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one hundred and sixty-nine persons who had In the second report of the inspector of passed through the office in ten months, prisons, Scotland, it is stated, in reference seven hundred and fifty-two, or more than to crime in Clackmannanshire, “there apone-third of the whole number, were for pears to have been a great increase in the drunkenness and assault. He further gives number of petty thefts and assaults in this it as his opinion that, as far as his experience county, during the last twenty years, even went, criminal offences were generally trace- after allowing for the increase of population; able to intemperance.

and there does not appear any corresponding Simple larcenies, felonies, and common decrease in the number of other offences. assaults,remarks Sir Richard Birnie, the The increase that has taken place is attri. chief magistrate of police, in 1828, “ have buted to an increase of drunkenness, which increased to a very great degree; burglaries is believed to have been caused by the have also increased. I attribute this to in. cheapening of whiskey. Most of the offences creased population, want of employment, are committed by young persons, between and, though last, not least, cheap spirits. the ages of ten and twenty. Almost all the I am afraid that depraved character creates assaults arise from drunkenness, and many the greater number of crimes more than of the thefts proceed from the same source, mere want of employment. A great deal is whiskey being often the very article stolen ; owing to drunkenness, that every human and when not, the means of procuring being must observe in the streets, since gin whiskey is often the object in view. Much is so cheap. In the next licensing bill of the poaching also, may be traced to bope it will be looked to."

drunkenness, which has so much increased Mr. Baron Gurney, in his charge to the of late years." grand jury, at the Chester assizes, remarked, The following extract is from Mr. Hill's “Crime would be diminished, if that one Law Report on Prison Discipline of Scotland, vice of drunkenness could be suppressed. recently published :-"Of all immediate In a county next adjoining to this, it was causes of crime and offences in Scotland, my pain to observe that in one of the blackest drunkenness is by far the most potent. A calendars I have ever seen, not less than considerable portion even of the thefts are one-third of the crimes were to be ascribed committed under the excitement of whiskey. to the influence of intoxication."

and the desire of obtaining this liquor is the At a recent York spring assizes, Baron cause of many others. And again, the Alderson observed, “if they took away from means of committing a robbery are often the calendar all those cases, in which afforded by intoxication in the person robbed. Jrunkenness had some connexion, either This is particularly the case with thefts by with the person accused, or the accusing prostitutes-a numerous class of thefts, and party, it would leave that large calendar a one including robberies of large sums of very small one." On another occasion the money. As for assaults, they almost in. same judge said, that “if all men could be variably spring from drunkenness. On my dissuaded from the use of intoxicating liquors, inquiring of Mr. Henderson, the Procuratorhis office, and that of the other judges, would Fiscal for Caithness--a county abounding in be a sinecure."

assaults-on this point, his expressive reply At the assizes held in Liverpool, 1837, was, “Sir, I never knew a sober assault.'" there were between sixty and seventy Captain Wilson, superintendent of the prisoners in the calendar, all of whom, Glasgow police, states, that, at least twoexcept three or four, were committed for thirds of the cases brought into that court crimes arising from drunkenness. Four arise from intemperance. Baillie Paul, chief men were convicted on one day, of having magistrate of Gorbals, (Glasgow) affirms killed their wives, each of the women being that the criminals brought before him were at the time in a state of intoxication. Three nearly all drunken cases, and that a large were sentenced to be transported for life, proportion, more than three fourths every and to work in chains; and the fourth to be day, arose from drunkenness. imprisoned four years. In passing sentence, The history of distillation in Ireland the learned judge (Alderson) alluded to the presents similar effects. great number of cases arising from drunk- During part of the year's 1808, 1809, and

He hoped that all present would 1810, a prohibition to the use of corn in take warning from the example of the distillation took place, and the consequence unhappy men, and that they would resolve, was a diminution in its consumption, and a from that moment to the end of their lives, visible improvement in the morals of the to abstain from all intoxicating liquors. people. In 1810, the prohibition being

The judge presiding at the Glasgow circuit, removed, an increased consumption of not many years ago, declared, that all the whiskey took place, and disorder and riots cases which had come before him had their again became frequent. origin in the use of ardent spirits. А The following Report of the police offices similar declaration was made at one of the in Dublin, for four years, in two of which circuits at Perth.*

enness.

the distillation of spirits from corn was again

prohibited, will present this in a * Rep. Scottish Temp. Soc. p. 21, 1831.

forcible light.

more

1814..

Years.
No. of prisoners.

commission of the crimes, three hundred and 1811.. 10,737

forty-six. 1812. 9,908 Distillation

In 1833, there were confined in New York 1813 8,985 prohibited.

state jail, nine thousand eight hundred and 10,249

forty-nine persons. An equal number, in

proportion to the population, would make in Thus reducing the number of criminal cases the United States, about eighty thousand. nearly one-fifth, although it took place in a Nearly the whole of them drank habitually time of great distress from poverty, and of this poison, and a great majority of them, when it might be expected that much in- more or less often, even to drunkenness. subordination would have been displayed.*

Out of one thousand and sixty-one cases The keeper of a large house of correction of criminal prosecutions in the year 1820 in Ireland, stated to Professor Edgar his before the court of sessions, in the city of conviction, founded upon long experience, New York, more than eight hundred are both in the army and police, that four-fifths stated to have been connected with intemof persons confined for crimes in gaols, have

perance. been led forward, and hardened into crime,

The keeper of the Ogdensburg (New York) by the use of spirituous liquors.

jail, states that seven-eighths of the criminals, A barrister, who, some time ago, tried and three-fourths of the debtors, confined in one thousand seven hundred civil bill cases that prison, were intemperate persons. in a fortnight, states it as his opinion, that the

The following statement is made from whole of them, either directly or indirectly, “ Documents relating to the Massachusetts were attributable to the use of spirituous State Prison,” and presented at the last liquors.

session of the legislature of that state. Archibald Wilson, Esq., governor of Mary- Addicted to habits of intemperance, one borough jail, states that nineteen-twentieths hundred and fifty-six : ascribe their imof crime is caused by intemperance. prisonment to intemperate drinking, one

Mr. Barrow, sheriff of Cork, states, that hundred and twenty-two: state that their one thousand five hundred persons had come parents were in the habit of giving them under his notice in the five months be had ardent spirits, when children, one hundred been in office, every one of whose crimes and sixteen : parents, one or both intemwere occasioned by drinking.

perate, fifty-four. This was the result of Mr. T. Purdon, governor of the Richmond enquiry made of two hundred and twenty Bridewell, declared in 1839, that “ since the convicts. 9th month, last year, there had been com

The grand jury of Suffolk county, in their mitted by the magistrates for riots, and con- presentment, 1834, state, “during the disfined in a new part of the prison, erected for charge of their duty, it has become apparent the purpose, not fewer than two thousand that the great source of most of the crime persons, of whom 1870 (for be had kept an which has come under their observation may accurate account) were punished for crimes be traced, directly or indirectly, to an experpetrated in fits of drunkenness."

cessive use of ardent spirits." A Roman Catholic clergyman, who, some The keeper of the Ohio penitentiary, in years ago, resided among the convicts in our his report to the legislature of that state, penal settlements, in a work recently publish: December, 1829, says that, of the one huned, entitled, “ Horrors of Transportation,” dred and thirty-four prisoners under his care, expresses himself as follows :-: Were I thirty-six only claimed to be temperate men. asked what, next to the convict's ignorance

The sheriff of Washington county, states of the horrors of the state on which he was that out of twenty-four committals, twentyabout to enter, was the chief cause of trans- one were caused by intemperance. portation ? I should reply, intemperance.

In Litchfield county, Connecticut, the Were I asked a second time, I should answer, proportion of criminals who are intemperate intemperance. And were I asked the third is thirty-five out of thirty-nine. time, I should still answer, intemperance ; T. 0. Cole, Esq., police justice of Albany, and so on, as often as the question was put New York, states, that two thousand five to me."

hundred persons came under his cognizance The results of statistical investigations in in one year, and that ninety-six in a hundred the United States are equally strong and of the offences were occasioned by intem. conclusive.

perance. The report of the state prison, at Auburn,

Mr. Badlam, who was long master of the New York, contains the following calculation, house of correction, in Boston, says of its during a recent period, for the space of one inmates, that “three-fourths were habitual year, having reference to the " former cha: drunkards, and the remainder mostly intemracter and habits of the convicts.”—Total

perate.” number of convicts in prison, six hundred

Mr. Robbins, assistant master of the same and forty-six : number ascertained to be place, says that, of five thousand six hundred under the influence of liquor, during the and eleven persons, who were there," with

very slight exceptions, all were intemperate." * Return's from the head office of police, Dublin' ) Another account informs us, that of six

or

hundred and fifty-three committed to the Intoxicated when they committed same house in one year, four hundred and crimes

448 fifty-three were drunkards.

Had intemperate parents In the annual report of Dr. Bache, phy- guardians .

283 sician to the eastern State penitentiary, to Similar tables will be found in that portion the inspectors of the institution, we have of this section which relates to intemperance the following important statement :

and education. “ The physician has found that out of The abstract returns of persons confined fifty-eight prisoners, received up to this time, in jails and houses of correction, in the thirty-four, or nearly two-thirds, acknowledge State of Massachusetts, state, that in 1835 themselves to have been either habitually or the number confined for debt and for crimes occasionally intemperate. This fact shows was 1,234, of which number, 262 were the close connexion which subsists between temperate, and 963 intemperate. the vice of drunkenness and the commission The following is a summary of Mr. Chipof crime.

man's visit to the jails and poor houses of the It appears from the report of the trustees state of New York, in 1833, (excepting the of an alms-house, that of the nine hundred city and county) for the purpose of ascerand ninety-two adults received into that taining the connexion between intemperance, institution the last year, (1831) not less pauperism, and crime. Whole number comthan seven hundred and ninety-four were mitted to the county jail,-intemperate, three ascertained to be habitually intemperate ; thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight; and that of one hundred and forty-two chil- doubtful, one thousand and three; temperate, dren born or admitted in the same time, one one thousand one hundred and fifty-eight. hundred and fifteen, at least, were brought to Paupers in the poor house,--by intemperance destitution by the drunken habits of their of themselves and others, five thousand eight parents,

hundred and seventy-four; doubtful, one Of fifty-seven convicts in the Connecticut thousand four hundred and two; temperate, prison, the year preceding April, 1837, forty- one thousand one hundred and fifty-eight. two were intemperate, the expense of whose County tax levied in 1833.—Whole amount, apprehension and conviction exceeded the four hundred and ninety-five million four sum of three thousand six hundred dollars. hundred and thirty-six thousand and fifty

Recent investigations in Kentucky, show dollars; for the support of paupers, and the that there are in that State twelve hundred detection and punishment of criminals, three licenses, granted by the county courts, and by hundred and sixty-three millions three hun. the corporations of towns and cities, and dred and eighty-six thousand and seventy two thousand four hundred places where dollars. Committed to jail for whipping spirituous liquors are retailed without license; their wives and abusing their families, in making altogether three thousand six hun- 1833, three hundred and eighty-nine. dred places, or one grog-shop to every two The number of juvenile delinquents from hundred inhabitants, and the whole amount intemperance, and the influence of parental paid annually to these retailers of intoxicating example on children, is a subject of paradrinks, exceeds two million dollars. The mount importance. The following statement result of this state of things is, Kentucky has of N. C. Hart, superintendent of the House twenty-thousand drunkards, or six to every of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents, New grog-shop, and one to every thirty-five in York, will best illustrate this subject. Of habitants. Three thousand six hundred one hundred and fifty-four delinquents comcrimes of various magnitudes, are annually mitted to the House of Refuge last year, prosecuted, of which from two thousand two eighty-five were foreigners, or children of hundred and fifty, to two thousand seven foreigners, and the remaining sixty-nine are hundred, are chargeable to intemperance. of American parentage. Five hundred paupers are also supported at Character of the parents of children a public expence of twenty-five thousand received into the refuge.- Parents who have dollars, two-thirds of which is chargeable to been in bridewell, twenty-five; penitentiary, intemperance

six; state prison, two; intemperate, four The following account of the convicts in hundred and one; houses of ill-fame, nine; Auburn prison, United States, up to the parents allowing children to steal, eight; first of July, when it was taken, exhibits in parents receiving the avails of stealing, a strong light the influence of intemperance eight. upon crime.

Ages of the children in the Houss nf The number of convicts was 757. Refuge, 31st December, 1829 :Excessively intemperate

287

Boys.-one 8 years, two 9, six 10, fourteen Moderately intemperate

284 11, sixteen 12, nineteen 13, twenty-five 14,

fifteen 15, twenty-one 16, six 17, three 18.

571 Giris.--one 8 years, two 9, four 11, one Temperate drinkers..

177 12, six 13, seven 14, eight 15, five 16, Total abstinents

9 four 17.

It will be noticed in the preceding 757 / statistics, remarks Mr. Hart, how large a

proportion of the parents of children sent to tailed in the Report of the Temperance the refuge, are intemperate—more than one- Society for 1831. At one place, drinking half of the whole number; namely, of six clubs were formed among boys belonging to hundred and ninety children received, the a public work. In the house of a spiritparents of four hundred and one drink ardent dealer, in another place, boys, from nine to spirits to excess. The examination and twelve, were accustomed to get their gill or histories of the children, furnish the me- two gills on an evening. A third Report lancholy fact, that upwards of one hundred states, that boys are known to club together and fifty children of both sexes, commenced to obtain whiskey. A fourth person says, stealing, and other vices, for the purpose of “I have seen boys, of ten years of age, being furnished with the means to frequent drunk in the streets; and a fifth makes the theatres and to obtain rum. There are now following awful statement: “It is very two children in the refuge, (of the ages of common for young people here to meet twelve and fourteen years,) who were, together on the Sabbath, for the purpose of previous to being sent there, in the practice drinking spirits ; and in some instances, they of drinking from eight to twelve glasses of have gone the length in their profanity and rum or whiskey daily, and one of them has blasphemy, to minister the dispensing of the drunk a quart of ardent spirits in a day, Lord's Supper. when they were successful in pilfering Mr. Poynder informs us that he “cannot property, which could be exchanged for it, avoid referring a very large proportion (peror which they could sell for the value of from haps almost the whole) of youthful depravity twenty to thirty cents.

to intemperance. In making this statement There are gangs of young boys, says Sir he does not wish to convey the idea that all Richard Birnie, who entirely subsist on those children who commit crimes are themdepredations; and there is a great con- selres drinkers, although, as he remarks, it sumption of spirits, by even children. They will be found that almost all of them do begin to drink very early—as early as ten drink from their early years ; he wishes and twelve years of age.

rather to state that the habits and customs Children, remarks Mr. Faulkner, chaplain of their relatives and friends with regard to of the city gaol, Worcester, the offspring of drinking, are such that the children cannot dissolute and drunken parents, almost without but be depraved for want of some countera home-certainly without proper example, acting principle to keep them honest and advice, instruction, correction, or parental virtuous. The children have no home; are care, are left, from a very early age to seek virtually deserted by their natural protectors a precarious existence, how and where they and guardians, and, consequently, lose the

The inevitable consequence is, that advantage of moral instruction, of good exthey grow up with a distaste for labour, and ample, and of salutary correction. Intemsettled habits, and soon find their way to perate parents do not appreciate these habits prison.

in their children, and not only do they Mr. Samuel Herapath, of London, stated disregard their associating with vicious in evidence before the select committee on companions, by whom they are initiated into drunkenness, that he had seen children in a evil practices, but, in many instances, unstate of intoxication, by frequently accom- natural parents themselves are found the panying their parents to the gin-shop. instructors of the children in crime, as well Spirits were given to them as if it were a part as participators in the plunder. “The fate of their food. Indeed it is notorious, that of female children,” concludes Mr. Poynder, in all large gin-shops, glasses are provided in such families is still more deplorable, of an appropriate size for children. Need and it is only too well ascertained that the we wonder, then, that they acquire at an early ruin of multitudes of females for life, takes age habits of intemperance and dishonesty ? place at so early an age as is perfectly

Colonel C. Rowan informs us that it is not shocking to humanity. In most of such at all uncommon for children at the breast cases I have found the parents to be the to be taken by women to the gin-shops, tempters and destroyers of their own chiland have gin given them to drink, and if they dren; indeed it is almost impossible that, are noisy it quiets them; and young children without their connivance and consent, their are sent with bottles to the gin-shops, and children could become abandoned and decarry it home, and drink it on the way.*

praved at so early an age ;' and he thinks “ Children,” says the overseer of the there is little hope of effecting an alteration parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, “are in this lamentable traffic “ so long as the initiated to the drinking of spirits from their parents are rendered insensible to their infancy.”'t

childrens' interests by their own addiction This practice seems to be common in all to drinking."* parts of the United Kingdom, particularly One additional illustration only, of the inin large towns.

fluence of parental example on juvenile In Scotland numerous examples are de- depravity. A female, the aunt of a most

celebrated and distinguished vocalist of this * Parl. Evid. p. 27. # Ibid. p. 275.

* Par) Evid. Appendix, p. 420.

can.

country, became an habitual drunkard, the sure to announce the perpetration of this consequence of which was that she spent dreadful crime as the result of intoxication. every farthing her husband had left her. The influence of strong drink in impelling Her intemperance caused her to neglect the man to imbrue his hands in his fellowwhole of her family, and her children were creatures blood, has been dilated upon in a made to care for themselves. There were previous section. The extent of this influence four sons and three daughters. The four is the object of the present investigation. sons were sent on the wide world without The solicitor-general of Ireland makes the protection, or instruction, or provision. following statement. “He had long been They had to resort to any means they could in the habit of prosecuting criminals at the devise to obtain a livelihood. The conse- bar of justice in Ireland, and he could state quence was that all four of them were positively, that at least three-fourths of the transported for picking pockets, and other criminals tried there, were led on to crime similar acts. Two of the daughters also were by intemperance. A person in the habit of transported, and the other was obliged to visiting the cells of the condemned, informed abscond. Mr. Herapath, who makes the him, that a condemned criminal had stated, above statement, informs us that for a long that the plan adopted in the commission of time he had the youngest of the four sons in murder was, to get hold of a man addicted his employment, and gave him five or six to liquor, and having taken him to a publicshillings per week. When the poor boy house, and there plied him with spirits, received his wages he was obliged to keep gradually to reveal the plan laid for robber it himself, for if he gave it his mother she and murder, and then to prevail on him to would immediately spend it in gin. A poor excute the fatal deed. First hints would be woman, out of charity, lodged him for six- thrown out, and then more explicit statepence per week.

At this period he was ments made ; and he who at first shuddered twelve years of age. When on a visit to his at the very thought of crime, would ultimother, one Saturday night, the unnatural mately yield to the effects of liquor and parent while he was asleep, robbed him of persuasion, and consent to do the deadly his last week's earnings, his shirt and coat, act proposed.” and spent the money and pawned the gar- The murder of the Italian boy, by Bishop ments. The boy was so distressed as to be and Williams, was perpetrated under the deterred from going to his employment on stimulating influence of ardent spirits. Mr. Monday. He naturally remonstrated with Poynder says, “nearly all the convicts for his mother. She advised him not to con- murder, with whom I have conversed, have tinue at this price, but go out and do better, admitted themselves to have been under the and pick up what he could in the streets, influence of spirits at the time of the act. that is, to pick pockets. The unfortunate Many of those who are tried throughout the youth followed her advice, and was taken the country, are proved, on their trials, to up and ultimately transported. Mr. Herapath have acted under the same influence.further states that the boy was of an excellent Williams, previous to his execution at disposition, and would have done well, had York, for the murder of Thomas Froggat, not his miserable mother drawn him away.* declared that he was “cut off in the prime

The subject of intemperance, as regards of life, thirty years of age, through the its influence on the young, is of vast and diabolical crime of intemperance. Is there paramount importance. There are in the a drunkard before me,” said he, “yea I see United Kingdom, not less than from 500,000 many. Let him go home and do so no to 600,000 drunkards, most of them addicted more." to habitual intemperance. If we estimate The Rev. D. Ruell, chaplain to the new this number at four hundred thousand, and Prison, Clerkenwell, declares that “murder, suppose that each of these drunkards have maiming, and other crimes, attended with three children depending on them for good personal violence, are for the most part example, and moral and religious instruction, committed under the excitement of liquor." it will be found that not less than one million Nine persons were tried for murder at the two hundred thousand of our youth are Liverpool Lent assizes, 1838, every case of every year brought up under the superin- which originated in drinking. These illustendence of the drunkard. The hopes of trations might be multiplied almost to any our country depend on the rising generation. extent. If our youth be unsound, then alas for our Daniel Ryan who was found guilty at the nation's prosperity. With this consideration Clonmel assizes, of murdering Thomas before us it is a lamentable subject for re- Thomson, before being executed, confessed flection that no cause contributes half so that whiskey had been given him, to induce much to demoralize the young as the use of him to take away the life of a man who had strong drink.

never done him any injury. At a late assizes The crime of murder is another lamentable at the same place, there were above two hunbut frequent result of intemperance. The dred persons charged with violation of the publication of almost every newspaper, is law, forty-seven of these were accused of the

crime of murder; forty-two of its perpetra. * Parl. Evid.

tion, and five of aiding and assisting. The

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