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that the Lusitanians in Spain u e zythum, The names by which these liquors were but have little wine. Xpovrai dè kai žvov, known, in ancient writers, are various. oivý asñavizovτal. Dion Cassius has the Posidonius, the stoic philosopher, tells us, following passage: "The Pannonians, who that in his time men of more humble coninhabit the banks of the Danube, have dition among the Galts and Celts made neither oil nor wine, except very little, and use of Ev0oc, zythum, made from wheat, that little very bad; they eat barley and prepared with honey. Usually, however, millet, and from these two kinds of grain it was drunk by itself. It was called, they make a drink." Herodotus, concern-кopua, corma.
ing the Egyptians, tells us that they had Dioscorides uses the same term, with but no vines in that region, or ouk oav ev ry a slight alteration in the orthography. A χωρᾷ αμπελοι. Dion Academicus, as drink, he remarks, named koupμ, curmi or cited by Athenæus, also states that the courmi, is used in the place of wine. Other Egyptians were not possessed of wine because writers term the ovos rpidivos of the anciof their poverty, día πevιav añoρovνTES OUTε ents, Bourov, brytum. Thus Hesychius renοἴνοῦ. These statements, however, must ders Bpvrov, brytum, τóμа εк кpions, a be received only in a limited sense. It is drink from barley, Hecatæus also, in his certain that at one period, at least, the cul- Eupons, informs us that the Pæonians ture of the vine was not unknown to the call a drink made from barley, brytum. Egyptians.* Hecateus flourished more than five centuries Diodorus ascribes the invention of liquors before Christ. The same writer states, from grain to Osiridus and Bacchus. This that another drink, called parabia, was writer, DeOsiride, tells us that if in any part made from millet and conyza.* Οινος the earth did not admit of the culture of the rptivos, oinos krithinos, or barley wine, vine, Osiris taught the people how to pre- was also denominated sabaga, or sabagum, pare a liquor from barley, not much inferior and sometimes sabajarius. Ammianus to wine in fragrance and strength. The tells us, that in Illyrica, a very poor liquor same writer, De Baccho, again states, that (paupertinus potus), made from barley or in those districts where the earth was un- fruit, is called sabaga. Jerome describes friendly to the culture of the vine, they zythum as a kind of liquor made from grain made a drink from barley a little inferior to and water, and common in the provinces of wine in excellence of taste.t Diodorus Dalmatia and Pannonia. He further inmakes a similar statement, for the third forms us that among barbarous nations it time, in a subsequent book. Xenophon, was called sabagum.
in reference to the οινος κριθινος, oinos All ancient writers, however, agree that krithinos of the Armenians, speaks in dif-"barley wine was termed in Egypt ζυθον, ferent terms as to its strength. He describes zythum. "Western nations," says Pliny, it as strong and pleasant to those who are "intoxicate themselves by means of moistaccustomed to its use. "Their soil," he ened corn. A drink thus made is called continues, "is good for arable and pasture, zythum in Egypt, celia and ceria in Spain, and the produce abundant, yet the people and cerevisia in Gaul and other provinces."t inhabit caves with their cattle, poultry, &c. Most writers among the Greeks use this They fill open vessels with barley and water word. Theophrastus speaks of wines made to the brim."+ from barley and wheat, which are called The ancients called those liquors which zythum in Egypt. Strabo, in reference to were made from barley olvo K Kong the Egyptians, testifies the same thing. (wines from barley). Tacitus speaks of this Zythus, he remarks, is in particular made in kind of liquor as potum in vini similitulinem that country: τὸ δὲ ζυθος ιδίως παρασκευcorruptum, "a corrupt or inferior drink ážεтαι Tαρ Eкsivous. Diodorus, in two having the resemblance of wine." Most places, speaks of zythum as a drink made ancient writers denominate this liquor from barley. Galen mentions zythum as "wine," "barley wine," and "wine made made at Alexandria in Egypt. Posidonius from barley." Thus Herodotus uses the and other writers testify the same thing. words ὄινῷ εκ κριθῶν διαχρῆσθαι, “they|Columella associates with zythum the nanie were accustomed to use wine from barley." of Pelusium, a city at the mouth of the Athenæus terms it divov rρilivov (barley Nile; hence barley wine is denominated by wine). Theophrastus speaks Touç oivous some writers the Pelusian drink :— ποιούντων ἐκ τῶν κριθῶν, "of those persons who made wine from barley." Hesychius and Suidas both define zythum to be δινον απο κριθῆς γινόμενον, "wine made from barley." Eschylus makes use of similar expression, εκ κριθῶν μεθυ, "wine from barley."
* Psalm lxxviii., 47.
† De Baccho, lib. iii., cap. 73. Xenophon, Anabasis
Tacitus de Morib. German.
Sectaque præbetur madido sociata lupino,
COLUMELLA, lib. x.
Pliny, in the passage quoted above, mentions celia and ceria, as names applied to barley wine. Florus also speaks of this kind of drink under the name of celia, and
* Athenæus, lib. x.
† Nat. Hist., lib. xxii., cap. 25.
adds, sic vocant indiginæ ex frumento poti on this exhilarating liquor. The Saxons onem, so they term a liquor made from and Danes, previous to the introduction of grain." It seems probable that the words Christianity, supposed that "to drink large cervisia or cerevisia, and celia and ceria, had and frequent draughts of it was one of the a similar origin. They evidently had refe- greatest pleasures enjoyed by the heroes rence to the same kind of liquor, liquor cere- admitted into the hall of Odin."* alis, or "liquor of corn." Ceres was the was probably referred to in the following goddess of corn, or, indeed, of grain, as a passage: Radner Lodbrog, the last king of general class; and in the orthography of Scandinavia, having been taken prisoner, in the words under consideration, there is but a descent which he made upon England, an inconsiderable difference. Ovid refers was put to a cruel death. In the agonies of to this subject in his celebrated production. torture he uttered the following language: In relating the meeting which Ceres, who "We fought with swords. I am still full of was exhausted with weariness, had with joy when I think of the banquet that is Baubo, an aged female, the former requested preparing for me in the palace of the gods. some water to recruit her exhausted strength; Soon-soon, in the splendid abode of Odin, the old woman, however, presented her with we shall drink out of the skulls of our a liquor manufactured from dried grain. enemies.-But it is time to cease. Odin Simon Sethi, in his work on Aliments, men- hath sent his goddesses to conduct me to tions a drink called Pokas, phoca; and, as his palace. I am going to be placed on the Meitomius remarks, ascribes to it qualities highest seat, there to quaff goblets of beer precisely similar to those which Dioscorides with the gods. I will die laughing." † attributes to zythum. The Arabs variously Wormius refers to heather-beer, a liquor name it fuca, foca, and alfoca. Simon Janu- made from heath, probably mixed with ensi in Synonymis uses the words cervisia, honey, or some sweet substance, to render camum, and foca as having reference to the it palatable, as one of the pleasures which same drink. We may determine, therefore, the souls of departed warriors enjoyed in that phoca was made from grain. Matthæus the society of the gods. Silvaticus in Pandectis, cap. 271, indeed The following authorities show that liquors states that it was made from barley, and from grain were in common use in this mixed with ginger and other warm articles. country at an early period: Eumenes, in Pokas, phokas, or pooka, phoska, evidently his panegyric on Constantius, A.D. 296, obis, in many respects, identical with the serves, "that Britain produced corn in such posca or pusca of the Romans. It was pro- abundance, that it was sufficient to supply bably often used in a semi-acetous state, not only bread but also a drink which was and drunk during summer to allay the pangs comparable to wine." A writer of great of thirst. erudition thus alludes to the habits of St. The ancient British became acquainted Finnian of Clonard, one of the two sees of with the art of producing the "wine of Meath. This pious individual died, A.D. corn," soon after the introduction of agri- 552. "Finnian was distinguished not only cultural pursuits. Isidorus and Orosius, for his extraordinary learning and knowabout the commencement of the fifth cen- ledge of the Scriptures, but likewise for his tury, thus describe the manner in which great sanctity, and austere mode of livbeer was made among the British and the ing. His usual food was bread and herbs, Celtic nations: "The grain is steeped in his drink water. On festival days he used water, and made to germinate; it is then to indulge himself with a little fish and a dried and ground; after which it is infused cup of beer or whey."§ Jonas Scotus, in in a certain quantity of water, which, being his Life of Columbanus, (embracing a period fermented, becomes a pleasant, warming, between 589 and 610,) makes allusion to strengthening, and intoxicating liquor." ale (cervisia), "which is bruised from the Dioscorides tells us, that the ancient Irish juice of wheat and barley, and which, above (Hiberi), at least those who resided in its all the nations of the earth, except the western parts, as well as the Britains, made Scots and Dardans, who inhabit the borders use of curmi, or wine made from grain, at an of the ocean, those of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, early period. His words are, ΣKEVALETαι and Germany, and others who are not unlike δε (και) εκ πυρων τοιαντα ποματα ὡςthem in manners, use.”|| This memoir was ἐν τῇ προς ἕσπερων Ιβηρία και Βρεττανίᾳ. written about A.D. 640. In the year 694, Dioscorides flourished about the commence- Ina, king of Wessex, directed that every one ment of the Christian era. Camden con- who possessed a farm of ten hides of land tends that curmi, in this place, is corruptly should, among other articles, pay to him written for the ancient British word cwrw, twelve ambers of Welch ale, each of which which signifies ale. The latter word, as we contained above seven gallons of English shall shortly see, is probably derived from wine measure. The Saxon Dialogues [rethe Danes, who term the same kind of liquor oel or oela. Julian, the apostate, in an epigram, terms this liquor the offspring of corn and wine without wine.
The German tribes placed a high value
*Mallet's Northern Antiq., chap. vi.
Jonas Scotus, in Vita Columbani, cap. 16.
served in the Cotton Library of the British forms us, that, about 1550, the cost of beer Museum, record the following reply of a was 1d. for the same quantity. boy, who, when questioned upon his habits,
Our ancestors, who, as preceding facts and in particular as to what he drank, said, show, were conspicuous for their bibulous "Ale, if I have it, or water, if I have it not." propensities, had stated times for indulgence Wine," he further remarks, "is the liquor in malt liquors. Some of these were even of the elders and the wise," by which we associated with the officers of the church, may infer, that it was a more costly and rare and were supported by joint contributions, beverage. Even in these early days ale was-such as leêt ale, clerk ale, church ale, bride sold at houses of entertainment; "for a ale, and a variety of others. The latter priest was forbidden by law to eat or drink custom is even still followed in some parts at ceapealethetum," literally, a place where of Scotland, under the name of penny bride ale was sold. ale, having for its professed object the as
Beer and ale appear to have formed im-sistance of those poor persons who are unportant items in the banquets of olden times. able to defray the expenses of a wedding Malt liquor constituted a part of the feast dinner.*
"Bring us home good ale."
"Drencht in ale, or drown'd in beere."
Hesperides, p. 300.
provided in the eleventh century for Edward The association of strong drink with the Confessor. It has already been shown, church buildings and religious occasions has that in the fifteenth century, in the reign of already received lengthened consideration. Edward IV., three hundred tuns of ale were In the fairs held at Camberwell, it is stated, prepared for one feast alone. A favourite that the booths were erected in the churchwassail or drinking song of this period has yard for the sale of "good drink, pies, and for its burden pedlarie trash." William Keth, in a sermon preached at Blanford-Forum, Dorset, January, 1570, states, that in his time it was Camden calls the yeomen of this period usual to keep the church ales on the Sab"the old ale-knights of England." Har- bath day, which holy day, says the same rison, as we have seen in a previous divine, "the multitude call their revelyng section, details some curious particulars re-day," which day is spent in bulbeatings, lative to these worthies.* At an entertain-beare beatings, bowlings, dicyng, cardyng, ment, given by the Earl of Leicester, in daunsynges, drunkennes, and whoredome." Kenilworth Castle, to Queen Elizabeth, it is to be lamented, that several of these three hundred and sixty-five hogsheads of profane customs are practiced in our towns beer alone were consumed. On the suppo- and country villages even in the present sition that twenty-three thousand persons day. Herrick, in his Hesperides, in describwere present on that occasion (an improba-ing the country wakes, in reference to the ble conjecture), not less than one gallon of" happy rustics," has this line:— ale would fall to the share of each individual. Intemperance and riot, doubtless, characterized this profuse feast. The consumption of malt liquors must have been greatly in- Macaulay, in his History and Antiquities of crcased by the easy rate at which they could Claybrook, Leicestershire, observes, in rebe procured by all ranks of society. Spiced gard to wakes, that "the return of the wake ale (double the price of common), in the never fails to produce a week at least of eleventh century, was sold at 8d. per gallon. idleness, intoxication, and riot; which conIn 1251, the law enacted, that in cities a sequences," he further remarks, "renders brewer might sell two gallons of ale for a it highly desirable to all the friends of order, penny, and in the country three or four of decency, and of religion, that they were gallons for the same price.† A penny at that totally suppressed."t period was in value about three-halfpence The etymological origin of the words ale in the time of the modern historian from and beer involves a curious and not uninwhose work this fact has been quoted. In teresting subject of research. Learned 1315 and 1316, according to Bishop Fleet-writers variously derive the word beer. The wood's Chronicon Preciosum, good ale was 2d. Germans term drink made from grain biera, per lagenam (flaggon or gallon). The better or bira, and hence the phrase la biere.— sort was 3d., the best 4d., and the viler, or Vossius deduces the word biera from the more inferior kind, 1d. In 1445 and 1451, latin bibere, and endeavours to strengthen ale was 14d. a gallon. In 1453, however, his views by some ingenious arguments.— it was 14d.; while, in 1457 and 1460 it was He supposes bier to be a simple variation or sold for a 1d. per gallon. In 1471, the contraction of the latin biber (a drink), and maximum price of the best ale was fixed by bire to be a general term expressive of all Act of Parliament at 1d. per gallon. In similar liquors. Other writers derive beer 1504, London ale was sold at £1. 10s. per from Búvns, a Greek word, which, accordbutt of one hundred and twenty-six gallons, ing to Aetius, signifies malt, or macerated and or nearly 3d. per gallon. Hollinshed in
*Division 1. sect. 2, pp. 29, 30.
† Hulme, vol. ii., p. 333.
*Supplem. vol. Encyclop. Britan.
† Hist. and Antiq. of Claybrook, &c., 1791, p. 93. Vossius, Artis Gram.. lib. iii,, cap. 26.
toasted barley.* Ruellius suggests that cestors Yule, or the Feast, by way of prebiria or beria is a mere variation of one eminence.
letter from ceria, the letter b being substi- The difference between ale and beer is a tuted for c.† subject of equal interest and more practical Martinius, in his Philological Lexicon, nature. Harrison, the historian, informs us, under the head cervisia, derives beer a pyris, that the word ale was employed to designate from the Latin word for a pear, from which a malt liquor into which no hops had been fruit he supposes the drink to have been introduced. Howbeit," says he, "as the made. This, doubtless, is an error. Mel- beer, well sodden in the brewing, and stale, chior Goldastus, however, adopts a different is clear and well coloured as muscadell or view. He argues, that a distinction exists malvesey (malmsey), or rather yellow, as the between the words bira et biera. The former, gold noble, as our pot-knights call it; so our bira, he supposes to be derived from pirum, ale, which is not at all, or very little sodden, and to be a drink made from the juice of and without hops, is more thick, fulsome, and pears. Biera, he deduces from the He- of no such continuance, which are three nobrew beri,, which signifies frumentum, table things to be considered in that liquor.* The introduction of hops into the composition of beer is thus noticed by Baker in his Chronicle:
or all kinds of grain or corn; from whence we have beriah, No, a word which sig
"Turkey, carps, hoppes, piccarel, and beer, nifies pulmentum farinaceum, farinaceous Came into England all in one year." pulse. Meibomius says he has no doubt but that the word biera was common to the writers to conclude that hops were This proverbial distich has led some Celts. Cluverius also inclines to the de-known until the commencement of the rivation propounded by Goldastus. He de-sixteenth century. This plant, however, duces the word bier, or, as the Saxons write, had been known long before this period; beer, from the Hebrew, bar, which is the indeed, in many parts of England it grew same word as the Latin frumentum. The wild, and its long shoots were used as food Polish or common mode of pronouncing like other esculent vegetables. In the reign this word is bare, soft, and not bar. Cluve- of Henry VI., A.D. 1428, apetition was forrius supposes the word be one of very rewarded to Parliament against the hop, in mote origin. which it was described as a "wicked weed," The derivation of ale appears to admit of from which circumstance it would appear equal debate. Ruellius derives ala from that it was at that period more or less imalica, or a peculiar kind of corn. Ala, ported and used in the manufacture of beer. however, is not made from alica, or It is certain, moreover, that hops were embut from triticum, or wheat.‡ ployed in this country in brewing in the The Cimbri, Chersonesi, and inhabitants commencement of the fifteenth century. of the neighbouring islands, denominate all Gilbert Rymer in his Dietary pronounces drink made from grain, oela or oel. Pon- beer brewed from barley, well-hopped (bene tanus, in his valuable glossary, derives the lupulata), of middling strength, thin and celia of the Spanish from oela. He argues, clear, well-fined, well-boiled, and neither too that oela or oelia were primitively written new nor too old, to be a sound and wholecoelia or celia; and that the difference be- some beverage. The culture, however, of tween the more modern and ancient mode the hop would appear to have been introof diction simply arises from the omission duced from Belgium and Flanders, in the of the letter c in the former word. reign of Henry VIII., or about the year Mr. Douce, and other modern writers, 1524. The first mention of the hop in the are of opinion that, from its use in composi- English statute-book occurs in 1552. Contion, the word ale signifies nothing more siderable quantities of it were imported from than a feast or merry-making; as, for ex- the low countries so late as the reign of ample, in the words Leet-ale, Lamb-ale, Queen Elizabeth, which leads us to suppose Whitson-ale, Clerk-ale, Bride-ale, Church- that its culture in this country was at first ale, Scot-ale, Midsummer-ale, and numerous but limited in its extent. In the reign of others of a similar character. "Ale," ob- James I. hops were extensively cultivated in serves Mr. Douce, "was the predominant England. In a work originally published liquor at all these feasts, and it is exceed-by Walter Blith, A.D. 1649, and called the ingly probable that the metonomy arose English Improver, or, a New Survey of from this circumstance." Dr. Hicks corro- Husbandry, who tritely terms himself “ borates this view. He states, that the Anglo- lover of ingenuity," the following remarks Saxon leol, the Dano-Saxon iol, and the occur in a chapter on hop plantations: "As Icelandic ol, respectively have the same for hops, it is grown to a national commomeaning. "Perhaps," observes Mr. Douce, dity. But it was not many years since the "Christmas was called by our northern an
Aetius Tetrab. iii., serm. 11, cap. 29.
famous city of London petitioned the Parliament of England against two nuisances or offensive commodities that were likely to
* Historical Description of the Island of Britain.
come into great use and esteem, and that meat, &c., and drink, not English beer made was Newcastle coal, in regard of their from malt and hops, but ale."
stench, &c., and hops in regard they would These quotations sufficiently determine spoyl the taste of drink, and endanger the the ancient distinction between ale and people, and from some other reasons I do beer.
not well remember." The Parliament, ac- Dr. Thomson erroneously asserts that cording to this writer, "were wiser than "the original difference between these two they," and the prayer of the petition was, as liquids was owing to the malt from which a matter of course, denied. they were prepared." Ale-malt, which Gervase Markham, an earlier writer than was dried at a very low heat, was of a pale Walter Blith, remarks, in relation to the colour; beer, or porter malt, on the other distinction between ale and beer: "The hand, was dried at a higher temperature, general use is by no means to put any hops and acquired a brown colour; while, at the into ale, making that the difference betwixt same time, the incipient charring which it and beer, that the one hath hops, the other took place during this process imparted not only a dark colour, but a peculiar and bitter Andrew Boorde, one of our oldest Eng-taste. The same writer distinguishes the lish medical writers, states, that those who ale and beer of the present day as follows: put any other ingredients into ale than" Ale is light coloured, brisk, and sweetish, inalt, barley, and yeast, sophisticate the or, at least, free from bitter; while beer is liquor. "Ale," he continues "is the natural dark coloured, bitter and much less brisk." drink of an Englishman, but beer, on the These popular beverages, however, are preother hand, which is made of malt, hops, and pared variously by each manufacturer, and, water, is the natural drink of a Dutchman, and consequently, differ much in colour and of late is much used in England, to the taste. great detriment of many Englishmen."
Porter is a beverage of modern invention. William Bullein, in his "Newe Boke of It was first manufactured about the year Phisicke," published A. D. 1568, and wherein, 1722. Previous to that period, a drink according to his own statement on the title- composed of beer, ale, and two-penny was page, "be uttred many notable rules, 'informs in great demand, in particular among street us in what respects ale and beer differed. porters and others engaged in similar occu"Ale," affirms this writer," doth engender pations. A brewer, however, in London, grose humors in the body, but if it be made of the name of Harwood, invented a subof good barley malt, and of holsom water, and stitute, which derived its name from those very wel sodden, &c., it is very holsom." useful members of society. Porter princiAgain, "c eane brued beare, if it be not pally differs from ale and beer, in being very strong, brued with good hops, doth made from high-dried malt. An immense clense the body from corruption;" and "it quantity of this liquor is consumed in Lonis an usual or common drinke in moste places don. The metropolis has ever been famous of England." for the production of this popular beverage.
The above passage shows that beer, or The water most suitable for the preparahopped malt liquor, was in general use tions of malt liquor is thus described by a about the middle of the sixteenth century. competent writer: "The Thames water This quaint writer of "notable rules" at London is fattened by the washings of further complains, that beer was at that hills and the dirt of sewers, which gives it a period "hurte and made worse with many thick body and a muddy taste, and thererotten hoppes, or hoppes dried like dust, fore it fines well, and makes most drink which cometh from beyond the sea." As with less malt."
good hops as could be imported from any The introduction of hops may in part be place in the world were produced at that ascribed to the desire to preserve ale from period in the fruitful grounds of England, speedy acidity or decay. "The wiser husand in many places in Suffolk. Bullein wiues say," remarks a writer recently quostates, they brue theyr beere (another ted, "the utter want of hops is the reason mode of spelling the word he uses,) wyth why ale lasteth so little a time; but either the hops that growe uppon theyr owne dieth or soureth, and therefore they will to groundes." every barrel of the best ale allow half a pounds of good hops."*
Howell, in his Familiar Letters, corroborates these statements. "In this island," Tusser in his "Five Hundred Pointes of he remarks, "the old drink was ale, noble Good Husbandrie," in some directions conale; but since beer has hopp'd in amongst us, cerning the culture of a hop-garden, preale is thought to be much adulterated, and sents his readers with the following epinothing so good as Sir John Old Castle and grammatic point:Smugg the smith was used to drink."
Moryson, in his History of Ireland, thus remarks of the Irish of 1599 to 1603 :"Their food for the common sort is white
Maison Rustique, A. D. 1616.
"The hop, for his profit, I thus do exalt,
* Maison Rustique, article "Brewhouse."