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DIVISION THE FOURTH.

THE HISTORY OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS.

SECTION I.

Fabricius relates the following rabbinical tradition in relation to the effects of wine:—When Noah planted the vine, Satan attended on the occasion, and sacrificed a

sheep, a lion, an ape, and a sow. These Heu, mira vitiorum solertia ! inventum est quem animals were intended to be symbolical of admodum aqua quoque inebriaret." PLINY.

the gradations of drunkenness. When & “ Man is the only animal accustomed to swallow man begins to drink he is meek and ignorant unnatural drinks, or to abuse those which are na- as a lamb; then he becomes bold as a lion; tural; and this is a fruitful source of a great va- his courage afterwards is transformed into riety of his bodily and mental evils.”

the foolishness of the ape; and at last he REES'S CYCLOPÆD.

wallows in the mire like a sow.* “ The art of extracting alcoholic liquors by distil- Plutarch informs us that, previous to the lation, must be regarded as the greatest crime ever time of Psammeticus, the Egytians neither inflicted on human nature."

DR. PARIS.

drank wine nor used it in their offerings. They deemed it odious to the gods, and the

blood of those who had contended with L. The history of intoxicating wines. II. Intoxi- them in war, that is, of the giants, and in

cating liquors made from various kinds of grain, particular of the evil deity Typhon and his fruits, and other substances.

history of distilled liquors.

adherents. The tradition further states,

that the vine sprang up from the slain whose 1. The history of intoxicating wines. The bodies had mingled with corruption. Hence produce of the vineyard formed no slight the reason, says the same writer, why wine proportion of the food of the early inhabi-makes those who drink it furious and frantants of the earth. The culture of the vine, tic.t therefore, was an object of interest and This tradition most probably had its orivalue. A knowledge of intoxicating wine gin in the policy, moral as well as political, probably was coeval with the culture of the of the early legislators of Egypt. vine and the preservation of its juice or The Persians relate the following anecfruit. Noah was rendered drunk by the dote in reference to the invention of wine; produce of his own vineyard.

It is extracted from Moullah Ackbers M.SS.; Inebriating wine has ever been one of and is quoted by Sir James Malcolm, in his the most fruitful instruments of the Prince History of Persia. Jem Sheed, the founder of Darkness. Nations, and tribes, and sects, of Persepolis, was immoderately fond of have, in various ages of the world, viewed grapes, and, with the view to preserve some, it with disgust and abhorrence, and, in ac- placed them in vessels which were lodged cordance with this feeling, prohibited its in vaults for future use. When the vessels manufacture and use. Some striking ex- were opened it was found that the grapes amples of this kind are narrated in another (or rather the liquor which had issued from division of this volume.

them) had fermented. The juice in this The rabbins, or learned Jewish doctors, state was so acid that the king believed it were of opinion that the forbidden fruit, of to be poisonous. A label, with the word which our first parents, partook, was the “poison,” was accordingly placed upon each produce of the vine. Lightfoot, and other of the vessels. One of the favourite ladies of eminent theologians of modern times, en- the court was afflicted with most distressing tertained a similar belief. This tradition, attacks of nervous headache, in a paroxysm doubtless, had its origin in the seductive and of which she resolved to put an end to her injurious influence of wine.

existence. By accident she found one of Milton seems to suppose that the fruit, the vessels with the word “ poison" written " whose mortal taste

on it, and, intent on her purpose, swallowed Brought death into the world, and all our woe,”

its contents. Stupefaction, as might be ex

pected, followed this act, and strange to possessed inebriating qualities. The pas- say, unlike similar indulgence in modern sage is as follows:

times, her headache was gone. Charmed “Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit, That with exhilarating vapour bland

* Warton's Dissertation on the Gesta RomanAbout their spirits had played, and inmost powers orum. Made err, was now exhaled ;"

+ De Oside et Osiride, sec. 6.

66

66

with the remedy, the lady was induced devil; and that drinking and using it was often to repeat the experiment, until the wicked and sinful. monarch's poison was all drunk. The theft The same divine also remarks of the was soon discovered, and the fair culprit Severians, that á texovtal oLvov navtedūs, confessed the deed. A quantity of wine “they abstained altogether from wine." + was again made, and Jem Sheed and all Severus flourished in the time of Pope his court partook of the newly-discovered Sotherus. His disciples condemned wine beverage. This circumstance gave rise to as a creature of Satan. I Epiphanius tells a name by which inebriating wine is known us, that they believed it to be engendered in Persia in the present day-Zeher-e- by serpents. Hence the reason why wine Koos-hon—“ the delightful poison."* is so strong. Photius de Agapio, concern

The Manichæans attributed the inven- ing the same sect, observes, that, Tov oivov, tion of wine to the devil. St. Augustin oia din uedvorikov, atootpepovral, “they blames them for their peverseness, inasmuch were averse to wine as the cause of drunkas they refused to take wine, while they enness.” S The Essenians were accustomed did not scruple to eat grapes.f St. Au-to term wine “fool's physic.” gustin appears to have entertained a notion St. Basil the Great, bishop of Cæsarea, which even in our own days is not without its in Cappadocia, in his first canonical letter advocates, that fermented wine is a good Amphilocius, bishop of Iconium, written creature of God,” and, therefore, to be re- A.D. 370, says, in reference to the Marcioceived with thanksgiving. The distinction nists, A Tootpédovrai róv olvov, they between wine and must, (or, in other words, are averse to wine.” This sect asserted unfermented wine,) as Michaelis observes, is that wine was defiled, and not a creature of a luminous one," and all persons must God.|| admit that, in a moral as well as physical The Koran of Mahomet makes a wise point of view, a considerable difference exists distinction between the refreshing and between cooling and nutritious fruits and nutritious juice of the grape and intoxicatstimuluting and inebriating wine. Thising wine. *“ Of the fruit of the grape,” says erroneous notion appears to have been pre- the prophet, " ye obtain an inebriating valent among those Christians of the few liquor, and also good nourishment. I The first centuries, who were converts from dread which the Mahommedans entertained, among the Gentiles, and whose habits and in days of yore, in relation to inebriating notions, in many respects, differed from the wine, gave rise to an adage well known Jews. Severe enactments are found in those among thc Turks, “ There lurks a devil in canons which are denominated apostolical, every berry of the vine.” In allusion to in relation to officers of the church, who this proverb, one of our poets remarks in abstained from marriage, and flesh, and wine, similar language, “ The berries of the grape out of abhorrence, and not for mortification; with furies swell.” thus casting reproach, as the canons allege, The Arabians designate inebriating wine on the workmanship of God.Ş The sects, as “the mother of evils;" an appellation however, on whom this censure fell, enter- singularly appropriate and expressive. The tained heterodox opinions on matters of records of history teem with melancholy faith. No analogy, therefore, exists between examples of its direful effects. Golu, in his these parties and persons holding similar Arabíc Lexicon, introduces the word vinum views, in reference to wine, in the present|(wine) and the phrase mater malorum in day:

that language as synonimous in meaning. ** Theodoret remarks of Tatian, one of the Our knowledge of the mode in which the Greek fathers, who flourished A. D. 172, ancients prepared their inebriating wines is TNV Oute olvov metalny.v ßdelvTTETAL, “he limited and obscure. Certain of these wines, abhors the use of wine.”* Tatian conse- doubtless, were rendered more or less incrated bread and water alone for the Eu-toxicating by fermentation ; others were charist.

rendered potent by the aid of inebriating The Hydroparastato and Encratites en-drugs. A third and numerous class, on tertained similar notions. St. Epiphanius, the other hand, in particular at a more rebishop of Salamis, in reference to the En- mote period, were prepared in such a mancratites, says: Oivov ölws óv meralaußá- ner as to render the presence of alcohol, at νουσι, φασκοντες είναι διαβολικόν και τους least to an extent capable of producing πίνοντας και τους χρωμένους, ανόμους intoxication, an utter impossibility. The elval kai åpapraèàs, “ they did not use latter class of wines will receive due consiwine at all, saying, that it was from the deration in subsequent sections.

The productions of Pliny, Palladius, Cato, * Malcolm's History of Persia, vol. i., p. 16.

† Quæ tanta perversio est, vinum putare, Fel principis tenebrarum et uvis comedendis non par- * De Encratitis, hæres, 47, p. 174. cere. Augustin de Morib. Manichæor, lib. ii., † lbid., 47, p. 170. sec. 44, tom. ii., p. 752, ed. Bened.

Du Mont, Voyage, tom. ii., lit. 5. | Michaelis Comment. on the Law of Moses, $ Biblioth, Cod., 179, p. 404. vol. 3, p. 131-2.

|| Canon of St. Basil, can. 47. TH'le's Koran. § Apostolical Canons, 43-45.

** Jacobi Golii Lexicon, Arabico Latinum, &c. i Theodoret, hæret, fab., lib. i., cap. 20. p. 208. Lugduni, Batav. p. 677.

and Columella among the Romans, of Athe-by some writers under the same denominanæus and the Geoponic writers among the tion. The wines produced from all these Greeks, and the scattered and often vague hills were usually classed under the general allusions of the poets and other writers of appellation of Massic or Falernian. ancient times, form the chief sources from Camillus Perigrinus, in his elaborate diswhence we alone can acquire information sertations on this subject, shows that Massic on this interesting subject. Even these and Falernian were synonimous terms, and writers leave many important details in un- were applied to the same kind of wine.* fortunate obscurity.

Columella, by the term Massic, includes all The culture of the vine descended from the wines of the Ager Falernus. In his the Egyptians to the Asiatics and Greeks. enumeration of the most valued wines of The latter people acquired great celebrity Italy, he makes mention only of the Massiin the manufacture of their wines. cum Surrentinum, the Albanium, and the

The Italians at a later period carried this Cæcubum. art to high perfection. The soil of Italy! The qualities of these wines perhaps difwas peculiarly favourable to the culture offered more than their names.

Pliny dithe vine. Ítaly, indeed, became known vides them into three kinds. The first class among nations as Oenotria, the country of he describes as rough and harsh, the second wines. The inhabitants of Italy were de- as sweet and pleasant, and the third as light nominated Oenotrii viri, the cultivators of and weak. It is a difficult matter to deterwines. Hence Virgil,

mine to which kind many of the heathen

writers refer in their various productions. “ Oenotrii coluere viri."

The Faustian wine would appear to have Innumerable varieties of grapes were pro- been very strong. Pliny remarks that solo duced in this fertile climate. Virgil thus vinorum flamma accenditur, it was the only describes the most valued kind of grapes in wine which would kindle on contact with a his time, and their various uses:

flame. The Falernian wine, strictly, so

called, evidently did not belong to the class “ Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris of thick or nutritious wines. Galen, in his Quam Methymnoo carpit depalmite Lesbos

book, De Cibo, leads us to infer that some Sunt Thasiæ vites, sunt et Mareotides albæ,

wines of this class were moderately sweet, Et Passo psythia utilior, tenuisque lageos Tentatura pedes olim, vinctaque linguam a condition which is not incompatible with Purpure, Fretiæque, et Rhetica.

a certain degree of alcoholic strength. He Sunt et Amineæ vites firmissima vina Argitisque minox, tumidis Bumaste racemis

remarks, that of the yellow and ruddy wines, Et Rhodia.”

some were moderately sweet; as for exam

ple, the Hippodomantian, Faustian, and FaThe same distinguished poet informs us sernian. Other wines, he further observes, that we may with as much ease attempt to were entirely devoid of sweetness. Ruellius enumerate the sands on the Lybian coast, affirms, that all the Falernian wines were as to specify the various species of wines amber in colour. This fact accounts for then made.

their want of sweetness. All the very sweet

and unintoxicating wines were either black Sed neque quam multe species, nec nomina quæ

or red, the colour of the juice from which Est numerus ; neque enim numero comprehendere they were made. No white or very thin refert,

wines, as Galen informs us, were sweet.Quem qui scire velit, Lybici velit æquoris idem Discere quam multæ zephyro turbentur arenæ ;

One species of Falernian wine possessed a Aut ubi navigiis violentior incidit Eurus

very agreeable odour, a property which it Nosse, quot lonii veniant ad littora fluctus. probably derived from the common practice

Georgics, lib. ii.

in those days of blending their wines with The Campania Feliz, a name given to aromatic perfumes. Martial compares the that portion of Italy which borders on the scent emitted from a cask of this wine, Mediterranean, because of the excellence of when opened, to the sweet breath of Diaits soil, was peculiarly distinguished for its dumona. gruwth of vines. L. Florus eulogises this

During the infancy of the Roman state, fertile tract of land in encomiastic terms.* wine was rarely used, except on sacrificial Pliny also speaks in warm language of the occasions. In the time of Homer, the vine reputation of its wines. The Ager Falernus grew wild in Sicily and the neighbouring is in particular specified by this writer. The shores. In a thousand years afterwards, highest portion of this tract, afterwards the Italians could boast that there were at known by the name of Massicus, was at one

least fourscore various kinds of wine then in period denominated the Gaurus. The mid-use, more than two-thirds of which were dle portion was named the Faustianus, and produced in their own country. This numthe Falernian, strictly so called, occupied the ber, however, included those only which were lowest portion of all. The Calenus Formia, held in most esteem. Pliny informs us, that as well as its contiguous hills, are included

* Dissert. 2, de Campania Fælici Thesaur. Antiq.

Rom., tom. ix., pars. 2. * L. Florus, lib. i., cap. 16.

í Galen, De Atten. Diæt. Comment., lib. i., $ 5,

sint

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the luxurious Romans bad no less than 195 remarks, in reference to those prepared in general varieties of wines in use, but that Italy in his day, that they differed altogether à subdivision of their species would amount from ancient wines, both in their preparato twice as many more.* It would be im- tion and quality; nam nostra dulcia, et alba, possible in the present treatise to enumerate ut etiam nigra inebriant, " for our sweet wines, the names of these different wines. Pliny and white, as also black wines, intoxicate."* aud other writers dwell largely on their This decisive passage is introduced in the titles, and the districts in which they were present place to warn the reader not to produced. The writings of the poets, also, confound the sweet wines of the ancients contain scattered allusions to the wines held with those of comparatively modern times. in most esteem. The latter sources of in- It will, hereafter, be shown, that they formation, however, afford meagre details differed, in many respects, both in their in reference to the nature and qualities of mode of preparation and qualities. those wines, which form the subjects of their Father Stephen Lusignan observes of the glowing effusions.

Cyprus wines of his day, that they were so The renowned wines of Homer occupy, strong that they would kindle in the fire and perhaps, the most prominent place in the burn like oil. Chaucer thus alludes to the writings of the ancients. The wines of the strength of the white wine of Lepe (Niebla, Opimian vintage among the Italians acquired near Seville), in Spain, equal celebrity Greece and the islands of the Archipelago had their Pramnian,

Now kepe you fro the white and fro the rede, Phanæan, Lesbian, Chian, Rhodian, Coan, Namely fro the

white wine of Lepe,

That is to sell in Fish-street and in Chepe : and numerous other wines. The Tmolus of This wine of Spain crepeth subtelly, Lydia, the Mareotic and Tæniotic of Egypt,

And other wines growing fast by,

Of which riseth soch fumositie, the Byblos of Phænicia, the Mendæan of

That when a man hath dronk draughts thre, Thrace, and the Lebanon and Helbon of Pa

And weneth that he be at home in Chepe, lestine, were each celebrated for some pecu- He is in Spain, right at the toune of Lepe. liar excellence of flavour. It is certain,

Gardoner's Tale. however, that many of these wines differed in several respects from the wines of modern Early attempts were made by the Romanufacture. Those of Asia and Greece, mans to introduce the growth of the vine in particular, or at least a great proportion into the British empire. Wine, according of them, were thick, rich, nutritious and un- to Speed, was manufactured in almost every intoxicating wines.

monastery.f The Isle of Ely, in particular, In order to arrive at a correct knowledge became so celebrated for the fruitfulness of its of the habits and practices of the ancients in vintage, as to be called the “ Isle of Vines,” reference to wine, several important particu- and the bishop, soon after the conquest, lars must be kept in view. The wines of exacted tithes from the vineyards. The the Greeks and Asiatics differed in many vine, however, has never been cultivated in respects from those of the Romans. Even this country to any great extent. Our the Italians themselves were almost as di- French conquests, indeed, placed within our versified in their tastes as the revolving years.

reach wines of a superior quality. The favourite wine of one period was at no

The wines chiefly drank in the fourteenth distant date displaced by some new invention century are thus enumerated by a poet of of luxury. Pliny assures us, that the grapes

that period :called Thasiæ, Mareotides, and Lageæ, so lauded by Virgil, were not to be found in his

Ye shall have rumney and malespine, time in any part of Italy.t. The Cæcuban

Both ypocrasse and vernage wyne;

Mountrese and wyne of Greke, wine, in its day, was held in great esteem; Both algrade and despice eke, but when Pliny wrote his celebrated work,

Antioche and bastarde, it was entirely lost.$ These observations

Pyment also ; and garnarde,

Wyne of Greke and muscadell, hold good also in relation to the nature of Both clere, pyment and rochell. ancient wines. Tastes degenerated as well

Warton's Hist. Poet., vol. i., p. 177. as wines; and the simple, unintoxicating wines, which satisfied the demands of primi

The taste for sweet wines, even at this tive ages, were rejected for the costly and period, was almost universal.' Wines were drugged liquors of more modern invention. so abundant in this country in the fourteenth This subject will receive more ample consi- century, that when King Richard II., after deration in succeeding sections.

a long absence, was greeted by the inhabiIn later centuries, the mode of preparing tants of London, the very conduits in the unintoxicating wines was almost entirely streets through which the procession passed lost. Andreas Baccius, a learned writer of were allowed to run with every variety of the sixteenth century, who made the history liquor. In the same century the quantity of wine a subject of elaborate investigation, of wine entered in the household expenses of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, as consumed “Grand Canary Island,” in which our during one year, was not less than 371 ancestors indulged with no sparing hand. pipes.*

* Nat. Hist., lib. xiv., cap. 22. | Ibid., lib. xiv., cap. 3.

Ibid., lib. xiv., cap. 6.

* De Nat. Vin. Hist., lib. ii., cap. 7.
† Speed's Chron
# Maitland's History of Lor.don.

It is a fact, moreover, that more port wine In the reign of Edward IV., A. D. 1470, is consumed in Britain than in all the at the installation feast of the Archbishop world besides. Such also is the nefarious of York, one hundred tuns of wine, and practice of modern wine merchants, that, three hundred tuns of ale, making a total probably, in England, as in the United of more than 100,000 quarts of intoxicating States, the consumption of (so called) port liquor, were provided for the entertainment. wine exceeds the whole annual produce of It is proper, however, to state, that these the Alto Douro. Our progenitors, it seems, beverages were not of the same alcoholic were liable to similar imposition. Howell strength as the wines and ales in use in the says, “I think there is a hundred times present day.

more drank under the name of Canary The price of wine was in proportion to wine than there is brought in, for Sherries its abundance. Rochelle, or Poictu wine, and Malagas well mingled pass for Canaries A. D. 1199, was sold for twenty shillings the in most taverns, more often than canary tun, or fourpence for the gallon. Wine of itself, else I do not see how 'twere possible Anjou was sold for twenty-four shillings the for the vintner to save by it, or to live by tun, or sixpence the gallon. No other his calling, unless he were permitted someFrench wines were allowed to be vended times to be a brewer. When sacks and for more than twenty-five shillings the canaries were brought in first among us, tun, a price, however, which was soon in- they were used to be drunk in aqua vitæ creased to sixpence and eightpence the measures, and 'twas held fit only for those gallon. Need we wonder that the historian to drink of them who used to carry their observes, as a consequence of this state of legs in their hands, their eyes upon their noses, things, that the land was filled with drink and an almanack in their bones, but now and drunkards? In the thirteenth century they go down every one's throat, both the best wine could be procured at the rate young and old, like milk.”* Howell eviof forty shillings for thirty-six gallons, and dently alludes to the aged and infirm, who sometimes even for less.

were necessitated to use crutches wherewith It would not be within the limits of this to walk, spectacles to strengthen their sight, essay to enumerate the great variety of and whose infirm bodies were affected by wines used in the present day, as well as every change of season. This ingenious and their modes of preparation and their peculiar learned writer details many more curious properties. A remark which Howell, made particulars in reference to inebriating A.D. 1634, will apply with equal appro-drinks. priateness to the wine districts of the nine- II. - Intoxicating liquors made from teenth century. As in Spain, so in all various kinds of grain, fruits, and other subother wine countries, one cannot pass a stances. The art of producing intoxicating day's journey but he will find a differing liquore from various kinds of grain and race of wines." +

fruits, had its origin at a remote period. At that period the same writer states, that Some writers attribute this invention to Portugal afforded no wines worth trans- those tribes or nations whose poverty did porting.” The wines of Portugal now form not allow them to indulge in the use of a staple article of consumption. Of Canary wine. Seneca, in reference to this subject, wines, Howell speaks in warm says, quædam gentes beneficio paupertatis “French wines," he remarks,“ may be luxuriam non movere," that certain nations said but to pickle meat in the stomach, but were not able to indulge in the luxury bethis is the wine that digests, and doth not cause of their poverty.”? A more numeronly breed good blood, but it nutrifieth it ous class of writers attribute the invention also, being a glutinous substantial liquor.” to the inhabitants of those districts in In his quaint, but pointed phraseology, which, from the poverty of the soil or other Howell tells us, “ that of this wine, if of any causes, the vine was not grown. Julian, other, may be verified that merry induction, the apostate, in his epigrams, says of the that good wine maketh good blood, good Gauls and Celts, that they were not able to blood causeth good humours, good humours drink wine, Teviy Borpúñv, because of cause good thoughts, good thoughts bring the want of vines. Diodorus affirms the forth good works, good works carry a same thing, oteplokouévoūs оīvov. I Isiman to heaven, ergo, good wine carrieth a dorus, in reference to the people of Spain, man to heaven. If this be true," adds states, that in his time they made liquors Howell,“ surely more English go to heaven from fruits or grain, quod ferax vini locus this way than any other, for I think there's non esset, “ because the country was not more canary brought into England than fruitful of wine."'S Strabo also informs us, to all the world besides." The wines of Portugal now supersede those from the

* Ibid., letter lv.

† Seneca, lib. iii., de Ira. * Anderson's Hist. of Commerce, An. 1313.

Lib. v., chap. 26. † Familiar Letters, letter lv.

Isid. Orig., lib. xx., cap. 3.

terms.

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