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and all sorts of labourers," he further intoxicating liquors are not used.-The remarks, "do the same."* diet and health of certain nations, who, not The observation of this writer, however, long ago, were unacquainted with the is in a great measure incorrect. The class modern inventions of luxury, form a strikof men to whom he alludes, in general ing contrast with the habits and diseases of possess a naturally strong constitution, and more civilized countries. The primitive have the advantage also over the inhabitants condition of the inhabitants of New Zealand of towns, not only of healthy exercise, but is thus described by Hawkesworth:-"Water of pure and invigorating air. The diet of is their universal and only liquor, as far as the peasant, moreover, is simple, and free we could discover, and if they have really from those noxious ingredients so com- no means of intoxication, they are, in this menly made use of in luxurious life. His particular, happy beyond any other people customary drink is taken in moderate that we have yet seen or heard of. As there quantities, and the laborious exercise he is perhaps no source of disease either critical undergoes enables nature to resist its in- or chronic, but intemperance and inactivity, jurious influence. When these persons it cannot be thought strange that these indulge freely in the use of intoxicating people enjoy perfect and uninterrupted liquor, they do so occasionally only, and health; in all our visits to their towns, invariably suffer the penalties of improper where young and old, men and women, indulgence. Nature, however, not having crowded about us, prompted by the same been habitually abused, puts into action her curiosity that carried us to look at them, restorative powers, and by the aid of absti- we never saw a single person who appeared nence, exercise, and good air, soon restores to have any bodily complaint; nor, among the system, either partially, or altogether, the numbers that we have seen naked, did to its usual tone. This, however, is far we once perceive the slightest eruption upon from being universally the case. The class the skin, or any marks that an eruption had of persons whose habits we have just referred left behind. Another proof of health which to, rarely live to a protracted age, subject, we have mentioned on a former occasion, is as they usually are, to attacks of acute disease, consequent on irregular habits.

the facility with which the wounds healed that had left scars behind them, and that we The diet of the inhabitants of our large saw in a recent state; when we saw the towns, has a tendency to produce intemper- man who had been shot with the musket ance. Pure air, and out-door exercise, ball through the fleshy part of his arm, his those natural stimulants which are essential wound seemed to be so well digested, and in to health, are either neglected, or beyond the so fair a way of being perfectly healed, that reach of the many, from the nature of their if I had not known no application had been employments; hence the origin of the vast made to it, I should certainly have number of chronic diseases which in the inquired with a very interested curiosity, present day afflict the human race. The after the vulnerary herbs and surgical art of modern man of the town, indeed, is in many the country. A farther proof that human respects unlike the being nature evidently nature is here untainted with disease, is the intended him to be, and may more correctly great number of old men that we saw, many be termed the work of human, and not of of whom, by the loss of their hair and teeth, divine creation. appeared to be very ancient, yet none of Some of these causes of ill-health, peculiar them were decrepit; and though not equal to our large towns, are at the same time to the young in muscular strength, were not productive sources of intemperance. Mr. a whit behind them in cheerfulness and G. A. Walker, surgeon, London, states, vivacity."* that in low districts in towns, 66 one vastly The narrative of the first missionary exciting cause why many persons take voyage to the South Sea Islands, informs us, stimuli, is the condition of the air they that "until the Europeans visited the breathe. The infected atmosphere has a Otaheitans, they had few disorders among depressing effect upon the people subjected them. Their temperate and regular mode to its influence."+ And again, the of life, the great use of vegetables, little putrefaction, arising from want of sewerage, animal food, and absence of all noxious generates a desire to drink, from the low distilled spirits and wines, preserved them feeling it creates." The systems of indivi- in health." duals breathing an impure atmosphere, and The inhabitants of New Zealand are not perhaps ill supplied with proper food, are the only instances of this condition. The ill calculated to resist the deleterious effects Chinese, and natives of Hindostan, are of spirituous liquors. Hence the formidable extent of mortality which results from the practice.

2. State of health of nations where

* Macnish's Anatomy of Drunkenness, p. 47. Select Committee on Health of Towns, 1840, p. 188. 1 Tbil

P

213.

known to be more temperate in their habits, and less subject to disease, than most other nations. Sir George Staunton remarks that the Chinese recover from all kinds of accidents more rapidly, and with fewer symptoms of any kind of danger, than most

* Hawkesworth's Voyages, &c.

people in Europe. The constant and quick Dr. Cheyne makes a similar remark.recovery from considerable and alarming "In all the Ottoman empire, where little wounds, has been observed likewise to take flesh meat, and no wine is used; and in place among the natives of Hindostan. The Spain where they use them very moderately; European surgeons have been surprised at and among the mountaineers in Northern the easy cure of Sepoys in the English countries, and the lower rank of people in service, from accidents accounted extremely every country, where they can procure formidable." The same act was observed neither, there is little or no gout." in regard to the wounded, after the late 3. Effects of intemperance in the provictory in India. "The medical officers of this duction of disease. The state of health of army," says a writer cognizant of the fact, the inhabitants of nations where intoxicating "have distinctly attributed to their previous liquors are used, presents a striking but abstinence from strong drink, the rapid deplorable contrast to the statements just recovery of the wounded at Ghuznee."* made. Disease in its most fearful forms, on Diseases common to European countries every hand, exhibits its dreadful ravages, are entirely unknown among more temperate and the human machine, adapted by an allnations. The gout and stone form interest-wise providence, when rightly used, to pering examples. These disorders have hitherto form its functions in health and vigor, is been found to exist only in those countries ever the subject of disorder. The almost where intoxicating liquors are freely used. universal use of inebriating drinks, unDr. Ure, in alluding to the commonness of doubtedly is the most fruitful source of this calculous disorders in this country, remarks, derangement of the physical powers. that the cause must be looked for in the use Dr. Lamb, a medical gentleman of attainof something from which irrational animals ments and research, is of opinion, "that the abstain, and then states, that it is found in habitual use of fermented liquors, is a cause "fermented liquors, and apparently in of destruction, sufficient of itself to counnothing else." It is unnecessary, however, teract all the good effects of a diet by no to look to the brute creation, when suf- means insalubrious, and of a situation ficiently strong examples are to be found which is more than commonly healthful;" among the human race. Linnæus remarks and that "as large quantities of fermented of the Laplanders, that they have few liquors are highly deleterious, producing a diseases, and that gout and stone are un-total loss of muscular power, and nearly an known among them; which he attributes to abolition of correct sensation; and as these their water, which is particularly pure, and symptoms are not unfrequently fatal, the their constant drink; and to their abstinence suspicion appears just, that the perpetual from all fermented liquors, especially spirits.‡ ingurgitation of these drinks, cannot be Rumazini affirms, that the Persians who innocent, however moderate the quantity abstain from wine, are free from gout and may be; and that all the pleasure or the stone. He also makes allusion to a similar comfort which persons derive from such fact in relation to the inhabitants of the habits, are gained at the ultimate expense Banks of the Rhine, who, although residing of their health, and the abbreviation of their in a wine country, do not indulge freely in lives."* that injurious liquor.

Dr. Cheyne, late physician-general in Tavernier makes the following statement. Ireland, makes the following pointed obser"As for the gout or gravel, the Persians vations.-"If an end were put to the know not what it means, but the Armenians drinking of port, punch, and porter, there are troubled with the latter, especially those would be an end to my worldly prosperity. that in their youth accustomed themselves Physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries, would to more wine than water."|| The same be ruined; the medical- halls would be stripwriter, in reference to the inhabitants of ped of their splendour; and disease become Delhi, the capital of Hindostan, speaking of comparatively rare, simple, and manageable; the good effects of water, and lemonade; the clinical physician would lose the makes the following remarks:-"A man benefit of teaching, and the student the hath no great inclination, in such hot coun- opportunity of learning his profession, in tries as these to drink wine. Abstinence our flourishing hospitals."+ from wine in these parts, joined to the general sobriety of the natives, is (in my opinion) the cause that they almost know not what is the gout, the stone, disease of the kidney, rheumatisms, quartans; and that those bringing any of these sicknesses hither as I did, are at length totally freed from them."§

*Havelock's Narrative, &c.

+ Ure's Chemical Dictionary, article, "Calculus.' Travels through Lapland.

Tavernier's Persian Travels, vol. i. p. 239.Folio edition. § Ibid. vol ii. p. 81.

"Intoxicating liquors," says Dr. Trotter, "in all their forms, and however disguised, are the most productive cause of disease with which I am acquainted."

The effects of intemperance in the production of disease, will receive special consideration in subsequent sections of this work. In the present place, the attention of the reader will be drawn to some general

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facts, illustrative of the extent of this productive source of physical derangement.

the Cork Street fever hospital, in the years ending 31st of December,

In 807..1100 Patients

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1808..1071 1809..1051 "9

bition to distilla-1810..1774
tion ceased in

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At the sick poor institution there were received :

In 1808..8139 Patients.

1809..8069

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1810..9075.

The introduction of ardent spirits into general use, imparted increased virulence to the character of those diseases which had their origin in the use of intoxicating And when the prohiliquors; indeed it was soon found that new diseases began to make their appearance from the same source. "Since the introduction of spirituous liquors into such general use," observes Dr. Rush, "physicians have remarked, that a number of new diseases have appeared among us, and have described many new symptoms as common to old diseases."* The consequences of hospital and dispensary, display similar spirit drinking were so serious in 1725, as results. to cause the College of Physicians to make public representation of them; and in 1750, when these pernicious poisons were so generally used, the same body stated, " that they had 14,000 gin cases under their care, most of which baffled all their skill in medicine.‡

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+

The returns from the Waterford fever

There were admited into the
Fever Hospital.

In 1807.. 166 Patients.

"

1808.. 157
1809.. 222

1810.. 410

Dispensary.
Patients.

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The medical attendants of the latter Dr. Short also calls our attention to the hospitals state, that "the late reduction in great increase of disease in London, which the price of spirits and their consequent resulted from the use of spirituous liquors.||| excessive use, has been productive of inIn Dublin the physicians at these periods, creased disease, and in a great degree experience much difficulty in the control of accounts for the additional number of patients diseases, either brought on or aggravated by in the above charities for the last year.' the use of ardent spirits. These were so The facts might be multiplied to a consifearful in their extent, and so virulent in derable extent. their character, as to occasion considerable More recent investigation exhibits equally alarm for the health of the public. The decisive results. Dr. Gordon, physician

reports of hospitals and dispensaries, abound to the London Hospital, states, that several with allusions to the vast number of diseases years ago, his attention was directed to the which existed at that time, all of which subject of intemperance and disease, when arose from the same prolific source. he was in the habit of seeing out-patients, to

The health of the people, both in England the amount of some thousands, probably, in and Ireland, improved in a remarkable the course of the year. In conversation with degree after the act (of 1751) for stopping a friend, who felt an interest in the subject, distillation, had been put into operation. he had occasion to remark, that the proporDr. Price specially notices this circumstance, tion of diseases which was distinctly referrable and states, that the increased health in to ardent spirits, might be about 25 per London arose "particularly from the de- cent. His friend hesitated to admit the structive use of spirituous liquors among the correctness of so large an average, and in poor having been checked."§ consequence, Dr. Gordon kept an account

The Reports of the Fever Hospital, Cork for twelve months. I need not say, ha Street, and Sick Poor Institution, Meath remarks, that the result was not a mathemaStreet, Dublin; show, that during the pro- tical truth, but merely an approximation; hibition to distillation from corn, which it amounted to 65 per cent. upon the whole continued from June, 1808, to December, amount of diseases, and at the same time I 1809, by which the use of spirituous liquors made every possible allowance that I could, was diminished, the number of sick applying and I even struck off part, wishing to look at for medical aid at those institutions, had the subject fairly. The result was 65 per decreased to a considerable extent; while on cent. upon some thousands. My subsequent the other hand, when the removal of this experience, remarks the same physician, prohibition rendered spirits plentiful and cheap, disease again made its appearance in exact proportion.

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induces me to say a larger number; my average came to 75 per cent., but I have stated 65, so that I might not over-step the bounds.¶

The universal testimony of medical men, shows that at least three-fourths of the disease which at present afflicts the human race, in

* Rep. Cork Street Fever Hospital, 1817, p. 56.

+ Rep. Sick Poor Institution, 1817, p. 5.
Rep. Waterford Fever Hospital, 1817, p. 13.
Rep. Committee of House of Commons, 1811
Parl, Evid., p. 195.

countries where intoxicating liquors are in| general use, arises from indulgence in strong drink. It appears from authentic documents, that about 287,000 poor persons, annually receive medical assistance and pecuniary aid from fifty-six institutions alone, and that a sum not less than £175,000 is expended every year by a benevolent public for their support. Two-thirds of this disease and expense is attributable to the use of inebriating drinks.

The following is a synoptical table of the Classes, Orders, and Genera of those diseased conditions of the human frame, which are induced by the use of alcoholic liquors. CLASS I. PYREXIÆ, FEBRILE DISEASES.

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Order 3. Spasmi, Spasmodic Diseases.

Gen.

32 Tetanus, Locked Jaw
33 Convulsio, Convulsion
34 Epilepsia, Epilepsy
35 Asthma, Asthma

36 Palpitatio Cordis, Palpitation of
the heart

37 Dyspnæa, Difficult breathing
38 Pyrosis, Water Brash
39 Colic, Colick

40 Cholera, Cholera

41 Diarrhæa, Purging

42 Diabetes, Excessive secretion of sweet Urine

43 Hysteria, Hysterics

Order 4. Vesaniæ, Diseases of the Mind. 44 Amentia, Idiotcy

45 Melancholia, Melancholy

Gen. 46 Mania, Madness

[trembling

47 Delirium Tremens, Delirium with 48 Oneirodynia, Night-mare

CLASS III. CACHEXIE, BAD HABITS OF BODY.

Order 1. Marcores, Emaciation of the

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Gen.

11 Splenitis

spleen

12 Nephritis

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13 Cystitis

bladder

Gen. 9 Enteritis

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14 Gutta Rosacea, Crimson whelks,

or red pimples on the nose and face 15 Rheumatismus, Rheumatism 16 Podagra, Gout

Order 3. Exanthemata, Eruptive Fevers.

[17 Erysipelas, St. Anthony's Fire Gen. 18 Urticaria, Nettle-Rash

19 Aphtha, Thrush

Order 4. Hæmorrhagiæ, Hæmorrhages.

Gen.

-20 Epistaxis, Bleeding at the Nose 21 Hæmoptysis, Spitting of Blood

22 Hæmatemesis, Vomiting of Blood 23 Hæmorrhois, Piles

Gen.

system.

[49 Tabes, Wasting

50 Atrophia, No nourishment from food

51 Catacausis Ebriosa, Inebriate Combustion

Order 2. Intumescentiæ, Swellings.

Section 1. Adiposa, Fatty

52 Polysarcia, Corpulency

Section 2. Flatuosæ, Flatulent 53 Flatulencia, Flatulence

Section 3. Aquosæ, Dropsical. 54 Anasarca, Dropsy of the integu

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24 Menorrhagia, Overflow of the Order 3. Impetigines, Cutaneous Diseases,

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Order 2. Dysorexia, Depraved appetites.

Sect. 1. Appetitus Erronei, false appetites.
65 Bulimia, Voracious appetite.
66 Polydipsia, Constant thirst
67 Pica, Depraved appetite.
68 Satyriasis, Incontinence in men
Gen. 69 Nymphomania,
in women
Section 2. Appetitus deficientes,
deficient appetites.

70 Anorexia, Bad Appetite.
71 Anaphrodisia, Impotence.

Order 3. Apocenoses, Increased discharges.
Gen. 72 Eneuresis, involuntary micturition

Order 4. Epischesis, Obstructions. 573 Obstipatio, Constipation Gen.

Order 5. Tumores, Tumours.

75 Aneurisma, Disease of the arteries Gen. {76 Schirrus, Hardened tumour

Order 6. Ectopiæ, Displacement of organs.

77 Hernia, Rupture

Gen. 78 Prolapsus, Protrusion uncovered 79 Luxatio, Dislocation

physical powers, which unfits the system to receive the action of remedial agents, and consequently prevents the employment of those necessary means which alone can arrest the progress of disease.

The mortality comprehended under the second head will receive more particular consideration in subsequent sections of this division; it is our object in the present place, to consider such mortality as directly results from intemperance, abundant evidence of which is easily attainable.

I do not hesitate to affirm, says Linnæus, the distinguished naturalist, that the use of spirituous liquors, in our time extremely prevalent among the common people, has destroyed more lives than all the wars which have taken off so many thousands of our fellow-citizens. "Spirituous liquors," exclaims Dr. Rush, "destroy more lives than the sword, war has its intervals of destruction, but spirits operate at all times and seasons upon human life."*

The celebrated Henry Fielding, in reference to the use of gin, made the following remarks, "Should the drinking this poison be continued in its present height, during the next twenty years, there will, by that time, be very few of the common people left to drink it."'+

The history of distillation in this country

Order 7. Dyalises, Discontinuity of parts. teems with fruitful illustrations of the in

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4. The mortality occasioned by intemperance is no less a subject of alarm than the disease upon which it, in a great measure, depends. It may be said of intemperance, with much more truth than of war,

""Tis the carnival of death; 'Tis the vintage of the grave." Milton, in the eleventh book of his Paradise Lost, says,

"Many shapes
Of death, and many are the ways that lead
To his grim cave, all dismal! yet to sense
More terrible at th' entrance than within.

-Some by violent stroke shall die,
By fire, flood, famine; by Intemperance more;
In meats and drinks, which on the earth shall bring
Diseases dire, of which a monstrous crew
Before thee shall appear."

fluence of intemperance on mortality. The London Bills of Mortality show that the number of deaths and burials in the metropolis corresponds with the consumption of spirituous liquors, and that every increase of consumption is attended with a corresponding the other hand, a diminution of the conincrease of adult and infant mortality. On sumption of alcoholic drinks is followed in a proportionate degree, by a diminution of the number of deaths.

The Bills of Mortality in 1729 rose to 29,722, in consequence of the unwise enactments passed at that period to extend the traffic in strong drink. To remedy this state of things the government interposed to check the evil by an increase of duty. The consumption of gin was consequently diminished, and, in 1730, the mortality was 26,761. The new enactment was obnoxious to the farmers, who conceived it to be detrimental to their interests. In 1732, at the time of its repeal, the mortality was 23,358. A recurrence, however, to previous habits of Lord Bacon makes the remark, that "not intemperance, was followed by an increase of one man of a thousand dies a natural death; mortality to 29,233. Similar results took and that most diseases have their rise from place in the years 1742 and 1743, and also intemperance." This observation, startling in 1751 and 1752. A striking illustration, as it may appear, is no less appropriate than however, in the rise and fall of mortality, as true in the present day. dependent on the consumption of strong We may divide this subject into two heads: drink, occurred in the years 1757 and 1758. 1. Mortality, the direct result of indulgence In consequence of a scarcity of grain, disin strong drink; and 2. The mortality pro-tillation was suspended for three years. duced in one of the two following ways. 1757, the mortality was 21,313, but in 1758, 1st. Debility of the system from intemperance which renders it unable to grapple with disease, and 2ndly. A blunted susceptibility of the

In

*Rush's Medical Observations. p. 63. An Inquiry into the Causes of the late increase of Street Robbers, &c. p. 22.

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