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"Bob," ""Make Shift," "The Last Shift," was to present them with a sleeping cup of "The Ladies Delight,' " "The Balk," "King wine at parting. The country-people and Theodore of Corsica," "Cholick and Gripe merchants used to drink largely, the gentleWaters." men somewhat more sparingly; yet the
The government soon abandoned this very courtiers, at feasts by night-meetings, fruitless and unequal struggle. In 1743 and entertaining any stranger, used to drink some modifications of the obnoxious law healths not without excess; and to speak were made, and in 1751 measures were truth without offence, the excess of drinkadopted which, to a great extent at least, if ing was then far more general among the not altogether, put a stop to the smuggling Scots than among the English. Myself which had previously prevailed on an exten- being at the court, invited by some gentlemen sive scale. This illicit traffic, in fact, was to supper, and being forewarned to fear this rendered no longer a source of emolument. excess, would not promise to sup with them In 1734 the quantity of "Low wines," but upon condition that my inviter would be distilled from malted corn was 8,244,982 my protection from large drinking, which I gallons. In 1750 the excise returns exhibit was many times forced to invoke, being an increase to 11,200,000 gallons. The courteously entertained, and much provoked enactments of 1751 at once reduced the to carousing, and so for that time avoided amount to 7,022,000 gallons. An average any great intemperance. Remembering this, moreover of twenty-two years ending 1782, and having since observed in my conversaduring which time 'the population and tion at the English with the Scots of the wealth of the country had been rapidly better sort, that they spent great part of the increasing,' ,'* shows the quantity of "low night in drinking, not only wine but even wines," annually distilled, to have been reduced to 3,710,762 gallons.†
beer; as myself will not accuse them of great intemperance, so I cannot altogether free them from the imputation of excess, wherewith the popular voice chargeth them."
V. Examples might be adduced in evidence of the existence of gross intemperance at various times, in the Scottish nation. In In the middle of the eighteenth century, its early history, many of the national habits excessive drinking was extremely prevalent and customs bear a great similarity to those among the higher classes of Scotland. The of the Ancient Britons. A respectable more humble portion of society, was not at author thus describes the mode in which that period addicted to the free use of intoxitheir drinking feasts were conducted. The cating liquors. Mr. Dunlop relates, that manner of drinking used by the chief men of the then member of parliament for Renfrewthe Isles, is called in their language," streak," shire, was accustomed to drink ardent spirits that is, a round; for the company sat in a at a small ferry-house, for three weeks circle: the cup bearer filled the drink round together; and that a dispute having taken to them, and all was drunk out, whatever place at a fair in Ayrshire, the parties went the liquor was, whether strong or weak. to the mansion of a neighbouring magistrate, They continued drinking sometimes twenty-to seek an adjustment of their differences, four, sometimes forty-eight, hours. It was when they found three Justices of the Peace reckoned a piece of manhood to drink until dancing naked, before the door, in a state of they became drunk; and there were two intoxication. These were three of the prinmen attending punctually with a barrow on cipal men of the county. Similar stories, such occasions. They stood at the door remarks Mr. Dunlop, are to be found in until some became drunk, and they carried every parish in Scotland, indicative of the them upon the barrow to bed, and returned inebriation of the upper ranks during the again to their post, as long as any continued; last century.* and so carried off the whole company, one by one, as they became drunk "+
It may readily be supposed, that so injurious an example had a corresponding influence on the humbler classes of society; and more recent history displays incalculable injury thereby resulting to the morals, health and happiness, of that country.
In the sixteenth century, the hospitality of the Scots induced them to indulge in excessive drinking. Moryson, who travelled in Scotland in 1598, speaks of the courtiers, merchants, and country gentlemen, as much Dr. Cleland, in his Statistic of Glasgow, given to intemperance. "I did never hear," states, that in 1830 the proportion of spiritsays this writer, "that they have any public shops in the city of Glasgow, was one to inns, with signs hanging out, but the better every fourteenth family. The same respectsort of citizens brew ale, their usual drink, able authority adds, that if we take into (which will distemper a strangers' body) consideration the number of persons who and the same citizens will entertain pas-retail spirituous liquors without a license, sengers upon acquaintance or entreaty." together with the number of temperate "When passengers go to bed, their custom families who never use a public-house, "there is at least one place where spirits
*Inquiry, &c. into Spirituous Liquors, p. 18. are retailed, for every twelve families." + Report of Commiss. of Excise on Corn Distilla- is stated, on undeniable evidence, that in tion, 1784.
Martin's Description of the Western Islands,
* Parliamentary Evidence, p. 408.
one parish in Scotland, the amount lately hardt, as excessively addicted to drunkenexpended in the purchase of spirits, exceed- ness, and during his abode at Berber, in ed its whole annual rental. 1816, several quarrels occurred from intemperance, most of which ended in the shedding of blood.*
VI. The use of spirituous liquors seems to have obtained in Ireland at an early period. A native writer informs us, that "the The inhabitants of Ashantee, Congo, and English, who came with Henry II., admired other African nations, are described by trathe habit of copious potations to which our vellers as indulging freely in the use of strong ancestors were addicted, and to which we, drink, for which they are doubtless more or their descendants, yet adhere with hereditary less indebted to their intercourse with attachment,"* Campion informs us, that European nations; and, especially to their in his time, the Irish "used ordinary drink accursed trade in human flesh.† of aqua vitæ," for certain complaints which they were pleased to attribute to the climate, and which, he afterwards adds, "they will swill by quarts and pottles."+
In the Nicobar Islands, the natives drink freely of Arrack at their feasts; and in general, until their sight is gone, and they are completely stupified.
During the eighteenth century, the most The Otaheitans indulge freely in an intoxidreadful consequences resulted from the cating liquor called Ava, prepared in a peculiar introduction of ardent spirits into general manner from the expressed juice of a plant use. The government soon had reason Cook, and other writers, feelingly describe deeply to lament the encouragment which the injurious effects of this deleterious liquid, it had given to distillation. Several laws upon the morals and health of these tribes.+ were passed with the intent of restricting The natives of New South Wales, have the use of ardent spirits; but the taste for suffered greatly from the use of ardent spirits. such stimulants had been created, and illegal It is to be lamented, that the inhumanity of means of obtaining them were extensively professing Christians, has sanctioned and resorted to. promoted the introduction of strong drink Walsh and Whitelaw state, that in 1798, into that interesting colony, where scenes in one street in Dublin, which contained of bloodshed are of frequent occurrence 190 houses, no less than fifty-two were amongst the natives, when in a state of licensed to vend raw spirits; a poison, they inebriation. "Scarcely," says Arago, "do the further add, productive of vice, riot, and intoxicating fumes get into their heads, when disease; hostile to all habits of decency, they breathe nothing but battle, and shout honesty, and industry; and, in short, forth their war cries. Impatient for murder, destructive to the souls and bodies of our they seek antagonists, provoke them by fellow-creatures. In 1826, according to ferocious songs, and demand death in the accurate calculations, the quantity of whiskey hope of inflicting it. They find but too consumed in Ireland would not be less than readily the opportunities they provoke; and 17,000,000 gallons, equal to a consumption their 'war-whoop' is answered by whooping of two one-third gallons by every man, not less terrible. Then the combatants, woman, and child, of the population.|| drawn up in two lines, perhaps twenty steps
Ireland has, for the last century, witnessed from each other, threaten mutually with insubordination, crimes and immorality, their long and pointed spears, launch them raging to an almost incredible extent, most at their adversaries, with wonderful strength of which may be attributed to the influence and dexterity, and, finally attack each other of intemperance. It is a subject of warm with ponderous and formidable clubs. Limbs gratulation that a brighter day has now are fractured, bones smashed, skulls laid dawned upon that interesting nation. open, no exclamation of pain escapes from VII. The history of other countries shows, these ferocious savages; the air resounds that intemperance is not peculiar to Great only with frightful vociferations. He who Britain and Ireland. The inhabitants of many falls without having found a victim, dies countries in a semi-barbarous state, previous rather from despair than from the hurts he to their connexion with the Christian world, has received; and the warrior who has laid had discovered the art of producing intoxi- low a few enemies soon expires without cating substances, in various ways. Others regretting the loss of life."|| learned the habit of inebriation from VIII. Among the American savages, the free European nations, who at the same time use of intoxicating liquors has produced supplied them with these pernicious articles dreadful ravages. The French found this for consumption. All of them, have more practice of advantage in their trading transor less experienced the dreadful evils which actions. result from intemperate habits. The Nubians, are described by
Charlevoix, in his account of Canada, Burck-describes some awful scenes which he witnessed in that part of America,—“ One
*Morewood's Essay on Inebriating Liquors, p. 335, Ed. 1824
+ Campion's Hist. Ireland, p. 13, Ed. 1809.
1. Ed. 1830.
* Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, 4to, pp. 143-4. Voyage to Congo, Part I, p. 564, apud Churchill. Bowdich's Ashantee, p. 386.
Cook's Voyage, vol. i. p. 350.
sees even in the streets and squares of to the masticated roots, leave it to ferment, Montreal, the most frightful spectacles, the covering the trough carefully with mats certain consequences of the drunkenness of Previous to these feasts, which end in preof these barbarians; husbands and wives, meditated intoxication, they voluntarily fathers, mothers, and their children; bro-surrender their spears and knives to the thers, and sisters, taking each other by the women, who secrete them in the woods, as throat-tearing off each others ears-and they are conscious of their propensity to biting one another like furious wolves." quarrelling and fighting when excited by This writer says, that the Europeans when liquor. A guard is always appointed from they settled in North America, soon found among the warriors, who retain their weapons, that supplying the natives with spirituous and taste no chicha until the next day. On liquors, promoted their trading interests, by particular occasions of rejoicing they drink making them incapable of attending to this beverage mingled with horse's blood, business, so "they waged a war,' he re- which they believe endows them with pretermarks" of gin and brandy against the natural strength and agility."* various tribes, some of which have been IX. The Russians are very much addicted subdued, and others almost wholly extirpated to the free use of ardent spirits. Brandy is by their own drunkenness."* their favourite liquor. Distillation is enThe Rev. Mr. Andrews thus describes couraged by the Government of that country, the effects of intoxicating liquor upon the and forms a fruitful source of revenue. Mohawk Indians. "They grow quite mad, Morewood† calculates its annual consumpburn their own little huts, murder their tion at 5,500,000 vedros, or 27,500,000 wives and children, or one another, so that gallons. The same author relates, that in their wives are forced to hide their guns and one province and the adjoining districts, hatchets, and themselves too, for fear of called Penza, there are no less than 397 stills mischief."+ at work, which are wrought by 982 men.
Among the American savages, when any business of importance is transacted, they appoint a feast, of which almost the whole tribe partakes.
The natives of Kamschatka are exceedingly attached to inebriating liquors, and traders frequently tempt them to part with valuable sables and other furs for small quantities of brandy. This infamous practice has been successfully adopted by designing and avaricious individuals.
The Brazilian savages differ very little in this respect from their brethren in the North. When they hold a feast they proceed from house to house, consuming the liquor until The Laplanders are also much attached to they become quite infuriated, and in this intoxicating drinks; indeed, so much so, that state commit the most dreadful excesses. they have been known to exchange their Speaking of Chili, Raynal says, "The natives valuable animals for small quantities of had, like most savages, become excessively spirits. The habit of drinking is also associfond of spirituous liquors, and when intoxi- ated with many of their social customs, and cated, used to take up arms, massacre all is of course productive of most injurious the Spaniards they met with, and ravage the consequences both to themselves and their country near their dwellings."+ After families.
1724 the Spaniards very wisely prohibited In 1789 the licenses to inns and taverns the use of brandy and other spirituous yielded £1,708,338. The brandy sold at liquors in Chili. The settlers in Georgia that period in the cities of Petersburgh, passed a similar enactment. In 1734 was Moscow, and adjacent parts, amounted to passed "an Act to prevent the importation 3,320,000 rubles per annum. In the city of of rum and brandy in the province of Georgia, Moscow alone, there were 4000 kabaks or or of any kind of spirits, or strong waters, shops for the retail of brandy. Took, some whatever." || years ago, estimated the amount of revenue Similar practices are found among the arising from the sale of brandy in Russia, at Araucano Indians in South America. A from 8,000,000 to 9,000,000 of rubles.
recent observer says: "On their great In Sweden, described by Dr. Edward feasts they drink large quantities of a very Clarke as a temperate nation, and according intoxicating liquor, called Chicha, made to the same writer, favoured with the most from maize, which they sow for this purpose, virtuous peasantry in Europe, there is conalthough no other signs of agricultural cul-sumed a larger proportion of ardent spirits tivation are to be found among them. The than in any other division of the globe poselder females of the tribe prepare this beverage sessed of the same population. This may by chewing the maize, which they afterwards in a great measure be attributed to the collect in a trough resembling a canoe, and injurious patronage of the sale of these perhaving added a sufficient quantity of water nicious compounds by the government of
that county, about the latter part of the last were consumed among a population of 1,500. century. It is stated that not more than On the supposition, however, that the habits forty years ago the Swedish people consumed of the people generally were the same as only 5,000,000 of bottles of brandy, whereas in 1810, and estimating the population of the of late years, 22,000,000 are scarcely suffi-United States at 12,000,000, the annual cient for their annual consumption.
consumption would amount to 56,000,000 of gallons, the value of which, at 50 cents the gallon, would be 28,000,000 of dollars.*
Colonel Forcel, a good authority on this subject, in a communication made by him to the Reverend Robert Baird, about the year The number of distilleries in the United 1836, states that the number of kans (one States in 1815 was 15,000. The manufackan and a half is nearly equal to one of our ture of spirits, however, gradually increased gallons) of whiskey at that period annually until about 1829, when it attained its maximade in Sweden, was not less than sixty mum. At that period, the temperance millions, or nearly 40,000,000 of gallons. reformation began to exercise its salutary The number of distillers then in operation influence, and, as a consequence of its was about 150,000. Almost every chief success, there has ever since been a rapid farmer, it further appears, had his own dis- diminution in the importation, manufacture, tillery. The Diet of the kingdom in 1840 and consumption of the deadly product of appointed a committee to investigate this the still. subject. From their Report it appears that XII. The consumption of inebriating liquors the number of distilleries had decreased to in wine countries, and its effects on the morals about 125,000. This decrease, however, and health of the population, has of late did not bring with it a corresponding de- years excited considerable discussion. The crease in the amount manufactured, because statistics of this subject, are, however, imperalthough the establishment and operations fect and unsatisfactory. A respectable of Temperance Societies had been productive writer informs us, that in 1789, and for of much good, yet the invention of new twenty years preceding, the average annual processes of manufacturing whiskey, and a quantity of wine consumed in Paris alone greater concentration of business sufficiently was 20,292,500 gallons.†
account for this otherwise contradictory M. Lavosier states in an official document, result. The consumption in 1839, according that in 1819 the consumption in Paris was to official report, was not much short of 281,000 muids of wine and brandy, and of 80,000,000 of kans, or about 50,000,000 of cider and beer, 18,928,000 bottles. In our gallons. 1819, Paris received 801,524 hectolitres of In Prussia 60,000,000 of thalers (nine wine, or 20,038,100 gallons. In 1829, the millions of pounds) are annually expended consumption of wine which paid duty was in brandy. The population amounts to 896,139 hectolitres, 22,403,407 gallons. about 15,000,000 of inhabitants. The The consumption of other liquors, 151,664 annual consumption of brandy is 240,000,000 hectolitres, or 3,591,600 gallons.|| Bushby quarts, equal to the same amount of English informs us that the wines sent to Paris repints. În Berlin, which contains about ceive an addition of 7 to 10 per cent. of 250,000 inhabitants, there are 25 beer- brandy. § This practice enables the people sellers, 86 coffee-houses where spirits and of Paris at pleasure to reduce the strength beer are sold, 150 distillers, 200 retail wine- of the wine by admixture with water, by sellers, 150 wine merchants, and 148 coopers, which means they diminish the amount of while the eating-houses only amount to 120, municipal duty levied on wines. bakers 220, and butchers 350.
The annual production of wine in France XI. The progress and effects of distillation amounts to not less than 893 millions of wine form a prominent feature in the history of the gallons. Deduct from this, one-seventh for United States. The quantity of spirits dis- distillation, and 20,000,000 gallons for extilled from grain and fruit in 1801, was portation, and 746,571,429 gallons remain for estimated at 10,000,000 of gallons. In home consumption. The brandy distilled 1810 this amount exceeded 20,000,000 of is estimated at 11,745,425 gallons; spirits gallons. In the same year, in Pennsylvania extracted from other materials than the alone, there were 3,334 distilleries, which grape, 2,250,000 gallons; cider, 221,705,450 produced no less than 6,552,284 gallons of gallons; beer, 74,025,450 gallons. This spirits, the principal part of which was dis- forms an aggregate of 309,726,425 gallons, tilled from grain. The Hon. Timothy Pilkin, exclusive of wine, from which we must in his Statistics of the United States, esti- deduct 2,500,000 gallons for exportation, mates the consumption in that country in which leaves 307,226,425 gallons for con1810 as 31,725,417 gallons, which, according sumption. to the same authority, amounted to about four and a-half gallons for each individual.*
On a careful investigation into the amount sold by retail in several towns in New Eng
*Statistics of the United States, 1816.
† Arthur Young's Travels.
Bulwer's France, vol. i.
S Bushby's Visit to the Vineyards of France and
and, it appears that in 1816 10,000 gallons Spain, 1831, p. 79. Statistics of the United States, 1816, pp. 101.
Murray's Encyloped. of Geography, Vol. i,
The following interesting and valuable Table is drawn up by R. M. HARTLEY, Esq., of New York. This writer estimates the strength of French Wine at fifteen per cent of Alcohol by measure. Brande's Analysis of seventy specimens of Wine gives an average of 20,05 of Alcohol. The reader may readily form his
own estimate by a reference to the Table of that distinguished Chemist.
(a) Morewood's History, &c., p. 707.
(b) Idem, p. 724, vide M'Cullock's Statistical Account of the British
Empire, vol. i. p. 726.
(c) British Temperance Society Report, 1839, p. 93, et seq. (d) Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, 1837. (e) Idem Report (f) Dollars.