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found to be a most fruitful source of mad- taking ardent spirits in sufficient quantity
Dr. Hallaran, who, for upwards of to keep up a moderate degree of excitement, twenty years, attended one of the largest but seldom, perhaps, if ever, exceeding so establishments in that country (Cork Hos - as to produce actual intoxication. This is pital), for the reception of the lunatic poor, probably the most dangerous mode of drinkthus remarks: “So frequently do cases of ing, and also the most common; people furious madness present themselves, arising encourage themselves in it by applying, as from long-continued inebriety, there is no a quietus to their reproving consciences, the occasion to inquire the cause, the aspect of deceitful excuse that they stop short of the individual, at first sight, being sufficient getting drunk: they thus go on, requiring, to expose its well-known ravages.” as they proceed, a gradually increasing
In the minutes of evidence appended to quantity of liquor to keep up the delusive the Report of the Committee of the House enjoyment; their short intervals of abstiof Commons, on lunatic poor in Ireland, nence from drink are attended with intolerthe increase of lunatics in that country was able feelings of distress, despondency, and stated, and attributed to the hereditary remorse, until at last they are reduced, nature of the disease, and to “the increased often in the prime of life, to the degrading use of spirituous liquors, which produces condition of drivelling, besotted imbeciles, insanity.” +
with constitutions broken down by a variety By a statement of Dr. Crawford (in 1830), of hopeless and loathsome complaints. it appears that the following has been the There is seldom an instance of recovery result of an inquiry recently made at the from any of the forms of insanity produced Richmond Lunatic Asylum, Dublin. The in this manner. * number of patients then in confinement was Dr. Mollan, the medical attendant of the 286; viz., 120 males, and 166 females ; of Richmond Asylum, states, that out of 610 these, there were no less than 115, whose cases of persons confined there, no less than illness was known with perfect certainty, eighty were known to have originated from the acknowledgment of their relatives directly, and eighty more indirectly, from and friends, to have been occasioned by intoxication ; and he supposes a similar drinking of whiskey; fifty-eight of whom number from the counties of Meath, Westwere males, and fifty-seven females. “There meath, Louth, and Dublin, received without is no doubt, whatever,” remarks Dr. Craw- certificates, but from symptoms and appearford, “ that a great many more might be ances were traceable to the same source. added to the same number, as is evident, by This statement is said to be under the the general appearance of many, and the average. character of their disease, although positive Insanity does not prevail to so great an information concerning their habits of life extent in France as in the British nation. cannot always be obtained; the relatives It appears, from the statement of Dr. Bayle, being unwilling, from a sense of shame, to that between the 1st of January, 1815, and admit that they were intemperate.” “They the 1st of January, 1823, there were received often, indeed, evince a singular degree of into the Royal Hospital, at Charenton, 847 moral perversion on that subject, contidently male, and 606 female, lunatic patients; of asserting that the unfortunate sufferer was this number the proportion of cases arising a model of temperance, when, on closer in- from intemperance was one to fifteen among quiry, it will frequently appear, that he the men, and one to one hundred and forty was in the habit of taking a good many among the women. The calculations, howglasses of whiskey in the day, but was, not- ever, of Dr. Hallaran show a widely difwithstanding, considered perfectly sober, be- ferent proportion in the Cork asylum; being cause he never indulged so far as to be un- one to three among the men, and one to six able to attend his work." “I feel confi- among the women. These included those dent,” adds Dr. Crawford, “ that I am keep- cases alone, the origin of which could be ing within the strict bounds of truth in accurately ascertained; but supposing the stating, that at least one out of two of the entire number of patients in the asylum be patients now in the asylum have become included in the calculation, and that every insane in consequence of the abuse of ar- case where the cause could not be traced dent spirits; and I know that the same has be placed on the list of those which had not been observed in the other public lunatic arisen from intemperance, the proportion asylums in Ireland.” One class labour would still be one to six among the men, under various forms of melancholy, partial and one to twelve among the women; that hallucinations, impaired mental powers, loss is, in relation to France, more than double of memory, complete fatuity, delirium tre- the number as regards the male sex, and mens, and various forms of paralysis. Those nearly twelve times the proportion as thus affected are mostly habitual tipplers, respects females. who have long indulged in the habit of The observations and experience of Dr
Esquirol exhibit a still greater disparity * Praetical Observations on the Cause and Cure of Insanity, by W. S. Hallaran, M.D., p. 26., 1818. * A Second Letter on Wine and Spirits, by Dr.
t Parliamentary Papers, vol. viii., p. 12., 1817. Cheyne. Appendix, p. 21.
Out of 336 patients submitted to his care in cases of insanity which come under the care the neighbourhood of Paris, he found three of medical men in that country arise, more only whose insanity was attributable to or less, from the use of strong drink. excessive drinking; while, according to Dr.! Ten drunken maniacs were admitted into Hallaran, at the Cork lunatic asylum, out the lunatic asylum, Bellevue, New York, in of 383 male patients, 103 had been reduced one week; a greater number than died in to that melancholy state from the effects of the city of hydrophobia in fifty years.* intemperance.
In the second annual Report of the TrusThe Reports of the Paris hospitals, tees of the state lunatic asylum, Worcester, (Compte Rendu, &c., 1826,) however, do Massachusetts, it is stated, that in the year not make so large a disproportion as in the 1834 there were admitted 272 patients. cases above stated. Out of 2507 insane Out of more than forty different causes of cases, which included the entire number in insanity, under which the number of the the hospitals of Paris, 185 are stated to patients are affixed, are extracted four of have become so by drunkenness, or about the highest proportions, exactly as they are one in thirteen and a half. In Cork, the published in the Report. These arecases were one in four, where the causes Intemperance .. 56 Fanaticism.... 13 of the disease could be ascertained, and one Ill health...... 18 | Family troubles 11 in eight on the entire.
The annual Reports of the superintendent It has almost invariably been found, that of this institution, during the last five in the lunatic asylums in France and Italy, years, show, that 128 have been received the female inmates considerably prepon- into it, whose insanity was produced by inderate over the males. This arises, of temperance.f course, from peculiar causes, which need Intemperance is thus seen to be thrice not more particular attention.
more productive of insanity than the most At the Cork asylum, however, the pro- prolific of all the other causes in the table portion of the sexes was found to be nearly in question. It is known, moreover, to be equal; whilst in most other similar institu- the principle cause of ill health and family tutions in that country, the males pre- troubles, together with many other reasons ponderated.
generally stated in public documents, as It is inferred, from these statements, that strong inducements to mania. It is more some cause of insanity was in operation than probable, that great numbers of indiamong the male sex in Ireland, which did viduals are rendered insane, who have in not exist in France and Italy.
general borne a character of temperance Fifty-nine lunatics were admitted into and sobriety. They drink freely, but not the Somerset hospital, Cape of Good Hope, to a state of visible intoxication. The exbetwecn the years 1824—1830 ; of this citement thus occasioned to the nervous number twenty were reduced to that state system, on some favourable opportunity (and by drunkenness. “The principal exciting perhaps to the surprise of friends and relacause appears to be continued inebriety; tions), breaks out into fierce and incurable nearly one-third of the cases admitted may insanity. be traced to this fertile source of disease."* VI. The brain is admitted by all to be
In America, also, intemperance has been the organ of the mind. All organic changes found to be equally productive of insanity. of this viscus are found to be accompanied Dr. Waters states, that while he acted as with corresponding derangement in its funchouse pupil and apothecary to the Pennsyl- tions. In cases of insanity, for example, vania hospital, the madness of one-third of pathologists almost invariably find striking the patients confined by this terrible dis- manifestations of structural disease in the ease had been occasioned by the use of brain. Spurzheim informs us, that he always ardent spirits.
found changes of structure in the brains of Dr. Donald, late physician of the insane persons. Dr. Haslam, Georget, and lunatic asylum at Bloomingdale, New York, Greding, make similar statements. Mr. states, that more than one-fourth of the Davidson, house-surgeon to the Lancaster patients of that institution are brought county lunatic asylum, examined with much there from the sad effects of inebriety. care the heads of not less than two hundred Professor Francis adds, that a close inspec- patients who died in the asylum, “and he tion of many hospitals for the treatment of scarcely met with a single instance in the insane, both in America and in Europe, which traces of disease in the brain, or its long ago convinced him that inebriety was membranes, were not evident, even when the prolific source of mental aberration. I lunacy was recent, and a patient died of a
Dr. J. V. Rensselaer, of America, states, different disease.”I that, in his opinion, nearly one-half of the A recent writer, who examined the heads
of more than one hundred individuals who
* South African Quarterly Journal, No. III., p. 344.
+ Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits, by Dr. Rush.
Bacchus, American Ed., Appendix, p. 467.
* Address of New York Temp. Soc., 1829.
Observations on Mental Derangement, Dy
died from insanity, came to the following who had been a gin-drinker. The patient conclusions :
sunk in a state of epileptic convulsion. The 1. That in the brains of those who die of arachnoid membrane of the brain was found insanity, changes of structure will always opake; some spots of sero-fibrine were be found.
found in its cavity. The structure of the 2. That these changes are the conse- brain was healthy, and more than usually quences of inflammation, either acute or blanched. The membranes and arteries were chronic.
turgid. There was a large quantity of 3. That there exists a correspondence straw-coloured fluid in all the ventricles; between the symptoms and the organic and a deposit of atheromatous matter bechanges ; and that the names, monomania, tween the coats of the basilar and internal mania, &c., ought only to be employed as carotid arteries, which vessels were generrepresenting degrees and stages of inflam- ally hardened. The heart was very large, mation of the brain.*
the left ventricle was very thick, and the Inflammation of the brain, chronic and right auricle large, but not thickened. The acute, is a common consequence of intem-aortic valves were thickened, but the coats perance. The brains of all habitual drunk of the artery were healthy. The left lung ards exhibit, more or less, some change in was adherent to the walls of the chest. — structure. In certain cases the substance Some fluid was found in the spinal column, of the brain itself exhibits either a pre- which might explain the cause of the epiternatural hardness, or unusual softness. lepsy. Mr. Pilcher also related the case of At other times, the vessels which ramify on a man, who was 50 years of age, and a hard this delicate fabric manifest essential organic drinker, who died of apoplexy. The basilar, alterations. The membranes of the brain, carotid, and vertebral arteries were comalso, undergo similar destructive changes. pletely ossified.* Dr. Percy, as the result of his interesting Professor Francis observes, that “ the experiments, was led to suggest "the pro- brain of the intemperate is the rallying bability, or rather the possibility, that the point of much disorganising action. Dissecphrenetic inflammation was produced by tions have shown preternatural fulness of a the contact of irritating alcoholic liquor with venous character; the membranes of the the cerebral substance.”t. The post mortem brain gorged with blood; in some instances, appearances of drunkards certainly make where the patient has perished from prothis supposition extremely probable. tracted delirium tremens, traces of the in
The dissections of Morgagni throw much ordinate operation of the poison have been light on this subject. He found, in a con- most distinctly seen at the basilar, or infesiderable number of cases which came under rior portion of the skull, and a highly vashis observation, that the brains of drank- cular or surcharged state of the whole brain, ards exhibit the same alterations from but more especially of the pia mater, with healthy structure as are found in the brains serous effusion between it and the arachnoid of lunatics and idiots. The substance of tunic. The substance of the brain itself is the brain in some was much firmer than generally more or less invaded by serum, usual in its consistence. Tamen ea firmi- and hence the uncommon moisture of its cut tudine cerebrum fuit, ut durius ad id tempus surface: in the lateral ventricles as well as a me dissectum esse non meminissem. In at the base of the brain large quantities of others it was more flaccid. Portio cerebelli serum have also been remarked.”+ Profesflarcidi erat, &c The cerebrum and cere- sor Francis, after making reference to those bellum were more soft. Cerebrum et cere- cases in which alcohol has been found in 'bellum moliora, gc. The cerebrum, cere- the cavities of the brain, remarks, “ I have bellum, and nerves, were all extremely flac- repeatedly had cases partaking much of cid. Cerebrum, cerebellum, et nervi, summa the same character, falling under my own erant flaccidate, &c. The substance of the inspection. Upon removing the bony brain was yellow and soft, and also appeared covering of the brain, the exhalation of corrupted. Substantia cerebri flava ar flac- ardent spirits on several occasions was cida quæ corrupta videbatur, 8c.** The bony strongly manifested to the olfactories deposits and gypseous concretions, also, ob- of the by-standers, as also the effused fluid served by the same eminent writer, have conspicuous for its quantity and quality.-already come under our notice (p. 212). On one occasion, while holding an inquest
Mr. Pilcher, at a recent meeting of the over the body of a drunkard, suddenly cut medical society, London, held January 31st, off, some spectators who entered the room 1842, related a case of delirium tremens, where the anatomical examination was made, which occurred in a woman 35 years of age, asked, what puncheon of rum we had opened.
It is worthy of record, that these effusions
of serum, from peculiar circumstances, as by * Archives Generales de Medicine, 1825. injury from falling, or blows inflicted, in + Experimental Inquiry, p. 50.
some instances, take place most rapidly. I De Causis et Sedibus Morborum, lib. i., Epist. iii., 6. # Lib. i., Epist. ii., 22. § Lib. i., Epist.iii., 6-16. * Lancet, 1842, p. 663. Lib. i., Epist. v., 11. ** Lib. i., Epist. xi., 6. # Bacchus, American Ed., p. 468.
have known five ounces of serous fluid taken. The loss sustained by mental faculties, in from the lateral ventricles of a gross drunk- brains so disorganized, need excite little ard, within two short hours after his zig-zag surprise. The drunkard, to use the lanpedestrian movements were arrested by, anguage of Sbakspere, “ loses the immortal accidental blow on the head. What portion, part of himself, and what remains is bestial.” indeed, of so copious an effusion existed in The seat of thought presents a melancholy the cerebralorgan while life still sustained its wreck of its former vigor and health, and controlling influence, I am at a loss to cal- the unfortunate victims of inebriation sink culate. The occurrence is, nevertheless, in- either into a state of confirmed idiotism or structive, because it shows us that the citadel incurable madness. of thought may become the receptacle of agents, whose influence is at war with the wholesome exercise of the mental facul
SECTION VII. ties; predisposes to extreme mobility in the cnervous system ; and, from the slightest causes, urges on, with perhaps an irregular, but yet certain issue, to the complete de- THE thronement of all its noble preogatives. Other post obit examinations of a similar
WOMEN ought not to drink wine or strong drinks, sort might be stated, corroborative of this which are bad for men, but an hundred-fold worse sad condition of the brain, whose manifes- for women.---Teron. tations of deranged sensation, too clearly
All kinds of strong drinks are abomination unto showed bow far removed from a sound con- the natures of children. ---IBID. dition were the faculties. Hence the sudden invasion of palsy, of epilepsy, and of apo- And strongest drinks our chief support of health,
O madness to think use of strongest wines plexy, occurring in many after a debauch; When God, with these forbidden, made choice to hence, on some occasions, upon an investi- His mighty champion, strong above compare, (rear gation into the morbid anatomy of the struc- Whose drink was only from the limpid brook.
MILTON. tural part of the brain itself, we discover a preternatural softness of its substance, a pulpy disorganization, (romollissement,) and I.
1. Peculiar temperament of Females. that its texture has lost its distinctive 2. The effects of intoxicating liquors during gespeculiarities, not unlike the specimens of tation, and immediately after confinement.---3.
Hysteria, &c., and diseases incident to peculiar disorganization ascertained in some fatal
periods natural to the sex..--4. The use of strong cases of malignant typhus."
After some drink during lactation. comments on the connexion between mental 11. CHILDREN. 1. Peculiar temperament of Childaction and these diseased conditions of the ren.---2. Disease and mortality of Children inbrain, Professor Francis observes: “No in- duced or aggravated by the use of strong drink.--
3. Testimonies of eminent medical writers on tellectual faculty suffers so severely and so
this subject. generally as memory, in this deranged state of the brain no memoria technicu can I. WOMEN.-1. Peculiar temperament of supply the loss occasioned by habitual in- Females.—This subject, in a physical point ebriation. He who indulges in the spring- of view, is of paramount importance. The time of life in alcoholic potations will peculiar temperament of females in many assuredly find, in the autumnal period, his respects renders them more susceptible of strongest recollections but the feeble vestiges the influence of stimulants. The sedentary of by-gone associations, whether of words or habits of this class, unlike the more active things. Conversing on a particular occasion avocations of the male sex, are ill-calculated with a distinguished character of pre-eminent to promote a vigorous condition of the cor. renown in his walk of life, and expressing poreal functions. These facts were well my surprise at the tenacity of his memory, known to the ancients, who deemed the considering his abuse of the intellectual fa- subject not unworthy of legislative enactculties by pernicious indulgence, he disclosed ments. The laws of the Romans, Massito me the mortifying truth, that he could no lians, Milesians, and other ancient nations, longer commit a new reading, that the studies interdicted their women from the use of of to-day were forgotten on the morrow; wine. Ancient writers represent these *but Shakspere I retain (add she), with un- laws as having had their origin in the diminished freshness, his language is so fear of lewdness. The responsible duties adhesive.' Notwithstanding this adhesive- of females, as mothers, doubtless, also had ness, Othello was but a blank in this great its influence. Tryon, after adverting to tragedian's recollections, ere his career the injurious influence of strong drink, closed. [Professor Francis alludes to the and particularly in reference to women, late Edmund Kean.) To adopt the surgeon's remarks : “ The ancients direct those of phraseology, there is a solution of continuity that sex to observe an higher degree of in the powers of ratiocination and of memory temperance and order than they prein the brain of the drunkard.”+
scribed to men, as knowing that the whole
welfare and preservation of mankind did *Bacchus, Amer. Ed., pp. 168-9. † Ibid., pp. 469-70. chiefly depend on their good or ill con
stitution. The food, therefore, appointed to neither drinks nor meats, how strong or unthem was simple and natural, .... and pure clean soever; filling themselves with all sorts water for drink; which are endued with of wines, and with artificial drinks far more simple and equal natures, and have affinity forcible: by reason whereof so many with the feminine nature, having no mani-wretched feeble bodies are born into the fest quality that does too violently, pre- world, and the races of the able and strong dominate, therefore have no unequal ope- men effect decayed."* ration, but do administer both dry and It is melancholy to reflect on the nature moist nourishment, far beyond all high pre- and extent of female intemperance in this pared foods and strong drinks. For all country in the present day, and its effects on sorts of meats and drinks do beget their like- the young: The diet of the mother unnesses, and for that reason simple things doubtedly influences the health of her offhave in all ages been commendable, es- spring. The child inherits, to a remarkable pecially for women.'
»* And again,“ Women extent, the physical temperament in partiought not to drink wine or strong drinks, cular of its maternal parent. It is, in truth, which are bad for men, but an hundred blood of her blood, and flesh of her flesh. fold worse for women. If our women were On the conduct of mothers, therefore, debut sensible of the ill-consequences of their pends, to a great degree, the vigor and frequent sipping of strong drinks, they health of the rising generation. Observation would be as far from doing it as those in and experience demonstrate the truth of this other countries, there being hardly any position. The children of gin-drinking or women in the known world that are such wine-bibbing mothers, who reside in our great drinkers and lovers of strong liquors larger towns, present a melancholy appearas the English: neither are any so turbu-ance when compared with the offspring of lent, fiery, and masculine-spirited ; and ac- mothers who enjoy the pure air and exercise cordingly they are troubled with various of our agricultural districts. The one exdiseases, to which the women in other coun- hibit the usual signs of health combined tries are strangers.”+
with a due development of the physical 2. The effects of intoxicating liquors powers : the puny, sickly, aspect of the during gestation, and immediately after con- other is calculated to excite emotions of finement.—The pernicious influence of al- painful regret and commiseration. Mr. coholic drinks during gestation was a sub- Poynder remarks, “I have observed that jects of no less early remark. It has, in- the children of dram-drinkers are generally deed, received the stamp of Divine inspira- of diminutive size, of unhealthy appearance, tion.
The mother of Sampson was com- and sickly constitutions.”+ Dr. Dods, in manded to abstain from all inebriating reference to the appearance of children at liquors. The angel of the Lord interdicted their birth, the offspring of intemperate pathe use of “wine and strong drink” to rents, says, “ The infant has frequently not Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist. merely a want of healthy aspect, of plump, Both were men not only distinguished for round outline, but a starved, shrivelled and mental endowments, but bodily vigor. imperfect look.”1 An old writer, cited in a Tryon is not singular in his accusation of work of modern date on the evils of strong female proneness to strong drink in Eng- liquors, relates several examples in point. land. Sir Walter Raleigh made a similar In regard to one lady, in the Aower of her declaration, Tryon's remarks were pub-age, he remarks, " The effect it bad upon her lished at the latter end of the 17th century; miserable offspring was lamentable. She Sir Walter Raleigh flourished at the com- had several children born, strongly marked mencement of the same century, and ter- with the emaciating consequences of the mination of the one preceding, embracing mother's fault; but they died in the month. the greater part of the reign of Elizabeth, The unfortunate victim of intemperance at and the former part of that of James. He last herself died of her first child by a second thus writes in reference to Sampson, and marriage, just as the unhappy infant was the circumstances connected with his birth, brought into the world, dead, shrivelled, and as related in Holy Writ :-"The angel of discoloured as the former.”|| In another case, God forbad the wife of Manoah, the "the child, after several months' so-called mother of Sampson, to drink wine or strong existence, had the look of an old withered drink, or to eat any unclean meat, after she baby ; its skin was loose and wrinkled, for was conceived with child, because those it had no flesh; it was no larger than one of strong liquors hinder the strength, and, as it a month old, and no more able to walk or were, wither and shrink the child in the stand than it was at that age ; and yet,” mother's womb. Though this were even the says the writer, “it lives, if we may say counsel of God bimself, and delivered by his lives, by the help of art, a miserable memento angel, yet it seemeth that many women of of its wretched mother's unnatural habit.S” this age have not read, or at least will not believe, this precept; the most part forbearing
* History of the World, chap. xv., sect 1., p. 263. + Parl. Évid., p. 423. Appendix. Ibid., p. 219.
li Inquiry into the Effects of Fermented Liquors. * Way to Health, Long Life, &c.
By Basil Montague, Esq., p. 83. | Ibid., p. 283.
Ibid., p. 85.