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ment to no purpose, and admit the force attended with evil results In Russia and and truth of every remonstrance made by in Sweden the free use of ardent spirits is his relatives and friends, without being able well known to occasion an appalling degree to abandon the habit ; he knows that poison of mortality.* is in his cup, and yet he will drink on. I The existence of intemperance in one have known repeated instances of this fact, portion of the globe more than another has and so I believe has almost every one else. been remarked by Montesquieu. “Go," It is no uncommon case for drinkers, when says he, "from the equator to our pole, and admonished by those whom they esteem, to you will find drunkenness increasing, toweep over their own folly ; such instances I gether with the degree of latitude. Go from have myself seen again and again ; but how the same equator to the opposite pole, and few are the instances where resolutions of you will find drunkenness travelling south, amendment do not vanish with such tears ! as on this side it travels towards the north." It is perhaps the most fatal circumstance Dr. Macnish, in his Anatomy of Drunkenconnected with this habit, that it enervates ness, affirms that there cannot be a doubt and debases the mind so as to deprive it of that drunkenness prevails to a much greater its natural vigour, and prevent the success extent in northern than in southern lati. of every effort for its own deliverance. I tudes; and immediately afterwards adds, knew a case in which the preservation of an * the nature of the climate renders this office of much importance to the possessor, inevitable, and gives to the human frame its depended upon the abandonment of the capabilities of withstanding liquor.”+ habit of spirit drinking; this person who The nature of climate, we may remark, was much respected by a great number of does not interfere so much with the disposi. his superiors, was treated by them with all tion or proneness of mankind for stimulating possible lenity for some years, and every liquors, which appears to exhibit the same effort was made in the interim to reclaim character in every portion of the globe ; but him from his folly; he always received these the effects noticed by this writer must be attempts with the greatest gratitude, but ascribed to the physical capabilities or power could not give up his vice, and it was found of resisting foreign influences which varies at last impossible to continue him in his in the human constitution under different place: his health followed the loss of sub-climates. Hence, remarks Dr. Macnish, stance, and his life of both. This is no a quantity which scarcely ruffles the frozen solitary case.”

current of a Norwegian's blood, would A recent writer tells us of an instance of scatter madness and fever into the brain of infatuation, which occurred among the the Hindoo. Even in Europe, observes the Circassians, and was produced by the use of same writer, the inbabitants of the south are Rakee, for the love of which the individual far less adapted to sustain intoxicating "sold and sacrificed not only all his worldly agents than those of the north. I possessions, to his very shirt, but even his Physical causes account for the fact, that flesh and blood, bis last offering at the drunkenness prevails more in cold latitudes shrine of the jolly God, being his wife and than in warm. The inhabitants of warm his children, whom he disposed of in like climates appear in their cheerful and volatile manner.

disposition, to be inspired by the exhilarating A volume might be filled with similar influence of warmth. The influence of heat examples. Innumerable instances in point on the animal functions is known to all. are of ordinary occurrence at the present the natives of frozen regions seek by period, all of which exhibit the fatally fas- artificial stimulants to supply those agreeable cinating influence of depraved appetite and impressions, which their climate in some the power which it possesses to overcome respects denies them. Recourse unforevery motive either of a moral or of a tunately is had to the stimulus of strong religious character.

drink. 3. Intemperance is not confined to climate. A medical writer expresses himself on this The inhabitants of northern climes are, on subject in the following erroneous manner. examination, found to be equally prone to " The great estimation,” he asserts," in intemperance with the natives of warmer which spirituous liquors are held by all latitudes. Climate cannot therefore in northern nations, is a sure proof of their itself be considered as a cause of drunken- necessity and value. Among these a perness. It has, however, considerable influence petual struggle between the laws of life in resisting or favouring the effects of intoxi- within, and the laws of nature without, cation. The natives of cold countries will exists ; and, whatever will give a preponindulge with comparative impunity in that derance to the former, will of course, be amount of stimulating liqnor, which, in eagerly sought after. The further we warmer temperatures, would be productive approach to the north, the greater devotedof fatal consequences. It must not thence, ness we find to these liquors. When life however, be supposed that indulgence in alcoholic liquors in cold climates is not

# Chapter v.

+ Anatomy of Drunkenness, p. 16. Longworth's Year among the Cirnassians.

I Ihid r. 17.

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and nature are at a low ebb, artificial the other hand numerous tribes are known excitements become indispensable; and the in cold regions, who entirely refrain from means of obtaining these will be among the the use of strong drinks (or at least did so chief objects of the people.* The existence until their unfortunate intercourse with of a stronger propensity for stimulating European nations) and indeed exhibit toingredients in one part of the world more wards it, on all occasions, the most signal than another, is not surely a sufficient proof tokens of dislike. Parry, Barrow, Henderson, of their value and necessity. The statement, and Captain Cook, in their accounts of the moreover, of Dr. Sheer, is found to be directly Esquimaux, Icelanders, and natives of opposed to the known laws of the animal Terra del Fuego, fully bear out the latter economy. The system of man is wisely statement; while a variety of authentic constituted by a beneficent Creator, with narrations present innumerable facts in such capabilities as enable him not only evidence of the former. to endure the vicissitudes of climate, but, 4. Intemperance is common to savage and when requisite, to sustain extraordinary to civilized nations, to the illiterate and the exertion of the animal strength without educated. This vice exists almost in every serious injury, though supported only nation, and among every people, whether by the most simple kinds of nutriment. belonging to the uncultivated savage, or to Alcoholic stimulants in all climates, and those individuals who enjoy the advantages under every ordinary circumstance, invari- of education and refinement. ably diminish this capability, by injuring and The history of intemperance acquaints us wasting the vital powers of the human frame. with examples of the effect of strong drink Hence stimulating liquors in cold climates on nations, eminent for intellectual qualifiought to be avoided, because they do not cations, almost equally atrocious in their add to the natural strength of the system, character with those which occur among the but deprive it more or less of that vital most barbarous nations on record. The energy with which it has been endowed to consequences of intemperance, indeed, admit enable it to resist external influences. A of few modifications. They are invariably proper supply of nourishing food and appro- degrading and unnatural in their character. priate clothing, is all that is requisite for Some of the features of intemperance are this purpose. The quality and quantity of considerably modified by education, in parnutriment, however, necessary for the support ticular when combined with a certain amount of the animal frame, is affected, to a con- of moral restraint. The untutored savage, siderable extent, by climate, as may be restrained by no principles of shame or rendered sufficiently evident by the change propriety, abandons himself to insatiate and which is felt in our own country, during the unbounded excess. His views of earthly seasons of winter and summer. The heat enjoyment extend little beyond the present of summer diminishes the appetite for that moment : no sufficient motive, therefore, stimulating kind of food, which appears in presents itself to oppose his unlimited desire. some degree necessary during the rigorous for sensual gratification. Hence arise those effects of colder seasons. Hence the neces- horrible and disgusting scenes of bloodshed sity of dietetic caution. The same result is which so generally result from savage excess. found to occur in the various latitudes to A Turk,” says a recent and intelligent which reference has been previously made. traveller, “seldom drinks for any other The Creator has, however, everywhere placed purpose than to intoxicate himself. If he within the reach of man, such natural food drinks at all he is a sot. Downright intoxias is requisite, and best adapted to the situa- cation is his only idea of the pleasure of tion and climate in which he is located. All drinking. The same is true of the Persians. other indulgence is the result of unlawful They have no idea of sipping wine sociably gratification and depraved appetite, and like Europeans. It is only when they are cannot be attributed to necessary and in- completely surrendered to its power, that evitable circumstances, over which he has they are contented."'* no control.

• It is not the pleasantness of the liquor," Facts contravene all theories respecting remarks Mr. Pinkerton, “but the actual the geographical propensity to drunkenness. wish of being intoxicated that leads to In regions within the equator in one he- habitual excess; and in order to produce misphere, a strong desire exists forindulgence this effect, a Russian will swallow a glass of in unlawful excitement; while in another spirits of wine, or a savage a bottle of rum, hemisphere, the frozen regions for example, with great pain to the palate.' the same injurious propensity exhibits itself The same effects, though perhaps in diffin no less vigorous characters. The natives erent degrees of excess, will, on further of Otaheite and the Sandwich Islands, vast examination, be found to attend the opemyriads of inhabitants in Mohammedan rations of intemperance, in more civilized India, as well as the residents of the West portions of the globe. In proportion as Indies, each display inordinate attachment the animal propensities of man preponderate to inebriating liquors or drugs; while on

* Tour in Turkey and Asia, by the Rev. Horatio * Dr. Sheer on the Diseases of the Lower Orders Southgate. in Dublin.-Dublin Hospital Reports. Vol. iii. + Pinkerton's Recollections of Paris. Vol. ii. p. 360.

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over his moral and intellectual powers, will τον οινον, κακως κρινει, ωστε παροινειν.” These be found prevailing among the species, a remarks precisely correspond with universal greater or less amount of ferocious excitement experience. The mere animal drinker, as we and savage barbarity.

have seen in the example of the savage, comThe drinking practices, however, of civilized mits under the influence of excessive excitenations, in some respects, differ materially menthorrible deeds of violence and bloodshed. from those of the unpolished and unguarded The moderate excitement, however, produced savage. The object of an intemperate member by the drinking habits of refined society, is of the former class, is not how he can attain not much less dangerous and destructive, the readiest method of intoxication, but how although, in general, its effects are overhe can attain the highest degree of animal looked, and not unfrequently attributed to and pleasurable excitement, without the other causes. The greater part of the broils exhibition of any visible signs of what is which occur in civilized society, seldom commonly denominated intemperance. take place when the individuals concerned

All classes agree to denounce the vice of are in a state of visible intoxication ; but drunkenness, as odious and disreputable. A at a period when their animal and moral more captivating, insidious, and respectable powers have been elevated to a pitch of form of intemperance, however, prevails in controllable excitement, and when credit is the present day under the indefinite and given them for having perfect command dangerous designation of moderate drinking. Over their feelings and judgment. In this It will easily be seen how impossible it is, on state the balance of reason is easily overany sound or correct data, to define the nature thrown, and the whole force of subdued and and limits of moderate indulgence. In a accumulated excitement is brought to bear physiological point of view, this is impossible. on the first favourable opportunity which Long continued habit will enable one indivi- may present itself for its full development dual to endure, without the least external and unrestrained operation. The records of symptom of intemperance, such an amount domestic history bear melancholy evidence of alcoholic stimulus as would render another of this fact, so easy and natural is the person less inured to

the intoxicating transition “from cups to civil broils." draught, in the popular sense of the word, Pinkerton, in reference to that condition completely drunk and even insensible. Hence which in another place he denominates persons may be chargeable with intemperate moderate and genteel intoxication," such excitement, and really labour under the he further states, as is “ to be found in good influence of a greater or less amount of it, company among men of respectability," and at the same time they may pass through remarks thus : “Even the habit of a the ordinary circumstances of life with moderate degree of intoxication towards the a certain kind of credit and respectability, evening often leads to pernicious effects, and even be looked upon as temperate domestic quarrels, and the consequent loss members of society. But let it not, therefore, of character and tranquility.” be supposed that the practice of moderate The habitual, though not excessive use of drinking is unattended with immoral and wine, in wine countries, exercises an iminjurious effects. Experience demonstrates portant influence on the character and the contrary.

actions of men in a national point of view. The moderate, but habitual, use of inebri- The Rev. Dr. Hewitt asserts that ating liquors heats the blood, inflames the the French “drink to just that point at passions, and renders the disposition suscep- which the moral sense and judgment are tible of even slight provocation. It weakens, if laid asleep, but all their other faculties it does not to a great degree destroy, the remain awake." “ If," says the same powers of reflection, deliberation and judg- writer, “they do not drink to absolute ment; the relations of things are viewed stupefaction, or intoxication, it is because through a coloured and distorted medium, sensuality with Frenchmen is a science and and with these radical transitions there a system.” Dr. Hewitt advances this opinion follows an utter impossibility to estimate as the result of personal observation and the character of actions, with dispassionate - experience. Leigh Hunt, in the notes to ness and discrimination. Aristotle observes, his translation of “Bacco in Toscano," that man while in a sober state reasons with describes the effects of the noon draughts of correctness, because he makes a proper use wine on the labourers, peasantry, and small of his judgment; in a state of utter intoxi- shop-keepers in Tuscany, as perceptible cation he does not reason at all; when, after dinner, though no disorder ensues ; however, he is partially under the influence the wine being only just enough to move the of wine, he reasons inaccurately and there- brain pleasantly, without intoxication.” fore readily falls into error and mischief. The physical and moral evils, which

* Δια τι ο ακροθωραξ μαλλον παροινει του result from this custom, forms a subject μεθυοντος μαλλον και νηφοντος; Η οτι ο μεν | of investigation not unworthy the attention νηφων, ευκρινει και ο δε πανταπασι μεθυων, δια of the moralist and legislator.

τας αισθησεις επιπεπλασμενας ειναι, ου 5. Intemperance is considerably modified δυναμενος το βαρος φερειν, ου κρινει, ου κρινων | in its character by the temperament of the δ', ου παροινει. Οδ' ακροθωραξ κρινει τε, και, δια individual upon whom it operates. Various




causes contribute to the development of truth remarks, that this popular nostrum is peculiar temperament. Vitiated education, bat "skinning over an old ulcer," and thus and irregular mural and physical training, by flattering the wound preparing the way are amongst the most prominent; in addition, for mortification. “To be intemperate, perhaps, to a mental or physical conforma- he further says, “for the ease of ones mind, tion natural to each member of the human is to cure melancholy with madness."* family.

Many of these varieties of temperament Macnish, in his well known work, specifies are the necessary result of irregular moral seven varieties of temperament as modified and physical education. The early and by drunkenness; viz. : The Sanguineous, frequent use of alcoholic stimulants is well Melancholy, Surly, Phlegmatic, Nervous, known to be a productive source of nervous Choleric, and Periodical.* A few general excitement and irritable temperament. observations will suffice to elucidate the The use of intoxicating liquor is more subject in question. Individuals of a san- particularly dangerous to persons of sanguineous temperament are easily excited and guineous and choleric temperament, who, noisy and spirited, over their cups. They under the inflaming influence of strong drink, form the principal source of attraction at are readily excited to deeds of a daring and meetings of a convivial description, and are impetuous character. “I know some men, soon affected even by moderate vinous in- observes Dr. Trotter, “who are only temdulgence. Their convivial qualifications form perate from the dread of exciting furious a dangerous source of temptation to excess. passions by the use of wine, their dispositions

Choleric temperaments, like the san- being naturally bad, they are afraid to guineous, have highly susceptible nervous drink.”+ The annals of crime are fruitful systems, as well as physical powers predis- with appropriate illustrations. posed to inflammatory action.

In no one instance does the use of inebri. Other temperaments, on the contrary, are ating liquor benefit these varieties of temnot easily elevated by vinous indulgence. peraments. It stimulates the sanguineous The Phlegmatic class of drinkers, in general, to higher and more dangerous pitches of are not roused from their natural lethargy, excitement. The melancholic, unhappily and at a time when the former class are either invariably find indulgence succeeded by still altogether or in a great measure overpowered deeper shades of depression, while the by bacchanalian indulgence.

temperament of the phlegmatic, although In addition to these is a variety of shades, temporarily roused, after the fumes of the in the nature of which the preceding glass have effectually subsided, again assumes characters more or less participate. Tbe its natural character. Melancholic drunkard is subject to most 6. Intemperance is modified to a condistressing paroxysms of despondency, which siderable extent by the inebriating agent by succeed to, and totally extinguish all his which it is produced. preceding sensations of pleasure. The lives Alcohol, either in its palpable and visible of some of our eminent literary characters form, or in its latent and disguised existence, form striking and pitiable examples. is now universally known to be the great

Burns, the Scottish Bard, for example, agent of intoxication; and the effects result. appears to have been subject to lowness ing from its use are in proportion to the of spirits from an early period. But purity and strength in which it is employed. until that period of his life when he The use of alcohol, in the form of ardent commenced his career as an author, and spirits, is more injurious and exciting than when his growing celebrity occasioned his in any other association, because it is more being in company, his biographer states that concentrated in that state than in fermented he does not remember to have seen him liquors. Malt liquors, for instance, do not intoxicated, nor was he at all given to contain so much alcohol as ardent spirits ; drinking. No sooner, however, was he and from the narcotic drugs with which they led into inteinperance, than his disorder are combined, are less stimulating and more became aggravated, and his dejection, from sluggish in their effects. The stupifying being a casual occurrence, became con- and deadening operation of malt liquors tinual."

forms a striking contrast to the more active The celebrated Dr. Johnson, sought relief and all exciting influence of ardent spirit. at one period of his life, from distressing A man who freely indulges in malt liquors, and habitual gloom, in the pleasures of wine. soon becomes incapable of steady and conHe found, however, that indulgence in the tinued exertion ;—the spirit drinker, on the joys of Bacchus, imparted but temporary contrary, has his passions roused to greater relief-the pangs of sorrow returned with excitement,--the circulation of his blood is redoubled vigour. He abandoned therefore not clogged, but quickened, and he is ready the practice, as unsuccessful and dangerous. for rash and unpremeditated action. Hence an Quaint old Burton justly exclaims, "as good important distinction which exists in the be melancholy still, as drunken beasts and comparative effects of these liquors in the beggars."'t Jeremy Collier with equal production of crime. Some writers contend * Anatomy of Drunkenness, p. 52.

* Dialogue between Encratius and Enophilus. Anatomy of Melancholy.

+ Trotter's Essay on Drunkenness


that less drunkenness exists at the present begin," he observes, “ with the weaker time than at a former period. The admission wines; these by use and habit will not do, of this fact, however, as Mr. Poynder ob- they leave the stomach sick and mawkish ; serves, does not prove that there is less they must fly to stronger wines, and stronger drinking, or less crime. The public eye wines, and stronger still, and run the climax may behold less drunkenness than when through brandy, to Barbadoes, and double beer was more exclusively the national drink, distilled spirits, till at last they can find but there may, at the same time, be so much nothing hot enough for them.” These facts more drinking, and so much more crime. show, to an awful extent, that the appetite

Of late years an erroneous opinion has for strong drink is progressively increased been somewhat extensively propagated, by indulgence. Stimulants indeed are used indeed not unfrequently advanced, by some for the pleasing sensations they produce, of our distinguished legislators,—that the and few persons, as experience sufficiently introduction of pure wine into common use, demonstrates, remain long satisfied with the would be productive of more sober habits in use of mildly intoxicating liquors. The the people, if it did not altogether eradicate Armenians, for example, prepare wine on the evil of intemperance. Jefferson, the purpose for the degenerate portion of the American President, entertained this notion, Mahommedans, (Persians) by adding lime, “ I rejoice," says he, “as a moralist, at the hemp, and other ingredients, to increase its prospect of a reduction of the duties on pungency and strength. The wine that wine by our national legislature.- No nation soonest intoxicates is accounted the best, and is drunken where sine is cheap; and none the lightest and more delicate kinds are sober where the dearness of wine substitutes held in no estimation among the adherents ardent spirits as the common beverage. It of the prophet.' is in truth the only antidote to whiskey. A recent writer states, from personal obser-Its extended use will carry health and vation, that it is the “custom in Persia to comfort to a much enlarged circle,” &c.* fortify the wines by an infusion of nux These remarks are warmly recommended by vomica and lime, in order to strengthen a writer in a popular magazine, who at the their fiery, and to increase their inebriating, same time admits, that malt liquor “has qualities, which a hard drinking Persian is been tried as a preventive of intoxication, apt to esteem.”'t and found wanting.”+ Busby states that An increased desire for more potent “the demand for sweet wines from America alcoholic liquors is found to exist in Paris, has greatly increased, since the general the capital of a wine growing country. establishment of Temperance Societies in According to government returns in 1835, that country.”'# The operations of the Total there were consumed in Paris, 326,000 Abstinence Societies fortunately bid fair to hogsheads of wine, and thirteen thousand explode this dangerous notion.

hogsheads of brandy, besides considerable The history of wines, on investigation, quantities of cider, perry, and beer. If the will be found to be fruitful in the produc- population at that period be estimated at tion of every species of moral and physical 800,000, this return allows about a barrel evil, which in general arises from the use of of wine and a gallon of brandy, for the intoxicating liquors. The general use even annual consumption of each individnal. of weak intoxicating wines, has invariably Those who advocate the introduction of been followed by an irresistible desire for pure wines into general use in this country, those of a stronger description. The strong-do so, it is presumed, under the idea that est wines were held in most esteem among their use will promote the health and the sensual part of Greeks and Romans. comfort of the people. Science, however, In England our distinguished historians demonstrates that, wines which have undertestify, that the most potent wines were held gone fermentation do not possess nutritive in greatest estimation. In the twelfth and properties. Universal experience coincides thirteenth centuries, wines were to be had with the result of scientific investigation. in great plenty in England, and drunkenness It is moreover an undeniable fact, that in existed to a most fearful extent. Hollinshed those continental districts where the peasants declares, that at this time, “the strongest abstain from wine, and drink water only, they wines were in greatest request, and that enjoy better health, possess more activity claret and other weak wines were little and are, in every sense of the word, in the valued."

enjoyment of advantages from which those In the present day a similar partiality persons are debarred who make use of wine exists in favour of strong wines. Newman as common beverage.

The following and Brande inform us, that the wines in remarks of Smollett, on the effects of wine common use in this country, are three times on the peasantry of France are forcible and stronger than those made use of in 1750. The important. “It must be owned that all celebrated Dr. Cheyne makes the following the peasantry who have wine for their ordipointed remarks on this subject. They nary drink, are of a diminutiye size, in


* Jefferson's Mem., &c., Vol. iv. p. 320.
+ Penny Magazine, 1835, p. 236.
Visit to the Vineyards of France and Spain.


* Henderson's History of Modern Times.

+ Tour in Turkey and Asia, by the Re . H. Southgate.

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