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judge referred to the maddening use of are open, at which intoxicating liquors are ardent spirits as the cause.

vended, and musical attractions are provided Twenty-two persons at Cork, and seven- for the entertainment of the visitors. Several teen at Limerick, were confined for dreadful thousand individuals commonly frequent one murders, in March, 1836, all occasioned by of these in London, and crowds of the sons drinking. In 1764 the Irish House of and daughters of dissipation visit those in the Commons state, that “ many murders which neighbourhood of our provincial towns. of late have been committed, are to be Three hundred individuals have been known attributed to the excessive consumption of to enter one gin-shop in the metropolis in ardent spirits." R. G. White, Esq. states, one hour, on a Sunday morning. Many that of twenty-two persons whose execution public-houses, in particular those of a low he attended, in his capacity of high sheriff, description, secretly and in defiance of the (of Dublin,) every one declared, “that law, harbour thieves, and prostitutes, and drunkenness, and the breach of the sabbath, gamblers, during even the hours of divine had brought them to that end."*

worship; and even when such is not the case, In America we find the same awful results hundreds and thousands of drunkards issue of intoxication. It appears from accurate forth at the sound of the church bell, to calculations, that the use of alcoholic drinks blaspheme their Maker, to disturb the quiet produces on the average, more than two and devotion of the sober and religious by murders every week. Judge Dagget, in his their revelrous conduct, and often by their remarks previous to pronouncing sentence indecent acts, and still more indecent exof death on Sherman, the man who murdered pressions, to render the passage to the house his wife and child, said, that during the last of God a matter of anxiety and danger. five years, he had witnessed ten trials for The traffic in strong drink occasions gross life, and in eight of these, the acts done neglect of sabbath duties in various other were the immediate consequence of drunk- ways. The Saturday evening's debauch not endess."

Another judge says, "of eleven only dissipates the hard-earned wages of the murders tried by me, all except one were working man, but incapacitates him, both occasioned by strong drink.' A third spiritually and physically, for the more remarks, of “eleven murders tried by me, all exalted duties of the coming day. The were occasioned by intemperance.” A drunkard is usually in bed, enervated and fourth, “ of twenty murders prosecuted by stupid, at the hour when the sober artizan by me, all were occasioned by spirituous with his well-clad family, is bending his way to liquors." And a fifth affirms this appalling the temple of God. gain ; the improvidence fact, “ of more than two hundred murders of the drunkard not only prevents himself committed in the United States in a year, from being well clad, but denies his wife nearly all have their origin in drinking.” and children that suitable apparel which is

Such are the dreadful effects of the traffic necessary for their decent appearance at the in strong drink, a system countenanced and house of worship. By this means great perpetuated by the legislatures both of this numbers of individuals are deprived of country and the United States.

spiritual information and assistance, and The effects of intemperance in the pro- ignorance, and indifference to religious duction of disorder and crime in the army exercises prevails throughout the land. and navy, will be considered in that division The nature of the malting system necesof the present Section, which relates to its sarily causes no trifling degree of desecration influence on affairs of public or national of the sabbath. Due attention to this importance.

process requires attendance on the Lord's 4. Intemperance, sabbath-breaking and day as well as on other days, and the great other profanities.--Drunkenness, beyond all number of hands employed for this purpose, doubt, is the chief source of sabbath desecra- (calculated to be not less than forty thoution. The sabbaths of Christian Britain, in sand individuals in Great Britain) are large towns, often exhibit a greater amount prevented, for a portion of the day at of intemperate indulgence, than is witnessed least, from attendance at their places of on any other day in the week. Tens of thou- worship. This result of the traffic has not sands devote the day peculiarly set apart for hitherto received that consideration from the the worship of the Lord, to the service religious public which it eminently deserves. of Bacchus; and scenes of boisterous revelry, Banish strong drink from the community, and licentious indulgence, are com- and you remove the great cause of sabbath monly witnessed during the evenings, in profanation. particular, of the first day of the week. Mr. Poynder, in relation to the neglect It is probable, if not certain, that many of religion and its duties, as induced by inhundred thousands of persons in the metro- temperance, remarks,“ drinking induces polis and its suburbs alone, during the contempt of the law of God, especially the sabbath, spend their time in gin-shops or appointment of the sabbath ; hatred of the public-houses. In the out districts of most law of man, as imposing perpetual restraint of our large towns, numerous tea-gardens upon crime, and neglect of the public in* Parl. Evid. p. 266.

stitutions of religion, as hostile to a systent † Fourth Report American Temp. Society, 1831. (of sensual indulgence, against which these



institutions bear constant testimony. Drink-That this dreadful energy of evil may not ing furnishes incessant temptation to the fag from exhaustion, it is plied and fed breach of the whole divine decalogue, and with three millions' worth of spirituous to the violation of all human laws. It is liquors annually; twenty-three thousand connected with, and subsists by, a system are annually found helplessly drunk in the which is as opposite to the requisitions of streets ; above one hundred and fifty thou. christianity, as error is opposed to truth, or sand are habitual gin drinkers; and about light to darkness."'*

the same number of both sexes have aban. Mr. W. Collins affirms, that in the large doned themselves to systematic debauchery towns of Scotland there is in many places, and profligacy." double the drunkenness on the sabbath than Not less than thirty thousand individuals, any other day, as the police offices testify.t in a state of drunkenness, are taken into

A petition to the House of Commons, custody every year in the metropolis, in from the lord mayor, sheriffs, commons, and addition to eight thousand five hundred and citizens of Dublin, in 1834, states, “ that a sixty cases, nine-tenths of which originate in large proportion of the vice and immorality or about the doors of public-houses.* which so generally prevail, originates in Colonel Charles Rowan, commissioner of public-houses and grocers shops, being the new police, states, that the numbers open for the sale of spirits and other liquors taken into custody for drunkenness, form but on the sabbath.”I

a small portion, not half, not indeed a third, Mr. Hartley states, that in London, on of the whole cases. The police do not inSunday, “the public-houses are occupied by terfere with any person who is not disorderly guests and tipplers, in such a manner as to or capable of getting home, even with a be a disgrace to a Christian country.” little of their assistance. So that if thirty

Last Sunday morning, says a gentleman in thousand persons were taken into custody his examination before a Committee of the for drunkenness, in one year, the presumption House of Commons, I had occasion to walk would be, that there were sixty thousand through the Broadway; at a few minutes cases with which they did not interfere.t before eleven o'clock, I found the pavement The officers of police state, that more than before every gin-shop crowded ; just as fifty thousand individuals are seen annually church time approached, the gin-shops sent in the streets of Liverpool, in a state of forth their multitudes, swearing, and fight-gross intoxication. I ing, and bawling obscenely; some were

In Ireland and Scotland we find the same stretched on the pavement insensibly drunk, evidence of demoralization, in particular in while at every few steps the footway was taken the large towns. Moderate calculations up by drunken wretches being dragged to show, that there are in the United Kingdom, the station-house by the police.-Every not less than five hundred thousand habitual decent person was compelled to walk in drunkards, which in fact, comprehends the road, so that it was physically as well as a portion only of the actual number morally dangerous for decent persons to of cases. The consequences as described come into contact with a scene of that above, are profaneness, crime, and a state of description, in the way they must go to morals utterly destructive of order, peace, approach the Broadway church, and it was and religion. impossible to get at that church without 5. Intemperance and prostitution. The passing through a scene of this horrid use of strong drink inflames the passions, description.ll These disgusting exhibitions obscures the intellect, and sears the contake place every sabbath in Christian Britain. science. We cannot therefore feel surprised,

The streets of our large towns in parti- that under its inflaming influence, reason cular, daily exhibit other gross immoralities, loses its power, and the admonitions of conthe effects of intemperance, such as riots science cease to produce their proper effects. and disorders, indecent acts and language, Investigations show that indulgence in strong and profane imprecations. Let the reader drink, is the chief source of prostitution. reflect for a few moments on the following The toast of an aged and influential distiller picture of the state of morals in London, by in England, some years ago, at a public the Rev. Dr. Harris, author of “Mammon.” dinner of the trade, was strongly expressed --"Twelve thousand children are always and correct, The distillers best friends training in crime, graduating in vice, to the poor whores of London.”'|| reinforce and perpetuate the great system of “The same truth,” says Professor Edgar, iniquity; three thousand persons are receivers “holds good in Ireland. Many of our of stolen property, speculators and dealers spirit-shops are of the basest character, in human depravity; four thousand are night-houses, houses of assignation, the annually committed for criminal offences ; nurseries of prostitution and crime.§ ten thousand are addicted to gambling ; Mr. Poynder observes, that “with regard above twenty thousand to beggary. Thirty to the extensive mischief of drinking among thousand are living by theft and fraud. females, there is little doubt, that to this * Parl. Evid., Appendix, p. 423.


* Parl. Evid. p. 116. + Parl. Evid. p. 147.

+ Ibid. p. 26 1 Ibid p. 382. 1 Ibid. p. 270. $ Ibid. p. 123. || Ibid. p. 277. || Parl. Rep., Appendix, p. 428.

$ Ibid.

source must be ascribed most of the evils of husband, and the policeman was under the prostitution. To the effects of liquor, necessity of locking them both up, to restore multitudes of that sex must refer, both their the quiet of the neighbourhood. The man first deviation from virtue and their sub- was perfectly sober. On investigation it sequent continuance in vice. Most of the was found, that the parties had been married unhappy women, who lead a life of con- thirteen years, during twelve of which no tinued profligacy, live more or less under wife could ever prove a greater blessing to the constant influence of spirituous liquors ; her husband-all was harmony and bliss, perhaps it would be impossible for them, the male defendant, as the papers state, without that aid, to continue such a life, or being a steady man, and able to appreciate to endure the scenes which they are called and foster the gentleness and fondness of to witness.'*

his partner. About a twelvemonth back, The Rev. David Ruell, chaplain of the however, the sudden change took place, new prison, Clerkenwell, and formerly to which terminated in her then degraded the house of correction, Cold Bath Fields, situation. A gossipping neighbour, on one for a period of not less than thirty years, occasion, tempted her to enter a gin-palace. and whose opportunites of investigation This was the cause of a second visit, when must therefore have been extensive, remarks, she became inebriated, and in that state her “Drunkenness is the very element in which seduction was effected, since which period, thieving and prostitution live ; for such is she has wandered about the streets a drunk. the wretchedness of mind which those vices ard and a prostitute. Her husband had usually produce, that it becomes the only done every thing in his power to reclaim means of driving away painful reflections.”+ her from her abandoned career, but hitherto

Mr. George Wilson, of London, one of his efforts had proved ineffectual. She had the overseers in the parish of St. Margaret's, not only refused all offers of support in an Westminister, and also one of the governors appropriate asylum, but had for many weeks of the poor, states as follows :-" When past daily beset him in the streets and at unfortunate females have applied for pa- his employers, and nothing but inevitable rochial assistance, or being pregnant, have ruin now stared him in the face. applied for admission into the workhouse, I Such is a brief history of thousands of have invariably, in the presence of the similar unfortunate cases. Indeed it would matron, inquired into the causes which led be difficult to find many instances of prostito their wretchedness; and I think I may tution, in which strong drink had not been say almost, if not always, they have attri- employed as an agent to inflame the passions, buted it to the excitement of liquor, being and to excite the imagination. In most of taken out by their companions in those hours our large towns, on Sunday evenings in that were devoted to their relaxation, or particular, the public-houses are provided their attending a place of worship, and with all kinds of sensual attractions, such as taken to a public-house; there the company painting and music, and are usually literally and the excitement of spirits have thrown crammed with young persons of both sexes. them off their guard, and they have dated The consequences are awful in the extreme. their first ruin to that, I think, almost From the official tables of population for invariably. I

1830, we ascertain that there were born Again, the same gentleman remarks,“the during that year, in England and Wales, poor wretched girls who live by prostitution, not less than eighteen thousand six hundred and who are the best customers to the gin- illegitimate children. It is probable that if shops, die off in about four years ; four or five all such cases were known, the number in generations have passed away during the the United Kingdom would not be less than time I have lived there: those who had thirty thousand every year. In London become so notorious in the neighbourhood, alone, we are told that there are at least as to attract especial observation, we have eighty thousand prostitutes, all of them seen quickly become bloated and die; two steeped in degradation of the deepest kind, or three may be found in the workhouse, and most of them continually under the inwho, from medical assistance, regular diet, fluence of strong drink. These are awful &c., are still living monuments of their facts, but no less awful than true. Is it not depravity, but blotched and diseased. || time, therefore, for Christians to bestir These unfortunate creatures were at the com- themselves, and to banish from their homes mencement of their career, “in robust health, and sanction, that cup which produces and blooming healthy girls, and well-clad."

perpetuates a system, no less abhorrent in A melancholy, but instructive case of in- its nature than pernicious in its effects. temperance and prostitution, came under Bisset Hawkins, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., in an the cognizance of the magistrate at the police article entitled “ Contributions towards the office Hatton Garden, London, May, 1841. Moral Statistics of Manchester,'' acquaints A man and his wife were charged with us with the following particulars, illustrative creating a disturbance in the public streets. of the subject under consideration. In the The female was drunk and beating her year 1833, there existed in the township of

Manchester, one hundred and seventy-eight * Parl. Evid., Appendix, p. 418. 1 Ibid. p. 307. I Ibid. p. 278. || Ibid. p. 275.

houses of ill-fame, inhabited by seven hundred and eighteen females, who supported average estimate it will be found that ten themselves, altogether, by prostitution, with thousand females are taken to the police the exception of forty of that number, who offices of the metropolis every year in a state occasionally applied themselves to business. of gross intoxication. According to the Out of seventy, who were separately interro. Metropolitan Police Report for the year gated upon this point, fifty-four admitted 1833, the number apprehended for drunkenthat they had worked in factories, and no ness was, males, eighteen thousand two less than one-half of those questioned, were hundred and sixty-eight, females, eleven quite drunk at the time when this investi- thousand six hundred and twelve, besides gation took place, viz., at ten o'clock on a eight thousand five hundred and sixty apSunday morning, in the month of June. The prehended for disorderly conduct in the ages of these unhappy creatures varied streets, (nine-tenths of which originated in considerably; thirteen years was the lowest or about the doors of public-houses) of which mentioned, and four-fifths of the whole seven number there were three thousand three hundred and eighteen were between the ages hundred and eighty-two males, and five of thirteen and twenty. The number of thousand one hundred and seventy-eight public-houses where prostitutes were allowed females.* to assemble, was forty-one. No less than One of the boroughreeves of Manchester, fifty-five retail-brewers permitted dissolute during the period of his office, took the characters to congregate upon their pre- aggregate number of persons who entered a mises."* The author is convinced that this well-accustomed dram-shop in that town in state of things, bad as it may appear, does the course of five minutes, for eight Saturday not represent the actual condition of the evenings. The result of this personal intown. From his own investigations, as a vestigation was, that the aggregate of the medical man, as well as from inquiries from eight times (that is to say, in forty minutes) others, he does not hesitate to affirm that was one hundred and twelve men, and one three-fourths of the loathsome disease which hundred and sixty-three women, being at results from this unhallowed system, is the the rate of four hundred and twelve per hour. consequence of criminal indulgence either in The time of calculation was varied from an actual state of intoxication, or when the seven to ten o'clock, so that it gave a fair passions are roused by more or less vinous specimen of the general run of business for excitement. It is horrible to reflect on the the evening.f In Edinburgh, in the course extent of this disgusting disease. It is a of one week, there were brought to the subject, however, known only to its guilty vic- police office, one hundred and ninety-two tims and to professional men, and one too on males and females in a state of riotous in. which it would be improper to dilate in a toxication. I During another week ninety-one work intended for popular circulation. males and one hundred and thirty females

The vast number of females who frequent were brought to the different police watchthe gin-shop, in the present day, renders houses intoxicated with whiskey.ll In the this lamentable state of things a matter of course of a third week, in the same city, less surprise. The Rev. David Ruell states seventy-one men, one hundred and thirtythat there entered, in one week, into fourteen three women, one boy, and one girl, from of the more prominent gin-shops of the four to eight years of age were brought to metropolis, no less than one hundred and the police watch-houses in a similar disforty-two thousand four hundred and fifty- graceful condition. § Statistics of female three men, one hundred and eight thousand intemperance, in Ireland, also might be five hundred and ninety-three women, and adduced at considerable length. It is a eighteen thousand three hundred and ninety- lamentable fact that female intemperance is one children; the women and children united a strong characteristic of the present age. nearly equalling the men, and “surpassing Nor is this intemperance altogether confined them in the grossness and depravity of their to the operative classes, as evidence from demeanour;" making a grand total of no those who are well acquainted with the facts less than two hundred and sixty-nine thousand testifies. The consequences of this awful fory hundred and thirty-eight.f Probably, extent of intemperance among females, it is the number of cases of females entering gin-almost impossible to depict, whether as it shops and public-houses, in the metropolis, concerns its effects on domestic life, or its for the purpose of obtaining liquor, would, results on the physical as well as moral conif accurately ascertained, amount not to tens dition of their unfortunate offspring, and of thousands only, but to hundreds of thou- consequently its influence on the rising sands every year. Colonel Charles Rowan, generation. Commissioner of the New Police, states that 6. Intemperance and litigation. The of the number of persons taken into custody connexion between intemperance and litiga. for drunkenness, the proportion is two-thirds tion is no less intimate and powerful than of males to females. I If we take this as an

* Ibid. p. 116. * Proceedings of the Statistical Society of London, + Ibid. p. 52. vol. 1. p. 39.

1 Edinburgh Weekly Journal. October 14, 1829. + Parl. Evid. p. 396.

|| Caledonian Mercury. October 26th, 1829. 1 Ibid. p. 25.

§ Ibid, November 5th, 1829.

the relation which exists between drunken- | In the above States in three years, as near as ness and crime. It is ascertained that a vast Mr. Howard could recollect there were sixty proportion of litigation has its origin in acts of suits of petit larceny, and assault and battery. folly and disorder committed under the h 1831, twenty-five suits. In 1832, fiftyexcitement of drink. Recent investigations four suits. In 1833, twenty-five suits up to on this point are strong and conclusive. the 1st of November, 1833. “In all the

A legal gentleman, not a member of the above cases of assault and battery,” adds Temperance Society, makes the following Mr. Howard, “one or both of the parties, statements._"I am an attorney, and have, according to the best of my recollection, of course, much intercourse with the labour- were more or less intoxicated." ing classes of my neighbourhood. I have Upon this subject much light is thrown taken, indiscriminately, one hundred names in one of a series of Essays published some of persons to whom I have had to apply years ago, and addressed to the citizens of professionally for payment of debts owing Chittenden, County Vermont. The New by them. In order that there could be no York Observer states that a member of the possible leaning on my side, for the purpose bar, whose acquaintance with the law business of making out a case,' I have taken the of the county, had for several years, been last hundred in my books, in succession, as extensive, assisted in preparing these Essays, they were given to me, and I find the result and the calculations are therefore probably of an examination into the causes which led as accurate as the nature of the case will to their being put to the attorney,' to be admit.* The population of the county in as follows :-six only because they would 1820, was about sixteen thousand. not pay (of whom three are drunkards)- The Essay in question states intemperance twenty-two reduced by sickness or want of to be the moving cause of litigation. At the employment, or who disputed the accounts period it was written there were commonly rendered - thirty-one with whom I am not five hundred county court suits commenced sufficiently acquainted to know the cause in a year in that county, and perhaps five and the remaining forty-one who to sheer thousand justice suits. To an individual arunkenness alone owe their poverty, and unacquainted with any thing relative to the the disgrace of being in an attorney's hands, cases, but the names of the parties, who whilst receiving wages amply sufficient to were often temperate men,

it would seem, keep them in a decent and respectable says the writer of the Essay, "extravagant to manner, and owing no man anything.' assert, that four-fifths of these suits were Out of the forty-one, too, twenty of the occasioned directly, or indirectly, by intemaccounts, are actually for ale-shots! I know perance. But,” he adds, “ bold as the the wives of several of these forty-one in- assertion may appear, a careful examination dividuals, and, with two exceptions, they has convinced us that it is true.” After are careful, managing, good wives, and if entering into some particulars to substantiate the husbands did their duty, would soon this statement, the writer states that in have comfortable tidy families, and a store those cases where creditors think it necessary in hand."

to attach the property of the debtor, the "Thus,” remarks this gentleman, "forty- defendants are almost universally men of one parts out of one hundred at least, of the intemperate habits, and an attachment of the poverty of the individuals who have come property of a temperate man is almost ununder my observation, are entirely caused known. The drunkard only is subject to by these individuals themselves, and there have the property he has acquired, and the fore might easily be removed by them.--If means of acquiring more, swept from him by from the thirty-one cases with which I am not the grasp of the law. The drunkard only is fully acquainted, were culled, the number obliged to ransack the county to procure whose distresses are to be attributed to intem- bail, and is at last committed to prison perance, no doubt the forty-one could be con- because he can find no person with sufficient siderably increased. I think it will not be un-confidence to become his surety. fair to proportion them as the other sixty-nine The court and counsel fees, and loss of proportion themselves. Thus we shall add time on both sides, and the sacrifice on forced eighteen to the forty-one, making a total of sales of property, made the actual average fifty-nine, considerably more than one-half ; expense of county law suits to be not less fifty-nine out of one hundred, whose distress, than one hundred dollars. The expense of with that of their wives and families, is entirely justice suits was not less than five dollars. to be attributed to their intemperance."'* This made an expenditure of seventy-five The following statement drawn up by Nathan thousand dollars per annum, a very large Howard, Esq., of Stephentown, New York, proportion of which was to be charged to the Justice of Peace, contains the number of account of intemperance.” The Essay conlaw suits that came before him during a cludes by stating that if these estimates of specified period.

the expenses of law suits, and of the proportion In 1816, 347 suits, 40 of them in January. ofthem occasioned by intemperance becorrect, s, 1817, 323 49

it causes an annual expenditure of sixty thou1818, 252 50

sand dollars in law suits. Deduct ten Moral Reformer, vol iii. p. 352, 1833.

* New York Observer, June 6th, 1829.



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