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In the state of barley, the hordein and claims on the score of nutrition. Hence starch form the largest proportions. The when the liquor is properly prepared for sugar and gum are but small in quantity. consumption, a very diminished proportion A large part of the hordein disappears in of the nutritious qualities of the malt is the malt, and is afterwards found to be con- found to remain. After fermentation, one verted into starch and sugar. The object of quart of strong ale has been calculated to the brewer is by this means successfully yield about three ounces of solid matter. effected, as the elements for the formation In the condition of sweet wort it yields not of a sufficient portion of alcohol are found less than six ounces. to exist in the newly-acquired saccharine The specific gravity of beer necessarily depends on the original soundness of the


This artificial and tortuous process is barley, and the extent of fermentation. attended with a loss of solid substance, and The average specific gravity of beer and of course a proportionate destruction of wort is 1.0676, that is beer 1012, and wort nutritious matter. By the process of malt-1.040. Professor Thompson distilled a saming, barley increases two or three per cent. ple of London-brewed ale and found its in bulk. On the average, it loses about one-specific gravity 1·0255. The specific gravity fifth of its weight, or twenty per cent., of the malt from which it was made was twelve of which are to be ascribed to kiln- 1.0676. More than two-thirds of the nudrying, and consist of water, which of tritious portion of the grain had been lost course the barley would have lost had it by fermentation. The ale, on which this been exposed to the same temperature. experiment had been made, yielded nine Thus the real loss does not exceed eight per cent. of alcohol, or nineteen per cent. of per cent. proof spirit. Every pound weight of solid Among the multifarious operations of matter so decomposed is found to yield half brewing may be mentioned those of grind-a pound of alcohol of the specific gravity ing, mashing, hopping, boiling, cooling, cleans-0-825.

ing, fining, attenuation, &c., each of which The following simple experiment leads us require great caution on the part of the to the same conclusion: Evaporate a porbrewer, or an imperfect liquor is the inevit- tion of ale over a sand-bath. The fluid able result. The process of brewing, how- part consists merely of water and alcohol, ever, in its simplified sense, consists merely and of course evaporates. The weight, or of a decoction or infusion of malt and hops proportion of the solid matter may then be reduced to a state of fermentation by the easily ascertained. Dr. Charles A. Lee, of addition of yeast or fermenting matter. New York, and Professor Gale, of New Sugar forms the basis of malt as well as York University, repeatedly made this exof the juice of the grape. It follows that periment. The average quantity of extracthe nature of the fermentation of malt tive matter contained in a pint or sixteen liquor is similar to that of wine. The pro- ounces of North River ale was 816 grains, portions of saccharine matter are disar- or about one-eleventh of the whole weight. ranged and re-united in the form of alcohol. This gave nearly nine ounces of solid matter The latter is formed exactly in proportion to the gallon.

to the quantity of the former, which under- Good barley, which weighs 100 pounds, goes fermentation. Hence, the amount of after it has been properly malted, loses exalcoholic formation depends upon the pro-actly twenty pounds of its weight. The portion of malt used, and the greater or less raw grain, however, if dried by itself at the perfection of the brewing operation. same temperature with the malt would lose


by the falling of the fibrils. of waste.*

The barley, by the operation of brewing, twelve per cent. of its weight. A loss, or more properly the malt, again sustains therefore, of eight per cent. only must be a serious loss of its solid substance. The attributed to the process of malting. infusion of malt in hot water extracts the! Dr. Ure states this loss as follows:saccharine matter, but leaves a considerable 1 per cent. dissolved out in the steep water. proportion of the starch in the grains: one 31 dissipated in the kiln. of the principal objects, indeed, of the 3 brewer is to make the water of such a tem-03 perature that it will not dissolve the starch, and thereby thicken the liquor. The gluten 8 has already been seen to have nearly disappeared in the conversion of barley into malt; and even if it had remained, it could not eight or nine per cent. exist in the liquor, because it is not capable "In good fermentation," remarks Dr. Ure, of being dissolved in the water. The sugar" seldom more than a fourth of the original is principally converted into alcohol, and gravity of the wort remains at the period of the only proportion of solid substance left cleansing. Between one-third and oneis the starch-gum, and the small quantity fourth is the usual degree of attenuation." which remains of the undecomposed gum- The whole of the loss of solid matter sugar, both of which, in fact, from their minute proportions, present but feeble'

Good malt in bulk exceeds barley by about

*Dict. Arts, Art. Beer, p. 95,

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sustained by the process of malting and attributed to Sylvius, a professor of Leyden, brewing is thus estimated:

100 pounds of good barley, taken

who lived in the middle of the seventeenth century. It was at first sold as a diuretic

in its ordinary state of mois-100 lbs. in the apothecaries' shops; but as the com

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2. Loss sustained by the process
of brewing

Total loss of nutritious so-
luble matter on both pro-


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75 p' ct.

mon people drank it with avidity, it soon became an article of trade.* Gin, when properly prepared, consists of alcohol, water, and the essential oil of juniper.

The quantity of spirit contained in pure Hollands varies, according to Dr. Ure, from eighteen to twenty-one gallons per quarter of grain.

Dr. Ure informs us that a celebrated distiller, who had studied the art at Schiedam, 3. Combinations of distilled liquors.-The attempted to introduce this spirit, in its combinations of distilled liquors depend genuine state, into general consumption in altogether on the nature of the materials this country; but, remarks that writer, "he which have undergone fermentation. The found the palates of our gin-drinkers too much process of distillation removes much of the corrupted to relish so pure a beverage.” vegetable matter which exists in the fer- Whiskey is the product of Ireland and mented liquors; indeed little afterwards Scotland. When genuine, it contains little remains in connection with the spirit but a else than alcohol and water, flavoured greater or less proportion of water and according to the peculiar method in which essential oils, which mainly impart the it is prepared. Immense quantities of conpeculiar flavour by which they are in traband whiskey are manufactured in Iregeneral characterized. land The malt from which it is princi

The word still, and from thence distilla-pally distilled is kiln-dried, with peat or tion, is derived from the Latin word stillare, turf, the smoke of which imparts a peculiar to drop, because the liquor which results flavour to the spirit. The word whiskey from this process, as the vapour condenses, is a corruption of usque, in the Irish phrase drops from an important tube connected with usquebaugh, or "water of life." the apparatus. Rum, another popular beverage of the Brandy is produced by the distillation of present day, is generally prepared by ferwine, or its lees, and the husks of the grapes menting uncrystallized sugar or molasses, from the wine-presses. It is composed of commonly called treacle. This liquor is various proportions of alcohol and water, principally manufactured in the West Indies and obtains its flavour from a volatile oil and in Demerara, where sugar is grown in contained in the skin of the grape, which great abundance. The peculiar flavour of is partially distilled over. The colour and rum is derived from the essential oil conpeculiar taste of brandy are produced by tained in the raw juice of the sugar, and in means of caromel and burnt sugar, which particular in the cane, fragments of which are mixed with it for that purpose. Pure are introduced into, and fermented with, brandies derive their peculiar aroma from the other materials. "This oil," remarks the kind of grape-juice from which they are Professor Thomson, "is extremely stimudistilled. It is on this aceount that the lant, and acts upon the cutaneous vessels, brandies of Rochelle, Languedoc, Bordeaux, causing diaphoresis. Age modifies this Cognac, Orleans, Naples, &c., derive their action; but most of the rum used in this peculiar odour and taste. Brandy is a country is newly imported." corrupt abbreviation of the brande-vin of the Writers commonly derive the term rum French. The latter word is borrowed by from the terminating syllable of the Latin our Gallic neighbours from the Saxon word saccharum, or sugar, the name by brantewein, which simply means burnt wine. Our old English writers call it Nantze, because this article of commerce was shipped from that port.

which this popular substance has been known from the earliest periods. In some of the West India islands it is customary to introduce sliced pine apples into puncheons Gin, or Geneva, is distilled from the fer- of rum, which is from thence denominated mented liquor of malted barley and coarse pine-apple rum. Edwards rates the prorye, with the subsequent addition of juniper portion of rum to sugar at eighty-two galberries. From the latter addition it has re-lons of the former to 16 cwt. of the latter. ceived one of its names; the French word for Dr. Ure, however, states the rates as two juniper being geneievre; hence our common hundred gallons of rum to three hogsheads word geneva. This liquor it considered to of sugar.

be of the finest quality when manufactured The celebrated physician, Dr. Cullen, in Holland, and for this reason superior uttered the following memorable expression gin is commonly called Hollands. The on this popular liquor: "If I were an absoEnglish gin differs from that of the former lute monarch, I would make a law that no country in being rectified with the oil of

turpentine. The discovery of this spirit is

*Thomson, Materia Medica et Therapeutics.

rum should be distilled in my dominions larger quantities. The following is the except for my own use." average of Mr. Brande's calculation:Alcohol Proof spirit

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Small beer

Spirits differ little in their effects; but the volatile oils which they contain render them dissimilar in taste and flavour. The inter- Cider contains ested views, however, of dealers in spirits have elicited much discussion on this subject. "Those who imported brandy," says Sir J. Sinclair, "took care to trump forth the virtues of that article; while, on the other hand," continues the same writer, "the West India merchants and planters! thought it necessary to publish a defence of the superior qualities of rum." Between these various interested parties, the public have been lamentably deceived.

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per cent.

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The calculations of Professor Beck are as follows:


Albany ale, in barrels
Do. do. bottles, two
years old

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Alcohol per cent. 4.68 7.38



In the early part of this century, Par- Stephenson, in a popular treatise on alimentier was employed by the French go- mentary food, states that, some years ago, vernment to ascertain whether brandy (l'eau a Winchester quart of old sound porter de vie), or pure spirits of wine (alcohol), would yield nearly six ounces of "good was the most fitted for the use of troops. proof spirits," by careful distillation; but The report recommended for use the natu- that the beer of the present day will not ral spirituous liquors of the country, rather yield four ounces of the same spirit.* Mothan spirits of wine; that is, in wine coun- dern brewers have found out a ready method tries, brandy; in Normandy, spirits made of economising their malt, by substituting in from cyder and perry, and in Belgium and its place a variety of intoxicating and perniHolland from corn. Recent experience, cious drugs. Hence, the use of malt liquors happily points out a practice yet more pro- is doubly injurious. ductive of the health of troops,-abstinence from all spirituous or alcoholic liquors.

The amount of alcohol contained in ardent spirits in general use is more easily asIV. The comparative strength of intoxica- certained, although, as will afterwards be ting liquors.-The analysis of wines has of shown, they are extensively, and, when relate years occupied considerable attention. tailed, almost universally, adulterated. The The following, according to Professor following are the calculations of Professors Brande, is the average of spirit contained in Brande and Beck:some of our most popular vinous compounds:

Professor Brande.
per cent.

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Professor Beck.


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Proportion of alcohol
per cent. by measure.

per cent.

Brandy, common


Gin, genuine Hollands


- 22.60

Irish whiskey

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Whiskey, common


From these tables it appears that the three wines most in general use contain

From these calculations, it appears that

nearly one-half their quantity of proof the proportion of proof spirit in wines avespirit. "It has been demonstrated," re- rages from one-fourth to one-fifth of the marks Dr. Paris, "that port, madeira, and whole; ales rather more than one-seventh; sherry, contain from one-fourth to one-fifth cider rather less than one-seventh, and porter of their bulk of alcohol, so that a person about eleven three-fourths. More than half who takes a bottle of either of them will the quantity of distilled liquors consists of thus take nearly half a pint of alcohol, or alcohol in its pure state. almost a pint of pure brandy."*

The quantity of alcohol found in malt liquors is considerably less than what is contained in wines; but in the practice of drinking, this difference avails little, inasmuch as some classes in particular indulge more frequently in wines and malt liquors. These liquors, moreover, are, in general, drunk in

*Paris's Pharmacologia.

Scotch whiskey, according to Professor Brande, contains the largest proportion of alcohol, being upwards of 54 per cent. Rum, contrary to the general supposition, contains a greater quantity of alcohol than brandy. Gin, which contains about 51 per cent. of alcohol, stands the next in order as regards strength. Port wine and madeira are about

* Medical and Economical Advice, by J. Stephenson, M.D., p. 117.

equal in strength. Cider exceeds London, an extent which it is difficult to comprehend; porter in alcoholic strength by nearly one-and, moreover, that different wines, although half, the former being 7.54, the latter 4-20. of the same specific gravity, and consequently Brown stout and Scotch ale each contain containing the same absolute proportion of about 6 per cent. Burton ale, however, ardent spirit, will be found to vary very concontains nearly 9 per cent.

The following table presents a more miliar mode of comparison.

3 fluid ounces of

alcohol are contained in about

1 pint of brandy.
port wine.



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siderably in their intoxicating powers." In fa-explanation of this assumed phenomena, Dr. Paris supposes the alcohol to be "so combined with the extractive matter of the wine, that it is probably incapable of exerting its full specific effects upon the stomach before it becomes altered in its properties, or, in other words, digested;" and he remarks, "this view of the subject may be fairly urged Lon. porter. in explanation of the reason why the inThe number of gallons of proof spirit dis- toxicating effects of the same wine are so tilled in the United Kingdom, in the year liable to vary in degree, in the same indiending January 5, 1842, was,-in England, vidual, from the peculiar state of his diges5,919,207; in Scotland, 8,504,333; in Ireland, tive organs at the time of his potations." 6,359,124; total, 20,782,664. The number Dr. Paris is not singular in his opinion. of gallons, however, of proof spirits on Wines, however, it must be remembered, which duty was paid for consumption dur- are in general sipped in small but frequently ing the same period was,-in England, repeated quantities. The system is thus 8,166,985; in Scotland, 5,989,905; in Ire- gradually elevated to the required pitch of land, 6,485,443; total, 20,642,233. The excitement: hence the grosser effects of feramount of duty paid upon this quantity of mented liquors are less easily perceived. The spirits was £5,161,610, 15s. 6d. The amount remarks of Professor Beck on this subject of whiskey consumed in England is 2,247,778 are interesting and important: "A halfgallons, which is the difference between the pint glass of brandy-and-water, of common number of gallons distilled and the number strength, contains an amount of alcohol but on which duty was paid. The whole quan- little less than the same measure of ordinary tity of whiskey made from malt consumed in madeira, and, if these portions of wine and England does not exceed 520,942 gallons. of brandy-and-water should be drunk in the A great proportion, therefore, of those indi- same manner, the effects on the animal viduals, who imagine that they indulge in economy would not be so different as is pure malt whiskey," are in egregious generally supposed. Wine is usually taken error. The quantity of Scotch whiskey in small quantities, and at intervals-circumconsumed in England is 1,894,657 gallons, stances which must have a great effect in of which only 519,009 gallons are made from modifying its action on the system; and to malt. The remainder is made from "a these may also be added the fact, that its mixture of malt with unmalted grain." Ire- habitual use impairs the susceptibility of the land supplies England with 1933 gallons of system to its intoxicating power." whiskey made from malt. A characteristic "The inference of Dr. Paris," remarks national trait will be found in the home con- Dr. C. A. Lee, “that wine is less injurious sumption of whiskey in these countries. than the same proportion of ardent spirit taken In Scotland the consumption of whiskey is pure, is wholly unsustained by proof, and 5,989,905 gallons, of this quantity 5,375,162 seems to be derived solely from the fact that are made from malt, and only 614,743 from it is less intoxicating. Now, it does not a mixture of malt with unmalted grain. The follow that the injurious effects of two differeverse is the fact with regard to Ireland. rent liquors, are always proportioned to the In that country 6,485,443 gallons of whis- degree of intoxication produced by them. key are consumed; only 527,196 are made The one may intoxicate to a considerable from malt, while 5,958,247 are made from a degree, and the effects pass hastily, while mixture of malt with unmalted grain. the other may produce but slight exhilara


V. The comparative effects of intoxicating tion, if any, and be followed by a serious liquors on the human frame.-It is in general derangement of the health. Wine-drinkers understood, that the alcohol contained in themselves have concurred in the correctfermented liquors exists in a peculiar state ness of our conclusions. They know the of combination, and that the vegetable matter evils attendant on gorging the stomach with contained in wines and malt liquors prevents acids, resinous, oily, and extractive matter, to a considerable extent the injurious effects with alcohol; and when they take stimulants of the alcohol. Dr. Paris appears to be of because they think they require it, they are this opinion. "Daily experience," observes apt to take brandy or whiskey; wine is taken that physician, "convinces us that the same chiefly out of complaisance and fashion's quantity of alcohol applied to the stomach sake."*

under the form of natural wine, and in a state of mixture with water, will produce

very different effects upon the body, and to]

*Bacchus, Amer. Ed. Note, p 236.

The attenuation, or, in more precise lan-a "highly nutritious beverage." Franklin guage, the chemical combination of alcoho greatly contributed to expose this popular with water, however, appears to exercise the fallacy. When a journeyman printer, in most powerful influence in preventing that London, he informs us that he endeavoured grosser and more immediate power of intoxi- to convince his fellow-workmen "that the cation which has been observed to attend bodily strength furnished by the beer could more recently combined portions of spirit and only be in proportion to the solid part of water. In proof of this, Mr. Brande affirms, the barley dissolved in the water of which as the result of his experience, that when the beer was composed; and that there was brandy and water are mixed, and allowed to a larger portion of flour in a penny loaf, and remain in combination for some time, the that consequently if they ate the loaf, and intoxicating power of the mixture would not drank a pint of water with it, they would be greater than that of wine containing a derive more strength from it than from a similar portion of brandy or alcohol. "If pint of beer." In proof of the correctness the residuum," he remarks, "afforded by the of this position, Dr. Franklin states as distillation of 100 parts of port wine be added follows: "On my entrance, I worked at first to twenty-two parts of alcohol and seventy- as a pressman, conceiving that I had need eight of water, in a state of perfect combina- of bodily exercise, to which I had been action, the mixture is precisely analogous, in its customed in America. I drank nothing but intoxicating effect, to port wine of an equal water. The other workmen, to the number strength." Hence the diminished power of of about fifty, were great drinkers of beer. gross intoxication in wine depends princi- I carried occasionally a large form of letters pally on the process of attenuation. Pro- in each hand, up and down stairs, while the fessor Beck states, that, in his opinion, it is rest employed both hands to carry one. "to this, more than the controlling effects of They were surprised to see by this, and the other vegetable matter, that we are to many other examples, that the American ascribe their less decided intoxicating aquatic, as they used to call me, was powers: and, on the contrary, it is to the stronger than those who drank porter." imperfect union that the ordinary mixtures of brandy and water owe their more energetic action on the system."

Dr. Cheyne, in his usual quaint and forcible manner, thus adverts to the innutritious property of the extract contained in malt Dr. Macnish, in his Anatomy of Drunken- liquors: "As to malt liquors, they are ness, states, “In the wine generally to be met not much in use, excepting small beer, with with, much of the alcohol exists mechani- any but mechanics and fox-hunters. The cally, or uncombined, and all this portion of French very justly call them barley soup. I spirit acts precisely in the same manner as am well satisfied, that a weak stomach can if separately used. as readily, and with less pain, digest pork

Spirituous mixtures are in general taken and pease-soup as Yorkshire or Nottingham before the attenuation in question can be ale. They make excellent bird-lime, and even partially effected; and for this reason when simmered some time over a gentle the effect produced does not very materially fire, make the most sticking, and the best differ from that of the same proportion taken plaster for old strains that can be conalone. The generally observed fact, that trived."*

newly fermented wines are more powerfully This glutinous composition cannot cerintoxicating than old, may be attributed to tainly be supposed to contain any very the same cause. The alcohol of the latter, large proportion of nutritious matter. All by their age, becomes more intimately physiological writers, moreover, are agreed, attenuated with the water. that bulk, as well as quality, is necessary to healthy and perfect digestion.

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One of the principal arguments adduced in favour of the use of fermented liquors is Dr. John C. Warren, of Boston, Amethus found to be based on erroneous calcu-rica, on one occasion being asked if there lations. The difference in question does not was nutriment for a labouring man in strong arise from the extractive matter with which beer, made this reply: "There is none, or they are combined, but from the mere fact of so very little, that one biscuit will afford a more intimate attenuation having taken working-man more support than the beer which place. The conclusion we arrive at is, that he will drink from sun-rise to sun-set.' the two kinds of mixtures under considera- It is usually supposed that ardent spirits tion, if taken under equal circumstances, are infinitely more injurious in their general would differ little in their effects on the effects than malt and other fermented lianimal economy. quors. It is certain, however, that the The delusion regarding the nutritious combinations of fermented liquors frequently properties of fermented, and especially of render them more injurious than alcohol malt, liquors, is astonishing, when it is con- simply diluted and attenuated with water. sidered how slight a proportion of solid and The observations of two medical gentlemen, nutritious matter they contain, in addition who have written largely on the subject, are to the alcoholic stimulus which all of them adduced in support of this, perhaps, startling possess. Malt liquor has been extolled by

Bitish statesmen as "liquid bread," and as

Essay on Health and Long Life, 9th ed. p. 60.

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