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to the contrary. Several fatal cases, result- doubt, to tho mprincipled adulterations of ing from the practice, have already been ad-food, spirits, malt liquors, &c., that a great vanced, and, no doubt, great numbers of number of sudden deaths, which are conothers might be traced to the same cause.- stantly happening, in and about the metroIn a review of the facts presented in the polis, is assignable. The adulteration, it is last annual report of the Hanwell Lunatic true, is not sufficient to cause instant death; Asylum, extracts from which are given in a but it operates slowly, and silently, and imprevious section, there occurs the following perceptibly, so as not to excite sufficient alarming passage: “We have, moreover, suspicion and inquiry respecting the cause. reason to believe, that the drugs with which This is not an idle or a random remark, but the ordinary kinds of gin, as well as malt one founded on much observation, and on liquor, are universally adulterated, have very probable grounds. It is hoped that greatly tended to this melancholy result;" it will awaken public attention and inthat is, the recent increase of insanity.* A quiry respecting these nefarious transacpopular writer remarks, that “it is, no tions.”*
• Facts and Figures, No. 4, p. 61.
* Oracle of Health and Long Life, p. 31.
DIVISION THE FIFTH.
MEANS EMPLOYED IN VARIOUS AGES AND COUNTRIES
TO REMOVE INTEMPERANCE.
Persian nation in its days of simplicity set an example of temperance and sobriety to surrounding nations worthy of universal imitation. Their children were trained up professedly with the design to benefit the
state, and to promote the general welfare “Almost every legislator of the world, from what- of the community. As an essential means ever original he derived his authority, has exerted to secure this object, they were early it in prohibition of such foods as tended to in- taught practice abstinence and selfjure the health and destroy the vigour of the peo- denial. ple for whom he designed his institutions.”-JOHNSON'S DEBATES.
The history of Cyrus abounds with illus
trations of this fact. From the earliest “The great instructor of the Jews, who delivered period he was trained in the temperate swine's flesh, for no other cause, as far as human habits of the people among whom he was reason is able to discover, than that it corrupted the born; and when arrived at more mature blood, and produced loathsome diseases and mala- age, he refused to depart from the frugal dies which descended to posterity and therefore in practices of his early years. The same which produce the same effects, we shall follow the self-denial was enjoined upon his soldiers. authority of the great Governor of the Universe." By this means he accomplished the mighty
achievements for which his name has been so conspicuously handed down to posterity,
Cyrus lived to an advanced age, possessed The evils of intemperance have been of all the vigour and advantages of youth, variously estimated at different periods of and in the enjoyment of the immense posthe world. In times of primitive simplicity, sessions which he had acquired by his sucgreat caution was observed in regard to the cessful and victorious career. use of intoxicating liquors. The virtuous The Persians, in their primitive state, feelings of society, however, gradually gave refrained from the use of wine, except at way before an increasing appetite for luxu- festive entertainments. Even on those ocrious gratification. The regulations of the casions the excessive use of it was interstate, even in our own enlightened country, dicted by the law. “It was provided for bear the stamp of proportionate deteriora- by law,” remarks Xenophon,
that no tion, and more or less harmonize with the pitchers, or large wine vessels, should be depraved morals of the age. Such has brought in at entertainments, as being senbeen the general experience of mankind, in sible that, if they kept from drinking too regard to those national laws which have much, their constitutions, both of body and reference to intemperance. They bear an mind, would suffer less."* exact relation to the general estimation in The records of Egyptian history afford which intoxicating liquors are held, and us but scanty information in regard to the accordingly will be found, in their general drinking habits of the people of that councharacter, to correspond with the virtue try. Prior to a particular period in their and morality, or vice and intemperance, of history, the use of intoxicating wine was the age and country which produces them. looked upon as unlawful, and consequently
The manners and customs of the Jews prohibited. The simple juice of the grape, will be dwelt upon at considerable length however, or unfermented wine, was in use in succeeding sections; it is unnecessary, at an early period. Until the accession of therefore, to allude to the habits of that Psammeticus, the kings of Egypt, who held remarkable nation, further than by stating, the sacred office of priests, abstained altothat the temperate practices of other nations gether from the use of intoxicating wine. of antiquity appear in a great mea sure to This monarch flourished about six hundred have been derived from the regulations of and forty years before the birth of Christ. the Jewish economy.
He probably acquired a fondness for wine The records of Persian history present during his abode with the Syrians, to whom striking illustrations of the advantages he fled for protection when his dominions derived from temperance, as well as the were invaded by Sabacus, king of Ethiopia. pernicious consequences of indulgence in luxurious and intemperate habits. The
* Cyclopæd., lib. viii.
Plutarch, however, on the authority of to be un adulteress. Dionysius HalicarHecatæus, informs us that the quantity of nasseus thus states the reason of this enactwine used by this king and his successors ment: “ Romulus deemed it proper to punish was definitely prescribed. Diodorus Siculus both these, as the greatest crimes that also affirms the same fact. The Egyptians, women can be guilty of, with consideration he remarks, prescribed even to their kings of their sex. He looked upon lewdness as the a stinted measure of wine at their meals; first step to all sorts of insolence and disso much indeed as would refresh, but not order, and drunkeuness as the grand inceninebriate.* It is probable that this law tive to lewdness."* Valerius Maximus was enacted by Bocchoris, one of the kings fully corroborates the preceding quotation. of Egypt, who fourished before Christ, Wine, he asserts, was forbidden to woinen, 766, and was contemporary with Uzziah lest by its use they should fall into sonie king of Judah.
Vini usus olim Romanis The Romans, during the first ages of fæminis ignotus fuit, ne scilicet in aliquod their national existence, were exceedingly dedecus prolaberentur. f Near relatious were simple and temperate in their manners. permitted to salute females when they came The vice of drunkenness was unknown to into their houses, in order to sinell whether this people during the existence of the re- they had tasted any temetum, the name by public. Wine did not come into general which at that period they distinguished wine. use, nor indeed was the vine cultivated, On conviction, the guilty woman received until about six hundred years after the the punishment of adultery, in other words, foundation of the commonwealth. This death. Ignatius Mecenius killed his wife on statement is made on the authority of the discovery that she had been drinking Pliny, who also informs us that the primi- wine, without even the formality of consulta: tive libations of the Romans consisted of ing with his relations. He was pardoned for milk and other offerings of like simplicity. this act by Romulus, in whose reign it Numa, the immediate successor of Romulus, occurred. Pliny and Valerius Maximus made a law, which, on account of the great both attest this circumstance.I They not scarcity of wine, directed that no man only relate the particulars of the case, but should sprinkle the funeral pile with it.t give the reason why the husband was acLucius Papyrius, previous to his engage- quitted of murder. Fabius Pictor, in his ment with the Samnites, made no other Annals, states that a Roman lady was starved vow than that he would, in case of victory, to death by her own relations for baving offer to Jupiter a small cup or goblet of picked the lock of a chest in which the keys wine. I
of the wine cellar were deposited. S The regulations of the Romans at this This exclusive legislation is not confined period, in relation to the use of intoxicating to the primitive Romans. The inhabitants liquors, were exceedingly severe, and rigo- of the Island of Otaheite intoxicate theinrously enforced. Amongst the Romans,” selves by means of a juice expressed from remarks Ælian, " it was a strict law that the leaves of a plant which they call ava avu. no woman (bond, or free,) should drink " They keep,” remarks a modern writer, wine; nor any male until he had attained this intoxicating juice with great care from to the age of thirty-five years."S Athenæus their women.” makes a similar statement, except that, in The Roman Censors were magistrates the latter instance, the period fixed was appointed to inspect the morals of the citithirty years, instead of thirty-five, as stated zens, and were entrusted with power to by Ælian. | The regulation, in relation to expel out of the senate, or take away a horse women in particular, was strictly enforced. from any man who gave himself up to senIt had its origin as early as the age of sual pleasures, such as debauchery and inRomulus. Balduinus, however, states that temperance. T Alexander ab Alexandro the Latian women, who existed at a period thus refers to this power: “ The ancient prior to the building of Rome, were exceed- Romans so much hated drunkards, that their ingly abstemious. Fatua Fauna, the sister Censors turned them out of the senate,
and wife of Faunus, was scourged to death and branded them with legal infamy, as ! by her own husband for drinking off a large unworthy to bear public honours and offices.
pot of wine. The law of Romulus enacted: They thought it scandalous that men of “Si vinum (mulier) biberit, domi ut adulteram drunken morals, and (thereby) broken conpuniunto. The husband, in fact, in con- stitutions, and such as were noted for lewdjunction with his relations, might punish ness, should be admitted to any trust in the the wife at home, amongst themselves, with guvernment, or to consult upon affairs the same severity as if she were discovered
* Dion. Halicarn., lib. ii., cap. 25. * Diod. Sic., lib. i.
+ Val. Max., lib. ii., c. 1. † Plin. Hist. Nat., lib. xiv., cap. 12.
| Plin. Ilist. Nat., lib. xiv., c. 13; Val. Maximus, Ibid., lib. xiv., cap. 13. Ælian, Var. Hist., lib. ii., c. 38.
lib. vi., c. 3. i Athenæus, lib. X., c. 7.
$ Pliny, b. xiv., c. 13. Balduinus in hanc legem Romuli.
i Hawkesworth's Voyages, vol. iii., p. 39. ** Ibid., ad leges Romuli,
1 Plutarch, in Catone Maj., et in P. Æmilio.
which related to the commonwealth."* Under regular morals, durst be seen to eat or drink the first emperors intemperance was a vice in such houses. Ev katnie de payelv n to which women as well as were πιειν εδεις εδαν οικετης επιεικης ετολμησε." equally addicted. Pliny complains in bitter Towards the decline of Grecian morals, terms of the drunken practices of females in these rigorous precautions in regard to their his time.
public magistrates became less observed, The Greeks, like the Romans, during the Men of loose lives and mean fortunes, as earlier and more prosperous part of their well as persons of high quality and strict career, were temperate and sober in their virtue, were admitted to that office; from habits. In course of time, however, the thence may be dated the decline of their temperance of the primitive Greeks sunk national prosperity. The Spartans or Laceunder the insinuating advances of luxury dæmonians, according to Plato and Xenoand intemperance.
phon, looked upon intemperance with great The most prominent of the institutions detestation; their laws had special refeestablished among the ancient Greeks, for rence to the enforcement of temperance and the promotion of moral principles and tem- sobriety. Plato, in his celebrated code of perate habits, were dominated didaoraleia laws, represents Megillus, a Lacedæmonian, σωφροσυνης, schools of temperance and so- as uttering the following language: "That briety. A great number of individuals by which men chiefly fall into the greatest assembled and partook of a frugal and tem- luxuries, insolence, and all sorts of moral perate repast provided for that purpose madness, our laws have effectually rooted by general contribution. On these occasions out of our country. You shall, neither in the persons present profited by the example villages nor towns belonging to the Spartan and discourse of the elders of the place. The state, see any such things as drinking clubs, wines used at these banquets were not only or the usual consequences of them. Nor is greatly inferior in potency to the wines of there any man who should find another that the present day, but were invariably mixed had drank to excess and would not presently with water. One of their laws, in reference bring him to severe punishment; even the to these entertainments, enacted that “none festival of Bacchus would be no pretence to but mixed wines should be drunk at ban- excuse him.”+ Xenopbon makes the followquets.”+ The Areopagite was commanded | ing observations in regard to the Spartans: to take cognizance of alĩ drunkards. These “ They prohibited all unnecessary tipplings, inspectors of public morals were held in which do mischief to the mind and body, and great respect among the people. They were suffered no person to drink but when natuempowered to examine into the lives of all ral thirst required it.”I Plutarch relates the members of the community, and to punish that the Spartans were in the habit of exhithose who were irregular in their manners, biting their slaves, or helots, in a state of as well as to reward the virtuous and cir- drunkenness to their children, in order to cumspect. The senate and court of the excite in them a disgust to vinous indulAreopagus, according to Aristides, was των gence. Τοις παισιν επεδεικνυον της Ειλωτας εν τοις Ελλησι δικαστηρίων τιμιώτατον και μεθυσαντας εις αποτροπην πολυοινιας. àylóratov, the most sacred and venerable tri- The laws of Plato are also worthy of conbunal in all Greece. Such Archons were sideration. “ First,” he observes, “ let admitted into this select body as had be- children taste no wine at all to the eighteenth haved correctly in the discharge of their year of their age; from thence till they trust, and were irreproachable in their pri- be thirty, young men may use it, but with vate conduct. To have been sitting in a moderation, abstaining entirely from drunktavern or public-house was a sufficient rea- enness, and, indeed, from drinking much son to deny an Archon admission into it.§ wine."| When they attain to their fortieth This dignity was continued to them during year, he allows them to attend feasts, and the whole of their lives. If any of the to make a freer use of wine, which he senators, however, were convicted of im- looks upon as Etikepovans 78 ynows moral conduct, they were presently expelled avotnporntos, “very proper to qualify the without mercy or favour. The law in rela- austerities of men in years.” This, however, tion to Archons was exceedingly severe. must be done with due regard to laws and “An Archon that shall be seen overcharged good order, as men that are careful to prewith wine shall suffer death.” Tw ApXovti serve sobriety; the company they associate av peduwv Inpon Javarov Elvai Twinplav. with must be select, and the times of relaxaThis law was enacted by Solon the famous tion suitable, and not to interfere with such lawgiver. T
business as may require their prior attenIn Athens taverns were held in much dis- tion. repute. Isocrates informs us that no person,
The laws of most of the other nations of not even a servant, who pretended to any * Alex. ab Alex., lib. iii., c. 11.
* Isocr. Areopag., p. 354. + Alexis Ædsopo.
Plato de Legib., lib. i. § Athenæus, lib. vi.
$ Ibid., lib. xiv. Xenophon de Rep. Laced., c. V., sec. 4. | Potter's Archæologia Græca, vol. i., p. 122. Plutarch, in Instit. Laconicis. | Diog. Laert, iu Solone, 1. i., sec. 57.
Plato de Legib., lib. ii.
antiquity contain severe enactments against issued a command to extirpate all the intemperance. The Indians, according to vines.* Strabo and Alexander ab Alexandro, held The Franks, under the wise government it unlawful to drink wine on any other occa- of Charlemaigne, or Charles the
Great, had sion than at their sacrifices. 'If a woman numerous regulations on the subject of inkilled their monarch in a state of drunken- temperance. This celebrated warrior him. ness, she was rewarded by marriage with self practised the virtues he so strongly rehis successor. *
commended to others. “No person need Soldiers, while engaged in military ser-wonder,” observes Baluzius, “ that so great vice, by a law of the Carthaginians, were a prince as Charlemaigne took care to adprohibited the use of wine. Male and female monish his subjects against drunkenness; servants were also denied the use of strong for he himself (as Eginhard relates) was drink under severe penalties. Mndemote temperate both in eating and in drinking, μηδενα επι στρατοπεδε γενεσθαι τοτε το but most of all so in the latter; being one πoματος (οινο) αλλ'υδροποσια συγγιγνεσθαι that had an aversion to drunkenness in any τ8τον τον χρονον απαντα. Και κατα πολιν man whomsoever, and much more abhorred μητε δελoν μητε δελην γευεσθαι μηδεποτε it in himself and those about him.”Ιη και μηδε Αρχοντας τατον τον ενιαυτον ον αν constitution which he made at the General αρχωσι, μηδ' αυ κυβερνητας, μηδε δικαστας Diet, at Paderborn, A.D. 777, in favour of Evegyes ovras, ouve yeveobai Totapatay.t his nobility, after conferring upon them
Zaleucus the Locrian, according to Athe- some valuable privileges, he gave them the næus, made it death for any man to drink following caution: “Take care that this wine unmixed with water, unless prescribed eminence of rank, and these high privileges by a physician for the benefit of his health.t which you have merited and obtained as Zaleucus, in order to restrain luxury, enacted the reward of your valour, be not sullied by the following singular law: "No free-born drunkenness, scurrility, or any vice; lest woman, when she went abroad, was to be what was intended to do honour to you reattended by more than one handmaid, unless dound to punishment; which, if ye be guilty she were drunk; no such woman, moreover, of such excesses, shall be inflicted upon you: was permitted to walk out under night, and this right of punishing you for them unless with an intention to play the harlot." we reserve perpetually to ourselves and our This law was eminently successful in its royal successors.” results, for, observes Diodorus Siculus, lib. The same restrictions were laid upon his xii., none were willing to expose their cha- soldiers, whom he directed“ not to persuade racters to derision or contempt, by acknow-or command their brother soldiers or any ledgment of such moral transgressions. one else to drink.” Ut in hoste memo parem
Among the Massilians and Milesians, suum, vel quemlibet alterum hominem bibere women at any age were interdicted from roget, (al. coget.) drinking wine; they were to restrict them- These prohibitory mandates extended to selves to the use of water. An excellent all classes of society. The elder part of the authority informs us that this law was in- community, in particular, were commanded tended to preserve the purity and chastity to abstain from drunkenness, that they of their inclinations; wine being known to might set a good example of sobriety to the be a great incentive to lewdness.||
young persons. The following law in reThe laws of Draco, which, from their gard to intemperance was enacted either by severity, were said to be written in letters of Charles or his son Lewis:-“We command blood, punished drunkenness with death. that the great evil of drunkenness, the root
Lycurgus, king of Thrace, alarmed at the of all other vices, be avoided with the utmost intemperance which existed amongst his care. He that will not avoid it, we do depeople, commanded all the vines in the king- cree, shall be excommunicated, till he give dom to be totally extirpated. I
satisfaction that he will reform. Qui auAbout the year 704, a like measure was tem hoc vitare noluerit, excommunicandum enforced by Terbaldus, a Bulgarian prince. esse decrevimus, usque ad emendationem conThe Avares, whom he had conquered, by gruam.”[ their own confession, among other vices, had Most of the laws of Cbarlemaigne were been ruined by intemperance. Their ma- directed in the most severe terms against gistrates had neglected to exercise a due all the temptations to intemperance, such authority to prevent this evil. On arriving as tippling, and compelling and persuading at his own kingdom, Terbaldus, as a cer others to drink. Geldastus remarks, Ebrietatain preventive of the vice of drunkenness,
* Bonfinius de reb. Ungaricis, Decad. i., lib. i. * Strabo, l. xv., Alex. ab Alex., I. iii., C. ll. + Baluz., tom. ii., Not. in Libros Capitular., col. + Plato de Legib., lib. ii.
1173, v. Ebrietate. # Athenæus, lib. X., cap. 7.
I Const. de Privil. Nobilium, sec. ii.-Goldast., $ Elian, Var. Hist., lib. ii., cap. 38; Athenæus, tom. iii. lib. X., cap. 7.
§ Capit. ii., A.D. 812, c. vi., Baluz., tom. i. !! P. Hendreich, Massilia, apud Gronov., vol. vi. || Capitular., i., c.161. | Plutarch. de aud. Poetis.
Addit. iii., ad Capitular., c. 36.