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Provincial Medical and Surgical Associa- adapted to the diversified wants and constition : “Always temperate myself, it was no tutions of his intelligent creatures, which privation to me to unite with dear friends will render them more adequate to the toilin the formation of one of the first, if not the some and laborious duties of their respective very first, of the temperance societies in callings than they would be were they to Europe: but I soon perceived that half- avail themselves of any of the misnamed almeasures could not effect the great objects coholic strengtheners. I have examined which we had in view. And now, as a more than fonr hundred persons individually, member of the total abstinence society for of various callings, some of whom are exmore than twenty months, I give this my posed to all the vicissitudes and inclemencies honest and unsolicited testimony, that, since of the revolving seasons, regarding their I was induced by my own convictions to health and strength, and endurance of launite with the teetotal society in their godlike bour, since they became abstainers, and attempts to benefit—not the drunkards only, they have unanimously declared, that they no, but—the millions more or less enthralled are now stronger, more lively and vigorous, by the seductive enjoyment of what they and bear the fatigue of labour better, than call their moderate cup, I have experienced when they partook of stimulating beverhealth and strength of mind and body, and ages.” that life, and liberty, and gratitude, which James Higginbottom, Esq., surgeon, Nota patient enjoys, when, now re-established tingham : "I am one of those very fortunate in health, he has ordered all pill-boxes beings, who was never taught to drink and bottles to be banished from his pre-intoxicating drinks when a child, and can mises, and, with the consciousness of a never recollect having the least desire for sane, and healthy, and independent man, he them. When about eighteen years of resolves, in future, with the blessing of age, I made a most determined resolution God, to live upon food and not upon never to take intoxicating drinks during physic.”
life ; making, at the same time, three proJohn Burrows, Esq., Great Orford-street, visoes, which I thought then necessary ; London : “I have never been in the habit namely, the Lord's Supper, sickness, and of taking, moderately, even, daily potations old age. When designed for the medical of wine or fermented liquors; I once took profession, an old aunt was quite indignant the third part of a pint to dinner, for two at the thought, saying, 'I was too delicate months; and, small as it was, I never drank a boy; that she was sure I could never it without feeling, in a short time after, endure the night-work and fatigue of the drowsy, lethargic, and almost an entire in- medical profession, and that my father capacity for reading or studying with ad- ought to have put me to his own profession, vantage. Being myself of a delicate consti- the law. It is now thirty-two years since tution, I have been urged, by friends and I made my resolution, and I can vouch for relatives to take it medicinally, at the ratio the blessings arising from abstaining from of two glasses a day; but, whenever I took all intoxicating drinks, and that it has been it, if discharging the toilsome duties of my my greatest temporal blessing. More than profession, it was followed by distressing twenty-five years of that period I have belchings of flatus from the stomach, which undergone very great mental and physical would continue for one or two hours' de exertion, loss of rest, and extremes of heat pressing languor, hurried and difficult re- and cold: my mode of visiting my patients spiration, and a sensation of weakness and was generally one half the day on horseweariness in the lower extremities. From back, the rest on foot. At an early period all these troublesome sensations I am ex- of my practice, my labour might be said to empted by drinking toast-water. I have have been continuous, not having had one learned, from my own experience, and the day of relaxation for twelve years; and observations and inquiries I have made re- mỹ loss of sleep almost incredible, having, specting other total abstainers, men and at one time, only six entire nights' sleep women of every grade of society, some in during five weeks, and out of one part of very affluent circumstances, and others fol- that five weeks only one night's sleep in lowing the most laborious employments, nineteen nights. When I consider my laviz., sugar-boilers, furnace-keepers, iron- bour and loss of rest, I am fully assured moulders, smiths, forgers, engineers, car- that had I taken an exhausting stimulus, penters, brick-setters, sailors, butchers, such as alcoholic drinks, and had not been fishers, chandlers, labourers of various a cold-water man, it would not have been classes, agriculturists, farmers' servants, possible for me to have endured such phyand workmen, that man, in health, whether sical exertion, even had I possessed a he be delicate or robust, phlegmatic or san- robust constitution. About twenty years guine, bilious or melancholic, does not re- ago, by persuasion of friends, and by the quire the daily, nor even the occasional, prescription of an eminent physician, now moderate use of alcoholic liquors. I am residing in London, I took a glass of fully convinced that a bounteons Providence sherry wine daily, for a short time, with has amply provided a rich and grateful va- the view of supporting, as it was then riety of nutriment, in the shape of food, thought, the great wear and tear of my sys
tem. I found this plan produce fever, loss water, which he finds more beneficial, at of appetite, and loss of strength, and I dinner, than any other fluid. He rarely have never tried so dangerous an experi- took more than two or three glasses of ment since. My nealth, during the whole wine, or a glass of ale during dinner, and time, I may say, has been good. I have this, he says, caused him much embarbeen twice confined from very severe at-rassment in breathing; but since he has distacks, arising from punctured wounds re- continued all strong drinks, he can breathe ceived in dissecting in the years 1813 and well, and walk twenty miles in a day without 1819. From the extreme rapidity and se- inconvenience. His mother was a very temverity of both attacks, I have every reason perate woman, and died at-the advanced age to think I must have been numbered with of 102 years. My two sons are young the dead had I not been an abstainer. In men, and are total abstainers. They have February, 1837, I had the influenza, which been so for nearly two years. They enjoy required very active depletion ; indeed, better health, and can endure many hours much more so than the disease generally of deep study during the day. My servants admitted of : under this severe disease also are teetotalers, and enjoy good health, total abstinence stood, through Providence, seldom requiring medical aid, which was my very good friend, so that I owe, in- not the case when they were allowed strong strumentally, three lives to that blessed drink.” system.”
Mr. Bassell Smith, Schoolmaster, BirJohn Jones, Esq., Surgeon, Ilfracombe, mingham : “ Towards the close of 1835, I Devon : “I have rigidly observed the prin- became a member of the total abstinence ciples, during the last four years, and, society; previously, I had taken intoxicatthough never accustomed to the free use of ing beverages (with occasional exceptions) fermented liquors, language would fail me in great moderation. The result of the to convey to you an adequate idea of the change has been, I conceive, most favourable. comforts and happiness it has afforded me, I had long been subject to violent headand those of my household who have aches, particularly towards the close of the adopted the principle. I am actively en- day, in the summer months, and frequently gaged in the duties of a laborious country to great depression of spirits. Shortly practice, requiring great exertion both of after the commencement of my abstinence, body and mind, and I have no hesitancy in I suffered from a severe determination of asserting, that, during the time I have to blood to the head; but, from the time of my tally abstained, I have been fully capable recovery to the present, I have been a of enduring double the exertion and ap- stranger to continued headache, and have plication, without experiencing half the but rarely experienced even slight attacks. fatigue; my physical health has undergone My spirits are more even and composed, an immense improvement, being, prior to my head cooler and clearer, my nerves my adoption of the principle, subject to an-firmer, my faculties more collected, and nual inflammatory attacks. I have subse- my health and strength improved. Havquently enjoyed the most robust and unin- ing daily to endure about nine hours' arterrupted health. This very great and duous and almost unremitted mental toil, important effect I have also witnessed in and possessing one of the strongest constinot less than from forty to fifty middle-aged tutions, I am not such a trophy of the men in our town, who were some time since principle as some others, yet my case is an the subjects of dyspepsia, and various other encouraging one.” chronic diseases, and who have obtained II. Testimonies of agriculturists, meentire relief by the adoption of our pledge, chanics, and other artizans engaged in and are rejoicing in the victory they have arduous labour.—The following testimonies achieved.”
of agricultural employments, however arJohn W. Morley, Esq., Surgeon, Horn- duous in their nature, being performed castle: “ I have been a total abstainer from without the aid of inebriating drinks, are all intoxicating liquors for nearly two years, selected from numerous other similar doand am happy to say my health, in many re-cuments:spects, has very much improved. I am con- Bideford, Devonshire.“ Harvest work, vinced if I had continued my two glasses of as well as other hard work, is done better wine and my glass of ale daily, I should without the use of strong drink than with have shortened my life some years, for I it. This has been tried in all the surwas scarcely ever free from headache; and, rounding parishes in the past harvest. In since I have been an abstainer, I have had one parish, where two years ago only one no pain in my head worth mentioning. My small farmer acted upon the principle of father, who lives with me, and is now total abstinence, and refused to give strong seventy-four years age, is very strong, drink for his harvest work, this year (1842) and enjoys much better health since he be one half of the farmers have acted upon came a teetotaler. He says, he can walk the principle of giving their men teetotal more miles now than he could ride on horse- beverages; and those who have brewed for back when he took strong drink. His only the harvest have not used one half the diluents are tea and coffee for breakfast, and quantity they used in former times; and all
agree in stating, that their work is donc much gratified at having made the trial, better than when using strong drinks in and declared that they never felt so comtheir harvests. We could enumerate num-fortable after their harvest work. Many bers of instances in our district that will go farmers in these parts have all their worl: to prove the entire uselessness of the done without giving any intoxicating liquor. drunkard's drink in laborious employments, In one or two cases large iron fountains and the improved health and happiness of have been taken out into the fields, and the those who abstain.”
tea or coffee kept hot with a fire put underAnother writer, from the same place, re- heath. This is an easier mode than sending marks: “Many persons have worked during it out in jugs or kettles, a little at a time.' the harvest without beer, or any other in- Hertfordshire.-Captain Trotter of Dy. toxicating drinks ; and a very respectable sham Park, near Barnet, whose efforts in yeoman told me in the market, last Tues- behalf of temperance, and other benevolent day, that he had never done so much har-associations, entitle him to the regard of vesting for years as in the past harvest, the Christian and philanthropist, adds the and he used none of the drunkard's drink following ad litional testimony, written in about it.” Again, a third writer from the May, 1841: “Llaving tricd the system of same place says : “I have now worked total abstinence last year, during the bay three harvests without the use of intoxi- season, with my men, I have found it cating drinks, and I have not met with any answer, ic every respect, perfectly. I had man that could put me by either in reaping my men from Bedfordshire, and having cal. or pitching to mows. In 1839, I reaped culated the expense of the former allɔwance ten days, in 1840, seven days, and for dif- of beer per day per man, I gave them exactly ferent farmers, and in several parishes, and the same amount in money, and my bailit in 1841 I have pitched about fifty tons of assures me, that nothing could be more hay, and reaped five days; if any dif- regular than the men ; and on a Monday ference, I have worked this harvest the morning, instead of being weaker as for. best of all.”
merly from the effects of Saturday's and SunLitcham, Norfolk.—“We have about day's drinking, they were refreshed and twenty of our friends who have gone stronger than ever. That he never had an through the harvest, without any assistance angry word during the whole season, and of strong drink whatever, and declare never heard an oath; and such was the they never did their work with such success, that I shall never have any more ease before.
Four of them were singly beer in my fields, and I know that I shall placed in four different companies, and had be as much benefited be the steadiness of to stand the contests, both in work and lan- my men as the men will be by the guage, against their companions; but their saving of their constitutions and money. masters have behaved with great indulgence Many persons came during the hay season to them, by ordering them coffee when they to see the dinners go into the hay fields, pleased to have it. In one instance, a man which one of the men cooked, at their exat Weasingham, weighing about nine and a pense for his time; and instead of cans Qe half stone, was placed to pitch corn with beer and a little bread and cheese, a large another weighing more than twelve stone, wheelbarrow-full of roast or boiled meat, in and younger, a very unequal match; but the large pans, and potatoes, &c., &c., and a teetotaler was always the best man at night, pail-full of coffee, were sent to them. At the and most fit for work in the morning." end of the day, instead of going to the ale
Glynn, near Bodmin, Cornwall.-In 1842, house, the men read a chapter of the Bible, on the estate of Lord Vivian, “One hun- united in prayer in the barn, and then lay dred acres of grass were let by the steward down to rest; and it really was a scene upon to a few mowers to cut. One of the num- which I look back with great delight. Two ber, happening to be a teetotaler, addressed or three of my neighbours tried the same his comrades when entering on the second plan with similar success.' day's work, and asked them why they could Almondsbury, Yorkshire. — Mr. Josiah not do the same as he did, and get through Hunt relates the following interesting their work without spending so much of particulars on the same subject; the expetheir money in strong drink. Having had riments were made in 1841: "On a farm convincing proof that the work could be which I occupy, several miles from my redone, they determined on making a trial, sidence, I have for several years had the and forthwith commenced their work on tee- mowing, harvesting, and stacking of the total principles. They got through their hay there done by labourers at 8s. and job with much ease and comfort to them- three gallons of cider per acre, together selves, and on reckoning up the cost of their with the occasional assistance of the mar. tea, coffee, &c., consumed while cutting the on the farm, being equivalent to 8s. 6d. hundred acres, they found it amounted to an acre, and the drink. but a trifle compared to what they used to also let my hay harvesting at home, of spend in drink. Of course they were able seventy acres, to six other labourers at the to get a larger quantity of substantial food. latier-mentioned terms. During the past The men afterwards expressed themselves spring I came to the determination not to
Last year I pay for any labour with intoxicating drink, The following are the quantities used, with and on acquainting the party who again the cost, viz. : 2lbs. of tea, 22lbs. of cocoa, applied to undertake the mowing, &c., on 31 lbs. of sugar, 44lbs. of treacle, 60 gallons the distant farm, of this, he asked 38. of skim milk; all of which cost £3 12s., per acre, instead of his
accustomed instead of, as at the rate of last year, £12. drink, which, being about the usual price, My object being to carry out a great prinI consented to leaving him at liberty to ciple, I consented to their beverage being purchase such drink as he pleased. On made on the premises, but they might the home farm, I let eighty acres of grass easily have provided themselves with a to mow, harvest, and stack, to four of those supply for the day at their respective homes who did the like last summer, with three before coming to work, others, at 8s. 6d. an acre in money, as last “The required supply of drink having, as year, and, instead of 3s. an acre for drink, above shown, cost but £3 128., there rean equal sum to be expended in the pur- mained £8 8s. to be expended in food, and chase of unintoxicating drink and food, on for 1s. more than this sum, or £8 9s. they condition that neither of them should taste were enabled to procure the following, viz. : any fermented liquor during the progress one hundred weight of beef, one hundred of the work. Three of the men had signed weight of bacon, four sacks of potatoes, and the pledge in the previous winter, the other one sack of flower, with 20lbs. of suet for four did so about a fortnight before they puddings; all of which good living,' be it began the work. They commenced on the remembered, was obtained out of the sav10th of 6 mo. (June), and finished on the ing effected by the substitution of an unin26th of the next month, which was longer toxicating drink for the intoxicating and by two weeks than they would have been, expensive one of the previous summer." had the weather proved fine. The whole Sir Francis Mackenzie, of Gairloch, Bart., of the work, without the least exception, in a work recently published, entitled “Hints was performed more to my satisfaction than for the use of Highland Tenants and Cottaever was the case before. During the gers,” recommends, in warm language, the progress of it, they gave abundant proof use of water as a beverage during laborious that they were equal to as much work of employments. In support of his remarks any kind as any seven men in the neigh- he adduces the following interesting anecbourhood, and also to as much as they dote: “An English contractor for the buildthemselves had been equal to at any time ing the Conon Bridge informed me of his whilst taking intoxicating drinks. They surprise at the exertion of the natives whom were not picked men ; four of them of he employed, and that having contracted for about the respective ages of fifty-five, excavating a canal in England, he engaged fourty-one, thirty, and twenty-nine, having about twenty Highlanders to accompany worked for me for several years, the other him southwards. Several disputes occurred three, aged about fourty-one, thirty, and between those thus introduced and the natwenty, having been engaged at various tive workmen, and many jeers passed relatimes in the spring, without any intention tive to the fare (bread and milk) on which of retaining them during the summer; and they were contented to exist, saving the that they are not of more than average greater part of their wages to bring back to strength may be inferred from the fact that their friends and families. To settle these I was told, before they began, .We know bickerings, a match was made, and consivery well how your experiment will end, for derable sums of money betted, that twelve there are but two men out of the seven that of the Highlanders could not excavate a cercan do a day's work; they will be knocked tain number of solid yards in the same time up before they have mowed two hours.' At as an equal number of the better-fed Enthe end of the first day's mowing it was, glishmen. And every thing being fixed, a however, found that they had done more table was laid out with meat and ale for one than any other men in the neighbourhood, party, whilst the other had no preparation and as they thus proceed without being for refreshment beyond what a can of fresh • knocked up,' the tables were turned, and water afforded. But the point in dispute I was then told that they performed so well was, after a fatiguing day's labour, decided in consequence of their good living. How in favour of the Highlanders; and whilst the this was obtained, I propose presently to Englishmen were totally exhausted by their show, but, before doing so, I must, in justice exertions, the former, full of spirits at their to the men add, that their conduct during success, danced their national strathspey in the summer has presented a striking con- token of victory. I give such instances to trast to much that I have witnessed in ale prove that the strength necessary for exerand cider drinkers. I have not heard an tion does not depend upon a luxurious diet; improper expression escape either of them but at the same time abundance of simple during the whole period, and their general nutritious food is absolutely indispensable behaviour has been very creditable. for our support, and to secure this much de
“ Instead of intoxicating drink, they used pends upon yourselves." tea and cocoa, sweetened with sugar or The Report of the Temperance Society for treacle, and skim milk, supplied by myself. the city of Waterford, for the year 1841,
drawn up by P. J. Murphy, Esq., contains is improved, and that they can go through some powerful facts in corroboration of the their work with more ease than when they above views: “The sawyers, particularly used intoxicating liquors.” Dr. Martin, remarkable heretofore for their drinking physician of this factory for the last nine habits, and who were therefore poor and years, remarks: “That it has been found wretched looking, and who believed that that the practice of total abstinence from they could not enjoy good health without intoxicating drinks is quite compatible with whisky to soak off the perspiration, are the labours of the people at the factory; now å fine, cheerful, healthy, temperate that it has not produced any injurious efclass, well fed, and comfortably clad. They fects, but, on the contrary, they enjoy have also benevolent societies, on temper- better health, are better fed, and better ance principles, for their mutual support clothed.” and comfort in sickness, and are now a William Thompson, a sawyer, aged 39, credit to the society.
in a communication written October, 1842, “In the iron founderies all the men are states, that he and his partner, both memteetotalers, and though their labour is, per- bers of the total abstinence society, have haps, the severest of any, they are faithful walked seventy-two miles a week to their observants. The men in the concerns of work for months together. “ We can,” he Benjamin Graham, Esq., and at Mrs. Wil- observes, “cut three hundred of elm sawliams's, were also among the first who ing in ten hours, and home again, and not joined, and they are among the first also in be half so much tired as we were when we faithful adherence. They are a fine, took intoxicating drink and did half the healthy and industrious class, and a great work. We earned as much in the first seven credit to the society:
months we were teetotalers as we did the “The bakers also have distinguished twelve months before with the drink. We themselves by their fidelity. It was for- walk thirteen or fourteen miles some even. merly a mistaken maxim among them that ings after we have done our day's work, they could not endure their labour without and we don't feel tired. I have walked strong drinks. All now, with the exception seventy miles a week to meetings, after of a small number, are teetotalers, enjoy completing my day's work.” good health, are well able to work, and A writer in the neighbourhood of West much improved generally in their condition. Drayton, remarks : “A gang of brickThey have a benevolent society for their makers, in the employ of S. Watkins, made mutual comfort and support in sickness; and fifty-two thousand five hundred bricks in a the members are generous towards the week, without a single individual among poor, not only of their own society, but them tasting a drop of intoxicating liquor. others." Again : one of the principal The average number of hours they worked managers of the Cotton Factory of Portlaw, every day was eighteen; and there was no according to the same report, observes, in complaint, at the end of the week, of lanreference to the workmen employed: “We guor or weakness, so commonly the refind all classes improved by the introduction sults of drinking habits.” of temperance, and all those who have hard
The following testimony of bard-working labour, such as blacksmiths, iron mechan- men is to the same effect:ists, carpenters, &c., testify that their health
“We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do testify, that we find ourselves bettered in health and circumstances by having adopted the practice of entire abstinence from intoxicating liquors, and we send you this testimony in hopes it may induce others to adopt the same practice.
“ These persons are all known to me, and I can testify to their being constantly employed at good wages.
“WILLIAM VICKERY." Nunney, July 14th, 1841."