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thousand dollars for the gain of the officers Philip of Macedon, once received a severe, of the law, and fifty thousand dollars remain, but just reproof, whilst dining with Dionysius, which forms the amount of loss which that whom he had invited to be his guest at single county annually sustains by what is Corinth. The royal father of his guest was correctly denominated, drunken litigation. fond of literature, and, in his leisure hours,

Perhaps it would not be too much to frequently employed his pen in pursuits of assert that four-fifths of the law cases in this that nature. Philip was inclined to treat this country, as well as in America, have their practice with derision. “ How could the origin, directly or indirectly, in intemperance. king find leisure,” he remarked, “to write Men, under the influence of strong drink, these trifles?" “In those hours," replied are rash, self-opinionated, and quarrelsome, Dionysius, “which you and I spend in conditions of mind certainly productive of drunkenness and debauchery."'* those «

woes,' sorrows, contentions, The biographies of some of the most disand “babblings,” which form so fruitful a tinguished literary characters of this and of source of emolument to the legal profession. other countries present lamentable examples

V. Effects of intemperance on national of the direful effects of alcoholic liquors on intellect and education. The progress of the intellect. The national injury thus suseducation has been powerfully impeded by tained may be considered in a two-fold point the use of strong drink. This department of view, that is, in the first place, from the of our inquiry may be considered either in partial incapacity for mental labours which regard to its influence on the skill of a com- is thereby produced ; and secondly, the munity, or the obstacle which it presents to premature mortality of men whose mental intellectual and literary labours, and to exertions might otherwise have greatly scientific discovery.

benefitted their country. Lord Byron forms An intimate connexion subsists between a prominent example. Prior, according the brain and the mind. A healthy condition, to his biographer, was not free from the therefore, of this organ is an object of the charge of intemperance. Dr. King states, highest importance. It has been correctly that Pope hastened his end by drinking observed that we might as well expect good spirits. Pope remarks, that Parnell “ digestion with a diseased stomach, or good a great follower of drams, and strangely open music from a broken instrument, as a good and scandalous in his debaucheries.” All are mind with a disordered or enfeebled brain.* agreed that “he became a sot, and finished “It is a defective brain which makes the idiot, his existence.” Dryden, in his youthful and a diseased brain which causes delirium days, was conspicuous for sobriety, and insanity; and all the various states of for the last ten years of his life,” observes mind produced by alcohol, opium, &c., arise Dennis, “he was much acquainted with from the disordered action which these Addison, and drank with him even more articles produce in the brain.”+

than he ever used to do, probably so far as The mass of those who indulge in strong to hasten his end." “ Cowley's death,” drink will be found in general to be destitute remarks Pope, “ was occasioned by a mere of a liberal education. Habits of sensuality accident, whilst his great friend Dean Pratt, are necessarily incompatible with high in- was on a visit with him at Chertsey. They tellectual cultivation. In a previous division had been together to see a neighbour of of our enquiry it has been shown that the Cowley's, who (according to the fashion of use of intoxicating liquor deprives mankind the times,) made them too welcome. They to a considerable extent, of the desire as well did not set out on their walk home until it as the power to acquire knowledge, High was too late, and had drank so deep, that authority has described one of the effects of they lay out in the fields all night. This strong drink to be its extinction of aptitude gave Cowley the fever that carried him off.” for learning, and destruction of mental The immortal Shakspeare also fell a victim capacity and vigor. $

“ Shakspeare, Dr. South, an eminent divine, in his usual Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry quaint and forcible style, correctly remarks meeting, and, it seems, drank too hard, for that, “in the long run, it is impossible for a Shakspeare died of a feavour there conman to turn sot, without making himself a tracted."'t blockhead too.” “Time and luxury together," Burns, it is well known, fell a victim to inhe further observes, "will as certainly change temperance. In the commencement of the the inside, as it does the outside, of the best year 1796, he was afflicted with a severe heads whatsoever; and much more of such attack of the rheumatic fever. A few days heads as are strong for nothing but to bear after his convalescence, Lockhart informs us drink, concerning which it ever was, and is that “ he was so exccedingly imprudent as and will be a sure observation, that such to join a festive circle at a tavern dinner, as are ablest at the barrel are weakest at the where he remained until about three in the book."

66 but

to the same direful habit.

morning. The weather was severe, and he,

Sect. 1.

* Brigham on Mental Cultivation.
1 Ibid.
| Parl. Report, 1834, p. 4.

* Plutarch.
+ Diary of the Rev. John Ward, M.A., Vicar of
Stratford-upon-Avon.

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being much intoxicated, took no precaution Among other general conclusions which rein thus exposing his debilitated frame to its sulted from his inquiries were these:—“That influence. It has been said that he fell intemperance, which is very often the cause asleep upon the snow on his way home. It of loose education, is a most appalling source is certain that next morning he was sensible of crime,” and “ That by preventing intemof an icy numbness through his joints, that perance, and by promoting education, we are his rheumatism returned with three-fold authorized to believe that a considerable force upon him, and, from that unhappy diminution of crime would be effected." To hour, his mind brooded anxiously on the remove intemperance will tend very much to fatal issue." The life of this unhappy poet advance knowledge, and consequently to terminated in the following July.

diminish crime. Among other evidence A mere cursory investigation of this sub. collected by Dr. Lieber, and exhibiting the ject must convince every reflecting mind, close connexion between intemperance and what very great advantage would be derived ignorance and crime, are the following stain an intellectual point of view, from the tistics in relation to the prisons of several general adoption of the principle of total States in America. abstinence.

The use of stimulating liquors, not only Return of Mr. Wiltse, agent of Sing-Sing deprives mankind of intellectual advantages State Prison. in a personal point of view, but it diminishes the inclination for imparting knowledge to

There are at present 842 prisoners. others. Hence, the children of the intem-170 prisoners cannot read nor write. perate are in general badly educated. A 34

have never been at any kind of great amount of educational neglect may be

school. traced to intemperate parents, by which the

85

know how to read but not to intellectual progress of the rising generation

write. is considerably impeded; producing a corres- 510

know how to read and write, ponding defect in the aggregate of knowledge

but a large proportion of and intellectual acumen, with a proportionate

them do it very imperfectly. approximatlon to the miseries of barbarism. 42 received a good common EnThe limited patronage extended to literary

glish education. and scientific institutions in this country,

8

went through a college. may be adduced as additional evidence in 485

have been habitual drunkards ; proof of the effects of intoxicating liquors in

about one-third of the above impeding the progress of education. The

number actually committed sober and industrious mechanic in general

their respective crimes when devotes a portion of his earnings, not only,

intoxicated. to his own improvement, but to the intel.

Abstract of a Report from Rev. B. C. lectual advancement of his children. He is animated with the desire of elevating his Smith, chaplain of Auburn State Prison. family in tbeir condition in life, and his

The first statement refers to their cirefforts rarely fail of being attended with cumstances as to education. Number of success ; whereas ignorance, barbarism, vice, prisoners, six hundred and seventy. and brutality are, and ever have been, the Of collegiate education

3 uniform concomitants of sensuality and Of academical

8 drunkenness. If it is not literally true that Of common

204 “knowledge is power,” yet it is indisputable of very poor

267 that the powers of nature are either inert or Without any

188 unprofitably exerted, unless their operations be directed by its influence, and it is equally The next statement describes their habits certain, that education is the great source of in relation to the use of spirituous liquors. all useful information ; while temperance, Excessively intemperate 258 industry, and frugality, are the handmaids Moderately

245 of education. The want of education is undoubtedly a

Intemperate 503 fruitful source of intemperance. On the

Temperate drinkers 159 other hand, however, it must be admitted Total Abstinents

8 that intemperance is a still more powerful antagonist to education. Ignorance and in

670 temperance are in fact with respect to each other, interchangeable causes. Recent copious The statement that follows, relates to the statistics tend very much to elucidate this same prisoners, and enumerates various highly important subject of investigation. interesting particulars in reference to Dr. Francis Lieber, in a work entitled, number of subjects canvassed in the present “Remarks on the relation between Education and other Sections, such as the influence of and Crime," published at Philadelphia, in intemperance, on crime, sabbath-desecration, the United States, has collected with great religious instruction, domestic happiness, care some important statistical evidence. I &c., &c

.

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10,272 71,580 20,231

Under the influence of spirituous liquors

at the time of committing their crime

402 Had intemperate parents

257 Lostor left parents before 21 years of age 397

17

262 14

121 10

58 Had been in the Sunday school previous

to conviction
Had been habitual readers of the bible 25
Had committed the decalogue to memory 74
Had been strict observers of the

sabbath.
Unmarried
Lost wives by death, previous to con-

.. 31
Left wives previous to conviction 86—117
Living with wives when arrested...... 235
Living without wives when arrested .. 435
Children belonging to married convicts 953

1,307
4,113
3,225

Married

2,125
4,366
5,298

viction

699 1,688 1,673

326
356
319

Statement of Mr Pilsbury, warden of Connecticut State Prison. Number of convicts in the prison, 180.

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The proportion of eight in one hundred convicts, when they came to prison, could read, write, and cipher : 46 in 100 could read and write. 32 100 could read only. 22 ~ 100 could neither read nor write. 72 100 never learnt any trade. 24 100 began to learn, or learned, trades

which they did not follow.
4 ,, 100 have followed regular trades.
44 „, 100 committed their crimes while

under excitement, caused by the
use of ardent spirits.

222,550

This table was prepared
The following table presents a summary of an ingenious and useful document drawn up by Mr. Joseph Bentley, and the result of several years industrious
investigation. It exhibits the number of houses for the sale of intoxicating liquors, institutions and seminaries for the advancement of knowledge, and the
consequent comparative state of crime in England and Wales, compared with the population. For example, in the seventh and eighth columns, we find that in
England there is only one mechanics' institution to 102,812 individuals, while there is one ale-house to every 326 persons, and so on.
several years ago, but there is little doubt that it presents a fair average ofthe state of things in the present day.

perior

education.
One who One of su-
could read
and write

well.
One who
could read

or write

imperfectly
One offen-

der who
could nei-

ther read

nor write. One Person

for crime

annually. One Book One Public One Mecha- One Ale- committed

nics' Institu- house.

tion Library.

seller. One unen

dowed

School.
Inhabi- One endow-
Number of
tants to one ed School.

School.
Population

DRINK, EDUCATION, AND CRIME.

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100 ܕܝ

....

No convict was in the prison, who, before his conviction, could read and write, and who was of temperate habits, and followed a regular trade. Of the convicts who could read

and write, were temperat 2 in 100 Of those who could read, write,

and follow a trade .. 4, who had never been married ..........

64 who were married and followed a

trade 4, 100 who were

married, followed a trade, and

were temperate 0 who acknowledged them

selves to have been

habitual drunkards.. 75, 100
not natives of Connec-

40 ,, 100
deprived of their parents
before they were ten

years old ......... 32 ,, 100
deprived of their parents
before they were fifteen

357,900 445,100

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ticut.

Average for England
North Wales
South Wales

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15 ,, 100

years old

In Leeds, according to some valuable number of houses licensed for the sale of tables of education, made chiefly under the intoxicating liquors. An occasional grant superintendence of Mr. Councillor Baker, of £30,000 for educational purposes is of and published by the statistical committee little avail, when one hundred thousand of the town council, there are only six thou- establishments continually deal forth a sand three hundred and ninety-nine children poison which destroys reason, blunts the at school in all the day schools. The total intellect, and indisposes the mind to innumber of schools is one hundred and fifty-tellectual improvement. The temptations four. The number of schools where reading to indulge in the pleasures of sense, far and writing are taught is seventy-four. The exceed the inducements held forth for innumber of beer-houses is two hundred and tellectual cultivation. It is essential therethirty-five. Out of twenty-two thousand fore, that a radical change should be effected six hundred and seventy-one children of an in the drinking habits of the people, or the age to go to school, only six thousand seven advocates of education may in vain anticipate hundred and fifty-nine attend any day school, a successful termination of their zealous and and of these day schools less than one-half laborious efforts. teach writing and accounts. The council of VI. Effects of intemperance on freedom, the town inform us, that several thousands patriotism, national enterprize, and the of children are growing up entirely without transaction of public business.—The history the benefit of any kind of instruction.” of strong drink is inseparably connected “ If the schools are few and empty,” says with the decay of national freedom and the authority from whence these facts are patriotism. The ancient Greeks and Romans, quoted, “not so the beer-shops ; and it is until vitiated by luxurious habits, esteemed worthy of remark, that in the north and these virtues as the foundation of the comeast wards, where there are the smallest mon weal, and early instilled them into the number of children at school, there are the minds of their youth. The athletic exercises, largest number of beer-houses in proportion to which their young men were habituated, to the population.” In addition to the had a tendency, not only to inure the body two hundred and thirty-five beer-houses, to the vicissitudes of active life, but to exthere are two hundred and sixteen inns, pand and strengthen the moral capabilities; making four hundred and fifty-one places for while the rigid abstinence from all intoxi. the sale of intoxicating liquors, for a popula- cating liquors, which the laws of their games tion of eighty-two thousand persons, and enjoined on the candidates for victory, seventeen thousand eight hundred and thirty- accustomed them to habits of temperance on nine houses. There are also fifty-one public, other occasions. Dr. Gillies, speaking of the and forty-seven private houses, of ill-fame, gymnastic exercises of the Greeks remarks, besides two public gaming-houses.* These that the firm organization acquired by perfacts are but illustrative of the general state petual exercise, counteracted that fatal proof things in all our large towns. The duty pensity to vicious indulgence, too natural to on spirits, the consumption of which, as we their voluptuous climate, and produced those have already shown, is the most serious inimitable models of strength and beauty, hindrance to education, is increasing, yet so deservedly admired in the remains of the not more than a month from the time this was Grecian statuary. There is, he further written, the grant for educational purposes, observes, a courage depending on nerves was reduced from £30,000 to £15,000, or and blood, which was improved to the exactly one half.

highest pitch among the Greeks.* These interesting statistics demonstrate The development of the physical powers, the important truth, that ignorance is the formed an essential part of the education offspring of intemperance. The educational of their youth ; and history informs us, that efforts of the present day cannot but be limited when these ennobling exercises were abanin success, so long as the love of strong doned for effeminate and enervating pursuits, drink prevails to the present fearful extent. the virtue and independence of the ancient The removal of intemperance must precede republics sank into gradual decay. the universal extension of education. Gin- The influence of intoxicating liquors in shops and mechanics' institutions are anta- depressing the physical powers, has been gonistic powers. The amount of sensuality remarked both by ancient and modern and ignorance, poured forth in all directions writers. The Germans, once so celebrated by the one, far exceeds in its influence on for their warlike deeds, form a remarkable the mass, the light and information diffused example. _“Indulge their love of liquor,” by the other; and the various literary and observes Tacitus, “ to the excess which they scientific institutions, academies for the require, and you need not employ the terror advancement of knowledge, whether colle- of your arms; their own will subdue them.”+ giate or private, sunday schools of all deno- A modern writer, makes a similar observaminations for the instruction of youth, all tion in regard to the inhabitants of Ireland. of these combined, present a meagre and “ Were the Irish,” he remarks," allowed to lamentable display, compared with the vast indulge their taste for inebriety, their own

* Gillies' History of Greece, ch. vi. * Facts and Figures, p.p., 15, 16.

+ Tacitus, De Mori erm.

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vices would more effectually subdue them The dissipation into which the people of than centuries of war.

these mighty nations fell, engendered feel. The fierce and unruly passions created by ings of a selfish nature. The love of luxury the free use of strong drink would soon rend soon aborbed those ennobling virtues for the bonds of society, were not powerful which the Greeks and Romans had been counteracting causes in operation. Burke previously distinguished, and freedom and beautifully observes, that society cannot patriotism were sacrificed at the shrine of exist, unless a controlling power upon will personal gratification. The lives of Nero, and appetite be placed somewhere; and that Caligula, Domitian, and other Roman the less there is within, the more there must emperors, as well as of some monarchs of be without. It is ordained in the eternal the Greek empire, are illustrations in point. constitution of things, remarks that beautiful Sammonicus Severus relates a melancholy writer, that men of intemperate minds can- example of this national degeneration. “The not be free-their passions forge their Roman youths,” he observes, “would comfetters.

mit the most dreadful crimes in order to Most writers concur in opinion, that the have their palates gratified; and most of the free use of strong drink is incompatible with people would come drunk to the public national freedom ; indeed it cannot easily be assemblies, where they had to advise on imagined how a nation can enjoy genuine matters of great consequence to the state."'* liberty while submitting to the sway of so Diodorus, the Sicilian, remarks of the enslaving a custom. A people, remarks Tyrrhenians (the ancient inhabitants of Dr. Rush, corrupted by strong drink, cannot Tuscany) “that they were once a valiant long be a free people. The rulers of such a people; famed for arms, and for their naval community would soon partake of the vices power; but in his time much degenerated; and of that mass from which they were secreted, that having thrown off their former sobriety, and all their laws and governments would and betaken themselves to an idle, debauched sooner or later bear the same marks of life, in riot and drunkenness, it was no the effects of spirituous liquors which are wonder they had lost the honour and observed to be common to individuals. reputation their forefathers gained by war

The history of Greece and Rome pre- like achievements.”+ sents numerous remarkable examples of A modern writer, of considerable learning the effects of luxury on national prosperity, and research in reference to this subject, and the consequent decline of national virtue observes, that the vice of intemperance and patriotism. These nations were at the debases the genius and spirit of a nation ; highest period of their prosperity when those indisposes them to noble designs and generlaws, which had especial reference to tem- ous actions; and either softens them to an perance,

most strictly observed. effeminate indolence for the public welfare, Luxurious customs, however, were gradually or fires them to seditious tumults. I introduced, and in the first instance, un

The elections to British Parliament exfortunately patronised by individuals pos- hibit one of the most degrading features of sessing considerable influence in society; modern history. Individuals of great inwho either did not foresee, or who disregarded, tellectual acquirements, and high respectthe fatal effects which would inevitably ability in life, candidates for the honourable result from their imprudence. The few office of senators, have been known openly wise and upright characters who strenuously and unblushingly to tamper with the freeopposed the introduction of them, as cal- dom of electors, by inducing them to indulge in culated to lead to general corruption of sensual temptations, and it is a fact of unquesmorals, and consequently to national ruin, tionable notoriety that many of our modern were treated with contempt, and regarded legislators have obtained their seats in the as ascetics. The laws, which had contributed legislature by means of the drunkenness of so greatly to their national prosperity, be- their constituents. At these times, some of came less regarded and less rigorously en- the most populous and influential towns in forced. This circumstance indeed will excite the United Kingdom, exhibit a large prolittle surprise, when it is known that the portion of their inbabitants, more or less magistrates themselves infringed upon the under the influence of intoxicating liquors ; very laws they were appointed to execute. and not unfrequently riots, destruction of Athenæus relates that one Demetrius being property, and loss of lives, are the unhappy censured by the Areopagites as a loose liver, results. These practices, unfortunately for plainly told those magistrates, that if they society, are but too general in their occurdesired to make a reformation in the city, rence, and are equally subversive of indivithey must begin at home ; for that even dual independence and national prosperity. amongst them there were persons as bad livers as himself, and even worse. I

were

* Siquidem eo res redierat, ut gula illecti plerique

ingenui Pueri, Pudicitiam et Libertatem suam * State of Ireland, Past and Present, by J. W. madidi in Comitium venirent et ebrii de Reipublicæ

venditarent: plerique ex plebe Romano Croker, 1808, p. 31.

salute consulerent. † Dr. Rush's Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits.

+ Diod. Siculus, b. 5.

I Disney's Ancient Laws against Immorality, f Athenaus, Δειπνοσοφ.

vino

p. 258.

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