.

country, reduce thousands to eternal ruin. The American Temperance Society was The poet remarks— instituted in 1826. Itowes its origin to the

He who can guard 'gainst the low baits of sense, writings and labours of the Rev. Dr. Lyman Will find temptation's arrows hurtless strike Beech, and others, whose zeal in the cause Against the brazen shield of Temperance, of morals and humanity will render them

For 'tis the inferior appetites enthral

The man, and quench th' immortal light within conspicuous in the annals of philanthropy and patriotism. This institution, through The senses take the soul an easy prey, the blessing of God, has materially contri- And sink the imprison'd spirit into brute. buted, by its salutary operations, to save The mode by which temperance societhat country from impending ruin.

ties produce their salutary operations is In the year 1829, temperance societies simple and efficient. were established in our own country. These

1. The principal object which temperance were eventually concentrated under one societies have in view, is, to diffuse inforgeneral denomination.

The American and mation the subject of intoxicating British societies were constituted on the liquors, and to disabuse the public mind same principle--a mutual agreement to concerning the false estimate they have abstain altogether from the use of distilled formed in regard to the beneficial properliquors, and to discountenance the causes ties which they are supposed to possess, as and practices ofintemperance. In England, well as to collect information relative to the however, and to a limited extent, also, in evils of intemperance, and to present it to America, the consumption of ardent spirits the world as an inducement to the adoption did not constitute the most powerful source of remedial measures. of intemperance. Hence, the ultimate for- 2. The constitution of these societies is mation of temperance societies, based on simple. It consists merely of a social union the principle of total abstinence from all in- of such persons as are disposed to promote toxicating liquors.* This was seen to be the fundamental principles of the associa

tion. This measure, in fact, includes not * Speculations not unfrequently appear in the only a profession of approval, but it also inpublic prints in reference to a phrase, by which volves an obligation of co-operation. these societies are known in various parts of the kingdom-Teetotal. It is a provincial expression, and of Lancashire origin. It means “entire,” through creased force to his resolutions, “I will give it up abstinence, in contradistinction to the half-and-half, teetotally.” It is in fact a repetition of the same or, as it is termed in the popular language, “mode- sentiment-a resolve upon resolve—a final, and, in ration scheme.”-If an individual-slave to some sin intention at least, unalterable decision. Hence the -intemperance, for example-resolves to abandon phrase “ Teetotal,” as applied to temperance soit altogether, he not uncommonly makes use of cieties. double words to clench the matter, or to give in- * Foster on the Evils of Popular Ignorance.



3. To effect this result, a document, in Apostle Paul declares, that it is our duty, the form of an acknowledgment or engage- both by precept and example, to “ consider ment is drawn up, called a “Pledge,” which one another, to provoke unto love and to all persons who desire to unite with the so- good works,” and which St. James deciety are called upon to subscribe. This scribes as “pure and peaceable, full of mercy act is understood to constitute an open pro- and good fruits.” fession of approval of, and determination to It is a mistaken notion that the prinadhere to, the principles upon which the ciples of these societies embrace in their institution is founded.

object the intemperate part only of the The amiable and respected Judge Cramp- community. The reformation of the drunkton thus ably combats the objection ard is an important consideration in the which some individuals urge against pledg- grand scheme of Christian benevolence. On ing themselves to a course of action :- the principle, however, that "prevention is

First.—To pursue a virtuous or inno- better than cure,” the principal means of cent course of action cannot be wrong : its accomplishment necessarily depend on such is also our duty.

the influence and exertions of the sober Secondly.- To resolve on following a vir- part of the community. tuous or innocent course of action cannot To describe the benefit wbich would be wrong : such is also our duty.

result from a general disuse of intoxicating Thirdly. To declare to others our reso- liquors would be to exhibit the reverse lution to follow a virtuous or innocent side of the melancholy picture delineated in course of action cannot be wrong : such this volume. If this moral and physical a declaration may in some instances be in- scourge were banished from our beloved expedient; in others it may be useful ; but country, religion, morals, individual happiwhether expedient or not, it cannot be ness, and national prosperity, would be wrong. Reason and experience testify the promoted and augmented to an incalculable vast power of example and of influence, in extent. leading human beings either to vice or to Objections are not unfrequently urged virtue, to happiness or to misery; and re-against the institution of temperance socieligion commands us to “let our light so ties, on the ground that there is no scriptushine before men, that they may see our ral command for abstinence of this kind; good works." The publication, therefore, and that to propound this remedy for inof good resolutions cannot be wrong. temperance is to propose a scheme which,

Fourthly.To make public, by writing, in fact, supersedes and derogates from the our resolution to pursue a virtuous or in- character of the Gospel, and endeavours to nocent course of action, as it changes impose upon mankind restraints which God neither the nature of the thing, nor the re- does not either require at our hands or ausponsibility of the agent, can be no more thorise in his holy Word. wrong than to make or publish such reso- The Christian reader will readily perlution in any other way. Subscription in ceive the fallacy of these popular objections. writing, wbich is a written declaration of The Gospel is acknowledged by all to be intention, is only a more clear, deliberate, the only means of salvation; the Word of and unequivocal avowal of that which our God, however, nowhere prohibits the emconsciences have already admitted to be a ployment of subordinate means to remove duty.

those unnatural obstacles to its reception Fifthly. It is every man's duty to love which so universally prevail in the present his neighbours, and to do them all the good day. In no part of the Scriptures is there which he can by honest means effect. He, found a command for the habitual and therefore, who resolves to pursue a course dietetic use of intoxicating liquors. In of action laudable or innocent in itself, is many parts of the sacred Book are found bound to publish such his resolution, if that decisive proofs of divine approbation of publication be calculated to advance the those who abstain from their use. The interests of his fellow-creatures ; and if Scriptures contain no specific commands in the good end can be best effected by a relation to many evils which the pure prinwritten publication or subscription, then ciples of divine inspiration can by no means such a written publication or subscription tolerate. Among these may be included is plainly a matter of duty.

theatrical entertainments, gambling, and The fundamental principles of temper- other sinful amusements, some of which ance societies are included in the great obstructed the diffusion of Christianity in laws of Christian charity and self-preserva- the time of St. Paul. Ferocious exhibition. They are, indeed, the offspring and tions of gladiatorial skill took place in the a noble exemplification of that first prin- city of Rome, at the time St. Paul wrote his ciple of Christianity so beautifully de- Epistle to the Romans, and yet no literal scribed and admirably illustrated by St. condemnation of this practice is to be found Paul, under the name of ayann, 1 Cor.xiii., in the writings of that Apostle. the true meaning of which word is “bene- Many eminently useful institutions are volence” or “love.” In reference to this ce- in operation in the present day, as auxililebrated and primary Christian virtue, the aries to the Gospel, for which there is no direct command in the Bible ; who, how. was in vain, except as it was a preparatory ever, in this age of sacred light, would on work for a more efficient means. Seeing this account condemn or prohibit the for- that the old pledge was useless, I was commation of bible and missionary societies, pelled, from conviction, to give it up and Sabbath-shools, and other similar esta- adopt the new. It is now about two years blishments ? These subordinate institu- since we recommenced our operations, and tions, indeed, are distinguished manifesta- such has been the result, that not only mytions of the essence of Christianity, which self, but thousands of dying drunkards, teaches us not only to “ deny ungodliness have cause to bless God for inducing us to and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, sign the total abstinence pledge.” righteously, and godly” ourselves, but also Dr. Ferrier, of Edinburgh : Mr. Wright, to do our utmost to promote the temporal formerly a barrister, and now a pastor of happiness and eternal welfare of our fellow- an independent congregation, and a gentlecreatures.

man of great worth and influence, states The Gospel is adequate to remove the that, within the last fifteen months, more vice of intemperance ; its principles, how- have signed the new society's declaration ever, have not hitherto been brought to than have signed the old since its combear upon the evil. The remonstrances mencement, eight or

nine years ago. and denunciations of Christian teachers About one half of his congregation are rehave almost invariably been directed claimed drunkards.” - “Mr. M‘Lean inagainst the drunkard, while the source or forms me that the old society has never resources of the evil have been either par- ceived more than 7,000 or 8,000 signatures, tially or altogether overlooked and ne- whereas the new has had 15,000. That glected. Let Christian temperance be advo- there are not fewer than a thousand recated from our pulpits, and in our various claimed drunkards in the new society, religious institutions, and, doubtless, ere while the old could scarcely number one. long, the vice of intemperance, with all its Indeed, the advocates of the old society attendant evils, will be removed from our seldom attempted to reclaim a drunkard.' land.

“Mr. Kinniburgh stated the other day, II. The inefficiency of temperance societies that the new society had done more good based on the moderate use of inebriating in his district, during the seven months liquors.—Temperance societies established that it had been in existence, than the old on the principle of abstinence from ardent society had done in the seven years and a spirits alone, it is evident, were insufficient half that it had existed there. The tailors, to remove the evils of intemperance. In printers, shoemakers, &c., branches of the some districts, in particular, fermented old society, have come over in a body to liquors were the only inebriating beverages the new.--At Prestonholm, a small village in common use. Wines, moreover, as shown near Edinburgh, the whole population, in a previous section, contain large por- with very few exceptions, has joined the tions of brandy ; so that indulgence in fer- new society. . Formerly, on the week after mented liquors, among the opulent at least, receiving their pay, not above a third of the is but another mode of drinking ardent usual quantity of work was done, but since spirits. It is an important fact, also, that they have adopted the principles of the more alcohol is consumed, in this country, new ciety, there is no difference in this in the form of fermented drinks, than in respect; and in other respects the improveardent spirits. These facts show, that all ment is astonishing.” attempts at reform, to prove effectual, must Mr. John Andrews, Jun., of Leeds :" It include, as their fundamental principle, ab- is,” he says, “ eight years since the Leeds stinence from inebriating liquors of what- society was established on the plan of abever description.

stinence from ardent spirits. For upwards The following important documents, from of five years the society continued to labour gentlemen, formerly eminent members of on this plan. Meetings were regularly the old or moderation society, exbibit the held, tracts were distributed, much money inefficiency of temperance operations on the was expended, but no impression appeared principle of abstinence from ardent spirits to be produced upon the habits of the comalone. These statements were made in munity. The traffic flourished—not one 1839. Total abstinence societies, since that drunkard was reclaimed, &c.—Since the period, have considerably enlarged their adoption and advocacy of the teetotal prinoperations.

ciples, the number of reformed characters The Rev. David Charles, of Bangor : “I has gradually increased, so that we have laboured perseveringly for the space of two now in the town and neighbouring villages years or more with what is called the tem- at least three hundred, many of whom have perance society, and succeeded in persuad- been honourable, consistent, and useful ing some few drunkards to sign that pledge; members of Christian churches. I have but of those few I know not of one who visited different parts of Yorkshire and was reclaimed thereby ; one half-pint of Lancashire, besides other parts of the beer led to another, and the second to a country, and, in every place where a sothird, and so on ; so that all the labour ciety on the new system is in operation,

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