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cating liquors. 4. Loss of property through
QUORS ON THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS
of the total national loss through the traffic.
produced by inebriation.-II. Effects of in-
and crime. 4. Intemperance, sabbath-breaking,
parts, the results of intemperance.-VI. Or-
ganic changes produced in the brain by intem-
lect and education.-VI. Effects of intemper-
1. Definition of stimulants and their division
hanged by assimilation.
II'II. Cascs of human combustion.--III. Incom-
state.-IV. Conditions of the body favourable
TOTAL ABSTINENCE THE ONLY SAFE
252 in the restoration to health of reformed ine-
DIVISION THE FIRST.
NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INTEMPERANCE.
progress of time, however, new and unlaw. ful sources of enjoyment were discovered, luxurious customs began to prevail, intoxica.
ting liquors were produced, diseases were “ Temperance does not so much consist in the generated, and vicious habits followed in QUANTITY in the QUALITY of aliment.”- their train. CULLEN.
Luxury, in its early approaches, has, in "Men may lose their health without losing their general, been characterized by its slow and senses, and be intemperate every day without being insinuating progress. Virtuous habits gra. drunk perhaps once in their lives.”—Sir William dually yield to the forms and practices of TEMPLE.
sensual gratification. A deterioration of the
moral sense, invariably follows concessions 1 Introductory Obs rations, &c.-II. Definitions of
to sensual indulgence. The history of the moderate drinking in various ages of the world. -III. The free use of strong drink by those who nations of antiquity, and in particular of the denominate themselves sober and temperate Greeks and Romans, demonstrates the truth members of society.-IV. Difference between me- of this statement. dicinal substances and articles of diet.-V. Distinction between intemperance and drunken
The effects of strong drink were known ness.-VI. Opinions of eminent medical men on to the ancients as inimical to freedom and the physical evils consequent on moderate national prosperity. To prevent intemdrinking.--VII. Definitions of temperance.-VIII. The use of a bad thing distinguished from the perance, laws were framed against the imABUSE of a good thing.–IX. Characteristics of portation of wine. The ancient Suevi, for intemperance.-!. The use of intoxicating liquors example, prohibited its introduction into an acquired habit.—2, Fascinating influence of their country, believing it to be pernicious to fined to climate.-4. Intemperance common to the vigour, both of the body and of the savage and civilized nations—to the illiterate mind.* Similar laws are found among the and the educated.-5. Effects of strong drink primitive regulations of other nations. on various temperaments.-6. Modifications produced by various kinds of intoxicating drinks. Until influenced by impure motives, these 7. Changes effected in the temperament by the sanativeenactments were rigorously enforced. use of inebriating liquors.
As an increased taste for luxury, however, 1. The term INTEMPERANCE, according began to prevail, the primitive aversion to to its general signification, is indefinite and wine gradually wore away.
The deadly unsatisfactory. In the present day, how- enemy became a cherished friend. Those ever, it is almost exclusively and universally admirable laws which had once been the employed in reference to excess in the use of safeguards of national virtue and prosperity intoxicating liquors.
were finally modified, relaxed, and virtually The limits of lawful indulgence have, in all annulled. The consequences were degradaages of the world, been variously defined. tion and ruin. In a primeval state, man had few wants. It is manifest, that in every period of the His occupations were simple in their cha- world, the prevailing notions concerning the racter and influence. The produce of the nature of temperance and intemperance, field, and the fruit of the trees yielded him have arisen and taken their tone, from the suitable nourishment ; water supplied him moral condition of the existing age. The with a refreshing and innoxiously inspirit- inclinations and appetites of mankind ining beverage. Lucretius thus adverts to sensibly influence their opinions, and from the simple food of primitive times :- such a source, has the world too frequently “Quæ sol atque imbres dederant, quod terra crearet,
Sponte suâ, satis id placebat pectora donum." * Vinurn ad se omninò importari non sinunt, quod In this state of virtuous simplicity, man had eâ re ad laborem ferendum remollescere Homines,
atque effoeminari arbitrantur.CÆSAR DE BELL few temptations to lead him astray.
In Gall. lib. 4.
derived its notions of the subject under con- of wine. Dr. Trotter, who adverts to this sideration.
circumstance with somewhat astonishThe language of our poets precisely ac- ment, records it as an honour to the British cords with the popular and crude notions of Navy, that in his time, the commanders in the times. The moderate use of intoxicating chief never allowed more at their tables than liquors (a vague and unsatisfactory mode of half a bottle to each guest.* expression), receives unqualified commenda- The writings of distinguished authors ut tion-excess alone incurs blame. In the the present day, assign curious and certainly words of one of our most valued writers, untenable limits, to what some persons are they advocate
pleased to denominate moderate drinking. “The rule of not too much—by temperance taught.” Dr. Sigmond, Professor of Materia Medica
to the Royal Medico-Botanical Society, in Thus, Shakspeare
his Essay on Tea, recommends to those who Every inordinate cup is unblessed, and the in- are “engaged in occupations which do not gredient is a—devil.”
demand any very extraordinary exertions, Armstrong, sometimes denominated the either of body or mind," "a gentle stimulus Poet of Health, exclaims
of three or four glasses of wine during the “We curse not wine;—the vile ercess we blame." great meal of the day ;' a practice which Rarely do any of our writers refer to the limits of moderation,” and is moreover
he further states does not “ trespass on the nature of these liquors, and the tendency to productive of a general state of health as excess which inseparably connects itself with well as longevity. - After the meal," says moderate indulgence. Unfortunately, in the same writer, “when some little time deed, for the interests of mankind, the effu- has elapsed, two or three glasses of port sions of not a few of our poets too frequently produce no’ill effects !!" &c. It is but contain sentiments at variance with the sober realities of experience, and too little proper, however, to state that opinions like in accordance with the pure principles of unphilosophical and contrary to experience,
those propounded by Dr. Sigmond, alike morals and religion. II. Democritus wrote a volume, with the
are less entertained by medical men in the design to show that no person ought to present day than they were at a more remote exceed four or six glasses of wine. Epictetus
period, and ere long, it is, to be hoped, that advances the following opinion :
as the light of truth diffuses its influence,
:-" That man is a drunkard who takes more than they will be altogether discarded from the
medical profession. three glasses ; and though he be not drunk, he hath exceeded moderation.''*
The formation of Temperance Societies in Panyasis, however, a Greek writer, allows century, forms a striking illustration. Many
this country and in America, in the present indulgence in two cups only; those, he re- of these institutions had merely an ephemeral marks, who proceed to a third cup, dedicate
existence. Of those established, one class it to lust and strife.t. Athenæus preserves the following verses
had for its object the advancement of temof Eubulus, a writer of Greek Comedy. all kinds of intoxicating liquors. Another
perance, by inculcating the moderate use of Bacchus thus speaks :
class, still in operation, has for its fun" Only three cups for prudent men I mix: damental regulation the moderate use of For health the one, which first they quaff: the second fermented liquors, but abstinence from Which they, who are by reason's name distinguish'a, ardent spirits. These societies evidence the No sooner drink, but home they bend their steps. existence, not only of erroneous notions A fourth would ill become us, 'tis the cup concerning the nature and effects of intoxi. Of contumely; the unseemly din Of uproar marks the fifth ; debauch the sixth;
cating liquors, but the very general and Blows and black eyes the seventh ; with the eighth deep-rooted appetite which exists for artificial In comes the constable; the ninth engenders and stimulating drinks. Fell rancour; but the tenth is madness 'self,
The members of one of these short-lived Whose desperate fury prompts to deeds of blood.”
societies were required to pledge themselves In comparatively modern times, striking to abstain altogether from the use of ardent examples are presented of the morals of the spirits, and to confine themselves to the use age, influencing considerations concerning of “one quart of beer, porter, or ale, or three the nature of temperance. A society, for glasses of wine per day,” which quantity instance, established about the sixteenth was to be so partitioned as not to be taken century, for the promotion of temperance, at one and the same time. The secretary had its fundamental law constituted on the of this society, states that this pledge was principle, that none of its members should instituted with the view to yield to the drink more than fourteen glasses of wine prejudices of those persons who advocate daily. A certain general, in one of his the moderate (!) use of intoxicating liquors. regulations, ordered, that no officer who III. An examination of these facts, irredined at his table should exceed two bottles sistibly forces the conviction upon all un
prejudiced minds, that the inclinations and * Fragments, No. 3. Carter's Transl. 1758. p. 112. + Archæologia Græca. Vol. 2, p. 396.
* Trotter's Essay on Drunkenness, p. 157.