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instead of them, cups, flagons, and goblets ; two congii, to the health of Proteas. The these the soldiers dipped in huge vessels of latter, according to the custom of the wine, and drank to each other; some as country, ordered a bowl of similar size to they marched along, and others seated at be filled with wine, which he immediately tables, which were placed at proper dis- drank off. Alexander complied with the contances on the way. The whole country vivial laws at that time so strictly observed, resounded with flutes, clarionets, and songs; and again pledged Proteas in the same vessel. and with the dances and riotous frolics of The effect of this indulgence was so powerthe women. This disorderly and dissolute ful on his previously debilitated frame, that march was closed with a very immodest as Athenæus relates, he let the cup drop figure, and with all the licentious ribaldry from his hand, fell back on his pillow, and of the bacchanals, as if Bacchus himself had never afterwards recovered.* Aristobulus been there to carry on the debauch."'* states, that during the violence of the fever

After their arrival at the capital of that which afterwards ensued, Alexander who was country, Alexander prolonged this scene of tormented with thirst, swallowed a draught dissipation. At one of these feasts, when of wine which hastened his end.t Thus in a state of inebriation, he had to submit died Alexander the Great, a man naturally to an insult which must have been a source possessed of many good qualities; in war of considerable annoyance, if it did not con- almost unparalleled ; and in private life vince him of the folly of such degrading generous and humane. “Here,” says Se. proceedings. A favourite chorus dancer neca, “is this hero invincible by all the having won the prize of dancing, felt so toils of prodigious marches, by all the elated as to move across the theatre in his dangers of sieges and combats, by the most ceremonial dress, and seat himself beside violent extremes of heat and cold, here he Alexander. The Macedonians applauded lies conquered by his intemperance, and this audacious act, and obliged the unwilling struck to the earth by the fatal cup of king, by means of the customary salutations, Hercules.” to express similar approbation.

IV. The Thracians, a people who resided Alexander shortly afterwards visited Persia, in a large tract of country to the north of the and near the tomb of Cyrus encouraged a Archipelago, and adjoining Scythia, were scene of drunkenness more degrading, if possi- also notorious for their intemperance. They ble, than any which had preceded. Calanus, were universally characterized

as hard an Indian philosopher, labouring under phy- drinkers. Horace says, sical indisposition, ordered the erection of a funeral pile, and having requested the king

“Natis in usum lætitiæ scyphis

Pugnare, Thracum est; tollite barbarum and his friends to pass the day in gaiety and Morem, verecundumque Bacchum drinking, threw himself upon the fire, and Sanguineis prohibete rixis.”I fell a sacrifice to this idolatrous practice of his nation. At the conclusion of the

Again, ceremony, Alexander made a feast, and Non ego sanius held out inducements to excess by promises

Bacchabor Edonis." || of reward. Promachus obtained the principal The Scythians, during the earlier part of prize, having drunk four congii of pure their history, were distinguished for their unmixed wine. This wretch, however, sobriety and bodily strength. They do not survived his victory only three days. at that period seem to have made feasts, Athenæus and Ælian inform us, that thirty except upon rare occasions. Plutarch, in of these bacchanalians died on the spot, and his banquet of seven wise men, says, the soon afterwards six more of them expired in Scythians had neither wines nor instrumental their tents.f Plutarch also, on the authority performers, nor public games. By their of Chares, attests the same circumstance. valour they obtained the principal possession He states that forty-one of them lost their of Asia, which they retained for the period lives from intoxication, and the coldness of of twenty-eight years. Of this advantage the weather.

however, they were deprived, by their The intemperance of Alexander soon put subsequent licentious conduct. The primi. a stop to his victorious career. Previously tive habits which formed their principal to his death, his mind had been much safeguard, rapidly disappeared before a taste depressed by superstitious forebodings. which they acquired for intoxicating liquors. Plutarch relates that Medias called upon him The extent of their intemperance may be one day, and persuaded him to engage in a conceived from the conduct of Cleomenes, carousal which was then about to take place. prince of Sparta, during a visit which he There,” he further remarks, “ Alexander made to the Scythians. The Spartans drank all that night and the next day, till at assert "that communicating with the Scy, last he found a fever coming upon him."(thians he became a drinker of wine; and Other writers relate that Alexander drank that this made him mad." “ From which out of the cup of Hercules, containing about incident,” says Herodotus, “whoever are

* Plutarch. Life of Alexander.

Athenæus, lib. 10, cap. 10. Ælian Var. Hist. lib. 2, cap. 41.

* Athenæus, lib. 10, cap. 9.
+ Plutarch's Lives.
I llorace, lib. i. 27.

|| Lib. ii. 7.

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desirous to drink intemperately, are said to became the victim of his cruel and disexclaim, Episcythison, Let us drink like honourable practices. Scythians.' After retaining possession V. An instance of intemperance and its of Asia for twenty-eight years, Cyaxares, effects may be found in the history of the Gauls. king of Media and Persia, invited the Scy. Under their chief Brennus, the Gauls overran thians to a feast, where the greater part of the Roman Empire, and finally took possesthem became intoxicated, and in that state sion of its capitol ; setting fire to various were destroyed. Cyaxares thus obtained parts of it, and destroying great numbers of possession of Asia.t

its inhabitants. A brave band, however, Florus relates a similar case in reference still retained possession of the capitol. to the Istrians. I

Provisions being scard the Gauls divided The drinking propensities of the Thracians themselves into foraging parties. A large and Scythians were such, that according to and select division proceeded to Ardea, Athenaeus, γυναικές τε και πάντες αυτοί κατά where Camillus, the Roman hero, lived in των ιματίων (ακρατον) καταχεόμενοι, καλόν retirement. Camillus conceived the design και εύδαιμον επιτήδευμα επιτηδεύειν νενομικασι, of surprising them, and for that purpose the women, and all the men, thought it a assembled a band of brave associates. The most happy life to fill themselves with victorious career of the Gauls had inspired unmixed wine, and to pour it upon their them with confidence, and they were thus garments.|| On this account by the Thra- emboldened to ramble about in a disorderly cian way of drinking, pokia apótools, was manner. Having loaded themselves with understood åkpatotoola, drinking wine not provisions, they encamped on the plains, mixed with water. § It appears also that and drank so freely of wine, as to neglect the Grecians, and particularly the Lace- the usual precaution of guarding the camp. dæmonians, sometimes used asparéotepov -Camillus being informed by his spies of nivel to drink wine with little or no water, their disorderly state, came upon them which practice they termed émiokulioan, to suddenly in the night. The greater part of act like a Scythian,because the Scythians them were drunken and asleep; the others were much addicted to drunkenness, and were too much surprised to resist, and most drank wine without admixture with water. I of them were put to death. The few who

In the history of the Thracians may be escaped were easily found the next morning, found one of those revolting acts of treachery, and suffered the untimely fate of their unwhich, among barbarous nations, were not fortunate companions. unfrequently committed at feasts. In the The Germans, in all ages, have been time of Tiberius, the kingdom of Thrace noted for their excessive indulgence in was divided into two parts, over one of strong drink. The works of ancient authors which reigned the late king's brother, afford ample proof of their habits in forRhescuporis ; the other part was governed mer times. They were a vigorous enterby his son Cotys. Rhescuporis, a man of prising, and warlike people ; and generally ungovernable passions, conceived a violent successful in their campaigns. Their attachhatred against his nephew; and burned ment to intoxicating liquors, however, with the desire of gaining possession of his frequently produced a reverse of fortune. more fertile dominion. On the first favour. Germanicus, the celebrated Roman general, able opportunity he broke out into open and achieved a victory over the Marsi, a German daring aggression. On the interference of tribe, principally in consequence of their Tiberius, Cotys disbanded his army, and in intemperance. That commander had learned, his usual conciliatory spirit, displayed every by means of scouts, that the enemy intended wish to promote a friendly re-union. Rhes- to spend the approaching night in celebratcuporis, however, met him in the spirit of ing a festival. These festivals were almost treachery. Tacitus informs us, that the always passed in dissipation and riot. latter proposed a banquet at which they Germanicus came upon them unawares ; might ratify preliminary measures. The “The barbarians were sunk in sleep and parties met, and protracted their festivities wine, some stretched on their beds, others until a late hour of the night. Amidst the at full length under the tables; all in full joys of wine and in the moment of revelry, security ; without a guard, without posts, Rhescuporis treacherously attacked his un- and without a sentinel on duty. No apsuspecting and innocent nephew, who urged pearance of war was seen, nor could that be in vain the laws of hospitality. He was called peace, which was only the effect of loaded with chains, and subsequently put to savage riot; the languor of debauch."* death. The treacherous uncle ultimately Almost the whole of them were slaughtered,

while the Romans did not suffer the loss of * Herod, b. vi. sect. 84; also Athenæus, b. x. a single life.

The bravery of the Germans, when un#Omissis hostibus insuetos barbaros vinose ponesubdued by strong drink, rendered them rare patitur, priusque Scythæ ebrietate quam vincuntur. Justin, lib. i. cap. 8.

wonderfully successful. Tacitus, however, | Florus, lib. ii. cap. 10.

remarks, “Indulge their love of liquor to || Athenæus, lib. x. sub finem cap. 9. § Pollux, lib. vi. cap. 3.

Potter's Archæologia Græca, vol. ii. p. 360. * Tacitus, b. i. sect. 50

c. 7.


the excess which they require, and you need, it, with any, without giving the seal brimful not employ the terror of your arms; their of wine, to seal it for perpetuity."* own will subdue them." Their drinking Scheuchzer, a German writer, at a more customs bore much similarity to those of recent period, remarks as follows :-"Cus. the Persians, and particularly in the dis- tom, that tyrant of the human race, not cussion of important matters, at their feasts. only permits drunkenness, but in some sort Tacitus thus describes their proceedings, authourises the practice; insomuch that we “Having finished their repast, they proceed, see priests and ministers of the church completely armed, to the dispatch of busi- ascend the pulpit in a state of intoxication, ness, and frequently to a convivial meeting. judges seat themselves upon the benches, To devote both day and night to deep physicians attend their patients, and others drinking, is a disgrace to no man. Dis- attempt to perform the different avocations putes, as will be the case, with people in of life in the same disgraceful state.”+ liquor, frequently arise, and are seldom con- "At the beginning of this century," fined to opprobrious language. The quarrel says a recent traveller, “ Germany saw generally ends in a scene of blood. Impor- three empty wine casks, from the contant subjects, such as the reconciliation of struction of which no great honour could enemies, the forming of family alliances, the redound to our country among foreigners. election of chiefs, and even peace and war, The first is, that of Tubingen; the second, are generally canvassed in their festival ca- that of Heidelberg ; and the third, at rousals. The convivial moment, according to Gruningen, near Hulberstade; and their their notion, is the true season for business ; dimensions are not greatly different: the when the mind opens itself in plain simpli- Tubingen cask is in length 24, in depth 16 city, or grows warm with bold and noble feet; that of Heidelberg, 31 feet in length, ideas. Strangers to artifice, and knowing and 21 deep; and that of Gruningen 30 feet no refinements, they tell their sentiments long, and 18 deep. To complete the diswithout disguise. The pleasures of the grace of Germany, in the year 1725, a table expand their hearts, and call forth fourth was made at Konigstein, larger than every secret.

On the following day, the any of the former.”I subject of debate is again taken into con- The drinking power of the Germans has sideration : and thus, two different periods been commemorated by Owen, in the of time have their distinct uses; when following lines, which refer to the popular warm, they debate; when cool, they de- adage—“In vino veritas,"

“Si latet in vino verum, ut proverbia dicunt, The Germans, at a more recent period, Invenit verum Teuto vel inveniet." have displayed equal attachment to this The Grecians and Romans, like the effemi. national vice. De Foe, in his “ True Born nate Persians, during the earlier period of Englishman,” says, Drunkenness, the dar- their history, were as remarkable for their ling favourite of hell, chose Germany to temperate habits and bodily vigour, as in rule. The following statement is found in after ages, they were enervated by their the Memoirs of Mons. Aug. de Thou, who luxury and excess. The history of these was a witness of the scenes he describes :- nations presents many curious facts in the “There is before Mulhausen, a large place annals of intemperance. or square, where, during the fair, assemble VI. The victories of the Greeks and Romans, a prodigious number of people of both sexes, unfortunately were but the precursors of and of all ages; there one may see wives their degradation and ruin. Their intercourse supporting their husbands, daughters their in particular with those Asiatic nations fathers, tottering upon their horses or asses, whom they had subdued led them to acquire a true image of a Bacchanal. The public- habits of dangerous indulgence. Thus, their houses are full of drinkers, where the young morals and patriotism became gradually women who wait, pour wine into goblets, corrupted, and the foundation of future out of a large bottle with a long neck, decline was but too securely laid. The without spilling a drop. They press you to bodily prowess and warlike achievements drink, with pleasantries the most agreeable for which the Greeks and Romans were in the world. People drink here continually, most highly esteemed, gradually gave way to and return, at all hours to do the same an increasing taste for animal gratifications thing over again."*

and effeminate luxury. Juvenal exclaims, Duke de Rohan, bears similar testimony Sævior armis luxuria incubuit victumque in his account of a visit to Trent :-"I am ulciscitur orbem.|| Luxury, more cruel than well satisfied;" says he, “that the mathema- arms, hath invaded us, and avenges the conticians of our time, can no where find out quered world. To attain these objects no the perpetual motion, so well as here, where expense was spared. Sallust. Catal. xiii, the goblets of the Germans are an evident informs us that they ransacked sea and demonstration of its possibility-they think land, with the view to gratify their appetite that they cannot make good cheer, norvescendi causa terra marique omnia permit friendship or fraternity, as they call

* Voyage, p. 27, Ed. 1646.

+ Physic Sacr. vol. iii. p. 64. • Memoir de Thou, liv. 11.

| Koysler's Travels. vol. i. p. 97. Jur. vi. 201. * Tacitus, b. iii. sect. 76. + Ælian, lib. xii.

exquirere. Juvenal also xi. 14. Gustus, sequence of the intemperance of its inmates. delicatas, elementa peromnia quærunt : they The garrison was under the command of ransack the elements, that is, earth, air, and Julianus and Appolinaris, " two men,” says water, for dainties to gratify their taste. Tacitus, “immersed in sloth and luxury ; The culinary occupations which had formerly by their vices, more like common gladiators been considered exceedingly degrading, be-than superior officers.”—“No sentinel stacame the most important of the household ; tioned, no night watch, to prevent a sudden Pliny indeed remarks that the expence of a alarm, and no care taken to guard the works, cook was equal to the cost of a triumph. they passed both night and day in drunken Incredible sums of money were expended in jollity. The windings of that delightful the purchase of rare and unnecessary articles coast resounded with notes of joy, and the of diet. Immense sums were lavished in soldiers were spread about the country to the erection of baths, which, though at first provide for the pleasures of the two comused for cleanly purposes, became eventually manders, who never thought of war except an important means of gratifying their when it became the subject of discourse effeminate propensities. But on no caterings over the bottle.”'* Vitellius, acting under for luxury did they expend so much money the direction of a renegade slave, surprised and time as in the preparation of various the city. A most dreadful slaughter ensued, kinds of wines. Some of the most remark- and one of the commanders was put to an able scenes recorded in Grecian and Roman ignominious death. history are more or less connected with the In the civil dissensions which soon afterdrinking habits of the people.

terwards took place, the most dreadful Archias, a chief magistrate of Thebes, was scenes occurred. The city of Rome was engaged in drinking at a feast, surrounded the arena of all the calamities attendant by his dissolute companions, when a messen- upon slaughter and dissipation. While the ger arrived in great haste, with letters which soldiers of Vitellius and Vespasian were informed him of a conspiracy against his butchering each other, the people were at life. “My lord,” said the messenger, " the one time savagely exulting in the bloody person who writes these letters conjures you exhibition; and at another, actively engaged to read them immediately, being serious in riot and debauchery. " The whole city things :"-"Serious things to-morrow,” re- seemed to be inflamed with frantic rage, and plied the infatuated Archias, in a gay tone, at the same time intoxicated with bacchanalian placing the letters under the pillow of the pleasures." Tacitus further remarks, that couch on which he was reclining. The delay “Rome had thrice seen enraged armies proved fatal. The patriots who had con- under her walls, but the unnatural security spired for their country's weal, made every and inhuman indifference that now prevailed necessary preparation, rushed that evening were beyond all example." into the banquet-room, and slew Archias and At a later period, we find the same attachall his guests.

ment to strong drink existed among the Sumptuary laws were enacted by Roman Roman people. History teems with inlegislators for the purpose of restraining structive examples. these luxurious habits. Those laws, however, VII. The inhabitants of Tarentum are cele. were more or less infringed by characters brated for their excesses in bacchanalian pleahigh in public estimation : it cannot, there- sures.f Their frequent intercourse with Greece fore, excite much surprise that the people enabled them to gratify their luxurious desires generally imitated their example.

insomuch that the “ Delights of Tarentum," Many of the kings, and other rulers of became a proverbial expression. these nations, were notorious for their in- The Parthians are described by ancient temperate habits. Innumerable instances of authors as having been addicted to numerous tyranny, rapine, and confusion, are recorded. vices, and to none more so than to that of Vitellius obtained possession of the Roman drunkenness. I throne by means of his notorious vices. By The Tapyrians, according to Ælian, inpandering to the vicious propensities of the dulged to great excess in intoxicating preceding emperors, he attained to those liquors.ll dignities and powers which eventually enabled The Illyrians also are said to have been him to accomplish his object. After his an intemperate people. § celebrated victory over Otho, he conducted The Carthaginians and Lydians were both, himself in the most odious and degrading according to Athenæus, much addicted to manner. Regardless of the dead, he held drinking. I several feasts of the most extravagant de- The Cambrians were a fierce people, unscription on the field of battle, where himself accustomed to eating flesh dressed at the and his debauched companions gratified fire, or drinking intoxicating liquors. Florus their intemperate lusts. Such conduct soon relates, that after their expedition over the disgusted the people, who conspired against Alps, and subsequently to their indulgence the obnoxious tyrant, and put him to a in these bitherto unknown luxuries, they disgraceful death. Lucius Vitellius, brother of the Emperor of the same name, gained

I Erasm. Adag. || Ælian, lib. iii. cap. 13. possession of the city of Terracina, in con- $ Lib. ii. c. 15. Ibid, x. c. 10.


lost their ferocity, and became more easily shown, in the instance of the Germans, that conquered by Marius.*

not unfrequently they were the scenes of The Byzantins, and other nations of less bloodshed and murder. importance among the ancients, might be Diodorus Siculus, describes the Gauls, in here mentioned in the catalogue of those particular, as being passionately fond of inwhose habits were intemperate.t

toxicating liquors. “Of wine," says he, The examples presented in this chapter, “ which is imported to them by merchants, sufficiently prove that intemperance existed they are fond to distraction, and drink it to to a considerable extent among the ancients, excess, until they are either overpowered by and that it was attended with the most sleep, or inflamed with madness."'* deplorable consequences.

At one of these feasts, two British princes, in a state of inebriation, quarrelled, and fought with such virulence, that they both

died by the wounds they received. SECTION III.

Attila, the cruel King of Hungary, at his marriage feast indulged so freely in intoxicating liquor, that he was found at night, suffocated. This event occurred A.D. 453.

With the death of Attila, terminated the “Righteousness exalteth a nation ; but sin is a reproach to any people.”—PROVERBS xiv. 34. important empire of the Huns.

The ancient custom of pledging healths,

is by some writers attributed to circumI. Aboriginal inhabitants of Britain.-II. Anglo-stances which occurred during the invasion

Saxons and Danes. III. Normans:-1V. Eng. of England by the Danes. These haughty Natives of Ashantee, Congo, Nicobar Islands, conquerors would not permit an EnglishOtaheitan Islands, New South Wales.-VIII. man to drink in their presence, without American and Brazilian Savages:-IX. Russians, special permission,

death being the penalty Prussia.-XII. America.—XIII. France.-XIV of disobedience. Their cruel conduct so inHartley's Table.

timidated the English, that even when per

mission had been given, they would not I. A KNOWLEDGE of the manners and cus- take advantage of it, until the Danes had toms of the aboriginal inhabitants of the pledged themselves not to endanger their British Islands, can only be acquired from lives while partaking of the liquor. some of the Roman historians, and the II. The intimate intercourse which afterwell-known practices of other nations, simi- wards took place between the Anglo-Saxons lar in their habits and descent. They have and Danes, and the frequent festive meetbeen described as frugal in their diet, pos- ings which they established, became fruitful sessing much personal beauty, and great sources of intemperance. Hollinshed, in his hardiness of body. The ancient Britons Chronicles, attests this circumstance. “ The were not, however, proof against the in- Danes, he remarks, “ by nature were fluence of luxury and refinement. “ From great drinkers ; the Englishmen, by conusing,” says Tacitus,“ our language and tinual conversation with them learned the dress, they proceeded, by degrees, to imitate same vice.”f This state of things caused our vices and luxuries ; our porticos, baths, the well-known, but inefficient enactment and sumptuous entertainments.”

of Edgar--the drinking with measured It has been seen that the Celts we

bowls, or by pegs. Henry remarks that the accustomed to indulge freely in the use of laws of these times strongly corroborate intoxicating liquors. It may therefore rea- their intemperate habits, for they did not sonably be supposed, that the British, who prohibit excess, but rather encouraged it, were of the same descent, indulged also in and only restrained the commission of certain this injurious practice. These barbarous abominable crimes, which were the result of nations, in particular, were in the habit excessive drinking. of holding great feasts, on every important William of Malmsbury adds his testimony occasion. Pelloutier, thus alludes to this to the excessive drinking habits of the Anglopractice. Among these nations, there is Saxons and Danes. The nobility were no public assembly, either for civil or reli- much addicted to lust and gluttony, but gious purposes, duly held ; no birth-day, excessive drinking was the common vice of marriage, or funeral, properly celebrated, all ranks of people, in which they spent no treaty of peace or alliance rightly whole nights and days, without intermiscemented, without a great feast.”|| These sion." feasts generally lasted several days. Athen- Many instances are recorded, of bloodæus, indeed, records one which was no less shed occurring at their feasts : Edmund the than twelve months in its duration.

First, indeed, perished at one of them, by the The most important affairs were transact- hand of an assassin. His courtiers were in ed at these festivals ; and it has already been


* Diod. Sicul. lib. v. c. 29, 30. * Florus, b. iii. c. 3. + Ælian. Lib. iii.

+ Holinshed's Chronicles, vol. i. book vi. chap. | Tacit., vita Agricolæ, c. 21.

xxiii. p. 159. Edit. 1587. || Pelloutier. Hist. Celt. b. ii. c. 2. p. 2277.

† W. Malmsbury, b. iii.

cap. 14.

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