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was presented from the Corporation of spend them. In a word, it has filled our Sheermen and Dyers, complaining of the streets with beggary, riot, and vice-has decay of silken and woollen manufactures, raised the prices, and spoiled the quality of and attributing it to the enlarged facilities our goods, and has made the fertility of our afforded for intemperance, by the daily in- island, instead of a blessing, a curse."'* creasing number of places for the sale of Dr. Crumpe, of Dublin, speaks of intemintoxicating liquors, in that part of the city perance as a vice “ from which the most where those manufactures were carried on, serious obstructions arise to their industry “ whereby a ready opportunity was offered and employment.”+ to the journeymen and servants concerned These illustrations might be greatly multherein, to make too free a use of spirits, by tiplied, but they are amply sufficient to which they were frequently rendered inca. exhibit the pernicious influence of intempable, for a great part of their time, from perance in obstructing commercial activity following their occupations, to the manifest and enterprise. The injuries inflicted by injury, not only of themselves and their intemperance on the industry and wealth of families, but of the public :' and expressing nations, will, however be more distinctly their apprehension, " that if a speedy stop seen, when contrasted with the results of was not put to this growing evil, several very national sobriety, of which some pleasing valuable manufactures would be lost, and the instances are now adduced. greatest poverty and distress, with many Mr. Colquhoun relates, as an interesting other evils, introduced among those who and important fact, that during the period ought to be their riches and defence."'* when the distilleries were stopped in 1796 The woollen, linen, and silken manufacturers and 1797, although bread and every necessary stated the same practice to be "a great cause of life was considerably higher than during of the decay of trade, as the working people the preceding year, the poor in that quarter became idle and dissolute ; and, as they did of the town, where the chief part resided, not work above half their time, and were under were apparently more comfortable, paid their the necessity of entering into unlawful combi- rents more regularly, and were better fed, nations to enhance the price of labour, which than at any period for some years before, prevented the petitioners from bringing their even although they had not the benefit of manufactures to market on proper terms." the extensive charities which were distributed The weavers of Dublin were alarmed at the in 1795. “ This," he remarks, “can only same evils, for, in a petition which they for- be accounted for by their being denied the warded to the Irish Parliament, they set forth indulgence of gin ; which had become, in a the decay of trade, and attributed it to the great measure, inaccessible from its very increase of spirit-shops in those parts of the high price. It may fairly be concluded, city where the manufacturers resided, whereby that the money formerly spent in this imthe temptation was always before them, to prudent manner, had been applied in the free indulgence in the use of spirits. In purchase of provisions, and other necessaries, consequence of this they seldom worked on to the amount of some hundred thousand Monday, but entered into combinations to pounds."* In addition to this change of make good their sloth and extravagance. circumstances it was observed that quarrels That the spirit of industry, decency in and assaults were less frequent, and they dwelling and apparel, which formerly obtained resorted less often to the pawnbroker's shop. amongst them, was almost eradicated, and Contrast this pleasing statement with the in place thereof, idleness, filth, and nastiness, condition of the people in 1732, and which in every circumstance of life, with an un- may, in some degree, illustrate their circumbounded licentiousness of manners, which stances, at a period, when indulgence in had produced the most dangerous riots and strong drink was so general. “Throughout disorders, and it was feared would produce the Bills of Mortality, the poor housekeepers disorders more fatal to the peace and good have not one quarter of the household goods order of the metropolis.t

they used to have; and small farmers, in the The Parliamentary investigation which neighbourhood of London, can scarce show followed, fully substantiated the truth of a clean suit of clothes to go to church.”'ll these petitions, and alleged that the “decay In Ireland, a temporary prohibition of of manufactures was principally to be attri- distillation, occasioned by a scarcity of corn, buted to the use of spirituous liquors.” and consequent diminished consumption of

A writer of experience, whose attention was spirituous liquors was attended with similar particularly directed to this subject, remarks beneficial results. Although the price of on the distillation of spirits as follows: provisions was high, and consequently a “Of manufactures it has been the bane. certain amount of distress more or less preIt has disinclined and disabled the workman vailing in such years,

" the population of to perform his work with either accuracy or dispatch ; it has made him combine against * An Essay on the Manufactures of Ireland, &c., his employer, to extort the means of dissi &c., by Thomas Wallace, M.R.I.A. 1798. p. 106.

+ Essay on the best means of providing Employpation, and it has made him more idle to ment for the People, by Samuel Crumpe, M.D.,

M.R.I.A., 1793, p. 186. * Irish Commons' Journal, vol. vii. p. 307.

I Colquhoun on the Police of the Metropolis. 1800. + Ibid. p. 308.

| Gentleman's Magazine vol. ii. p. 603.

Ireland was enable to consume a greater “ Another correspondent, from a town of quantity of articles of luxury and comfort about the same numberof inhabitants, says, ihan in years of absolute plenty."*

'I have consulted with some other individuals, Dr. Henry, in allusion to the stoppage of and we find the subject rather difficult; but distillation in 1758-9, remarks, “the salu- have counted thirty-seven cases in which tary effects of which were seen, restoring farms have changed owners, in consequence new vigor to our languishing manufactures, of spirit drinking, since 1800.' and a visible reformation in the morals of “From an aged and respectable inhabitant the people.”

of another town, the following has been reChanges in the ownership of property ceived:— As I promised, I have cast my continually occur through intemperance, by eye over the parish to which I belong, conwhich a large amount of evil influence is tainingapopulationof about thirteenhundred, entailed on our commercial and agricultural and I find that, within thirty-five years past, interests. This subject, perhaps, will be best at least thirty-five farms and tenements have illustrated by the following facts.

gone out of the owners’hands, in consequence A farmer, in Connecticut, who, for thirty of the use of ardent spirits; and in a short years had occupied the same farm on lease, time, five more may be safely added.' complained that he had not been able to “ In another town, containing less than store up any thing as the result of his ex- nine hundred inhabitants, and about one ertions during that period. A neighbouring hundred farms, and at present greatly disstore-keeper, who heard him make this tinguished for temperance and prosperity, statement, was candid enough to explain to it has been found that thirty farms, within him the reason. He accordingly informed the same period, have been lost in the same him, that during the thirty years he had been way; and, in some instances, the same farm on the farm he had expended in his store on has been twice lost.' ardent spirits, a sum which, added to its in- “A correspondent from a town in the terest, would have made the farmer owner of county of Berkshire, says, “I cannot state the farm which he was then obliged to hire. the numbers of farms that have passed from On examination of the books of the store their owners within the time you name. keeper his assertion was found to be correct. There have been several persons within my The farm was worth five thousand dollars. I recollection, who have lost their estates

The following statements, relative to the wholly, or become so embarrassed as to be number of estates which in different towns obliged to sell, principally from the too free passed from the hands of their owners in use of spirits. Indeed, I think the embarrassconsequence of intemperance, were collected ment, and consequent loss of property, of by the corresponding secretary of the Massa- which three-fifths of our farmers and mechusetts Temperance Society. Ardent spirits, chanics complain in this country, can fairly we must premise, are alınost exclusively be traced to this source.' the intoxicating liquors used in America by “A highly respectable merchant in Verthe mass of the people.

mont, stated that, after dealing in ardent “ In a town in the interior, containing, at spirits fourteen years, and examining his the last census less than twelve hundred accounts, and the effect of this traffic on his inhabitants, twenty farms have been lost to customers, he found that out of six hundred the owners, since the year 1800, through and forty-three customers two hundred and intemperance; and the owners of twenty four had become drunkards and tipplers; more have been reduced, from the same a number had died suddenly; one perished cause, sold their farms, moved out of town, on his way home, on a cold winter's and come to poverty. This town is now evening; twenty farms and mechanics' esremarkable for temperance. An elderly in- tablishments (viz., manufactories) had been habitant remarked that, twenty years ago, sold, mortgaged, and deeded to sons; and three families in five were becoming poorer; the merchant's own loss in bad debts, on but now, said he, the town is highly pros- the account of intemperance, was abont nine perous, and if any family among us is hundred and sixty dollars. Convinced that becoming poorer, it is because there is a he was one among the number engaged in drunkard in it.

making drunkards, he had abandoned the “A correspondent from another town, of traffic, and, for one year, had kept wine and about thirteen hundred inhabitants, says “I brandy to sell as medicine only, but found have submitted your inquiries to two gentle- he could do this no longer, as the drunkard men, who have been conversant with the would send a boy to say, I want it for meaffairs of this town for forty or fifty years, dicine, and then get tipsy.' and they have informed me that twenty-two During the last fifty years, there have farms have passed from the hands of the been eighty estates squandered by intemowners in consequence of the use of ardent perate owners, in the town of Northampton, spirits, within the last twenty years.' Massachusetts; and one hundred and forty * Inquiry into the Influence of Ardent Spirits in

deaths resulting from drunkenness alone.”* Ireland, 1830. p. 102.

+ Earnest Address to the People of Ireland, &c., by W. Henry, D.D., F.R.S., 1761. p. 1.

* Twenty-third Report of the Massachusetts # New York Farmer, 1830.

Temperance Society.

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Innumerable similar examples might be account of crime originating in intemperance adduced as having occurred in this country. in connexion with the licensing system, They are indeed so frequent in occurrence as would very far exceed and outbalance the to render further detail quite unnecessary. Chancellor's large receipts."'*

These facts cannot fail to excite deep The Rev. Dr. Scoresby, vicar of Bradford, attention on the part of those who feel remarks, that “there would be such a gain interested in our national prosperity. In- of national wealth, by the disuse of spirits, dustry, commerce, and consequently, wealth, as to enable the country to afford many times have been seen to be, in a great measure, the amount of the present duties in another influenced by the consumption of intoxicating form. An apparent loss to the revenue, liquors. The removal, therefore, of this would eventually be an immense real gain." fearful obstacle to national improvement, And again, “ If we suppose the present becomes a matter of the highest importance, revenue from ardent spirits, derived from the and would secure to our country an amount consumption of the labouring classes, to be of benefit which it has seldom or never before five millions sterling, then, I conceive, that experienced. Among other probable benefits for this portion of gain to the treasury, other which would be derived from a measure of classes of the people are in reality taxed to this kind, would be a state of commercial the extent of fifteen or twenty millions.”'t prosperity sufficient to find work for every J. Poynder, Esq., late under-sheriff of unemployed man in the kingdom. The des- Middlesex and London, remarks, “ If any titute poor would acquire a taste for the considerable change could be induced in the conveniences of life, together with the means national habits in respect to drinking, a very of procuring them The immense sums now large saving would accrue in this department annually worse than wasted in the con- of the state, (the heavy expenses of the sumption of intoxicating liquors, would, in criminal judicature of the country,) and all probability, be expended in the purchase probably such a saving as would be found of useful articles, and thus a mighty impulse even more than adequate to the revenue imparted to trade. That the observations derived from distillation. It seems well now advanced are not visionary in their worthy of consideration whether the peculiar character, may be seen from the data which facilities for drinking which are provided have already been given, and from numerous throughout the country, do not, by furnishing instances of benefit which have attended to the poor and uninstructed temptations to recent reformations on a less enlarged scale. crime which are too strong to resist, occaAn eminent political economist has stated sion, at the same time, a charge to the that it is to the desire to rise in the world, country, in repressing and punishing that to improve our condition, and to obtain a crime, which is more than equal, even in a constantly increasing command over the pecuniary point of view, to any advantage conveniences and luxuries of life, that society which can ever be derived from such a has been indebted for improvement.* The polluted source.”'I temperance reformation has the strongest Dr. Grey, in his “ Essential Principles of tendency to promote this object, and to the Wealth of Nations Illustrated,” remarks, ameliorate in other respects, the social and " fields of industry are better than houses of moral condition of the world.

industry. What avail houses of industry, 6. Loss in other various ways, with cal- and orphan houses, and parish schools, to culations of the total national luss.-Wise mend the morals of the people of Dublin, and reflecting individuals have long doubted when in one street alone there are fifty-two the wisdom of government, in a pecuniary houses licensed to sell spirits ? That a point of view, in extending its patronage to revenue derived from such a source should the manufacture of intoxicating liquors. With-be an object worthy of encouragement, it is in the last few years this subject has received impossible to believe.” more peculiar consideration, the results of Mr. Carr, in his “ Stranger in Ireland," which will now be laid before the reader observes, “ a government might as well imin as brief a manner as possible.

pose a tax on coffins, and then inoculate all Mr. Mark Moore, in his examination its subjects with the plague, to increase the before the Select Committee of the House revenue. of Commons, in reference to what he terms The various losses, in a monetary point of the “great delusion" of the Chancellors of view, which result from the manufacture and the Exchequer, which he supposes to arise use of intoxicating liquors, may be arranged from the revenue of £8,000,000 per annum, under the following heads :derived from the tax on ardent spirits, re- 1. The whole sum expended by consumers marks, “There are two sides to this account; in the purchase of intoxicating liquors. and I am satisfied from the partial investi-2. The loss of time which the use of strong gation I have been able to make, if the drink occasions in various ways. necessary Parliamentary returns were made 3. The diminished productiveness of land, out, it would be found that the frightful labour, and capital. expenses to which the nation is put on

* Parl. Evid. p. 345.

+ Ibid. pp. 382---3. McCulloch's Political Economy.

† Parl. Evid. on the Police of the Metropolis. 1817.

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4. The property lost in consequence of The sum annually expended in Edinburgh,

drunkenness by casualties, both on land on the same destructive poisons, is said to be and on sea.

nearly £400,000; being nearly equal to the 5. The cost of pauperism, and the criminal whole amount raised by all the Bible and judicature of the land, from the same Missionary Societies in Great Britain.

The Rev. James Edwards, of Brighton, 6. The loss of health and of intellect, and the recently made the following calculation in

consequent necessary expenditure. reference to the drinking system in that 7. The abbreviation of human life, and the place, upon what he terms a moderate

loss of human labour which results there- scale from.

110 public houses, including sixteen hotels. Examples of the immense sums expended

£ 8. d. in the purchase of intoxicating liquors are Average rent of each, £150.. 16,500 0 0 abundant and instructive. A few only are Average amount of taxes, now adduced by way of illustration.

£30 each

3,300 0 0 Some of the items of the expenditure of Servants' board and wages, the Lord Steward of the Royal Household, four each, at £30.. 13,200 0 0 for 1840, are as follows:---Bread, £2,350; For the support of 110 fami. butter, bacon, cheese, and eggs, £5,153 ; lies, £4 per week each ....22,880 0 0 milk and cream, £1,500; butchers' meat, Losses and sundry expenses, £10,000; grocery, £5,000, &c., &c., &c., average £80 a year 8,800 0 wine, £5,250; liquors, &c., £2,000; ale and beer, £3,000. Total annual expendi

64,680 0 0 ture, £69,765. Thus it will be seen that Goods for sale.. .. £194,040 there is expended in intoxicating liquors Profits on sale, .. 64,680 £10,250, or one-seventh of the whole ex.

-258,720 0 0 penditure of the Royal Household. Deduct } for eating. 86,240

It is calculated that £20,000 are spent every sabbath day at the various public

172,480 houses in and near the Metropolis, princi- 170 beer shops. pally by the working classes.

Average rent £20 per year 3400 0 0 In Bradford, Yorkshire, there are one hun. Average taxes per year, £4 dred and fifty gin shops and public houses, each

680 0 0 about one hundred and seventy beer shops, 170 families, 158. per week and four breweries. It is calculated that support

6630 0 0 there are £2,030 spent every week at these Losses and sundry expenses, places. To this sum add, for loss of time, £10 each..

1700 0 0 £487 108., and for various losses consequent upon drinking, £250, and the total will be

12,410 0 0 £2,767 108. Deduct for the necessary ex- Goods for sale.... £37,230 penses of travellers, tradesmen, &c., and Profit ...

12,410 it will leave a net weekly loss to the town of Bradford of £2,267 108.; or £323 188. 6d.

49,640 per day; yearly £117,910 ; and in eight

172,480 years and a half, upwards of one million pounds sterling.

£222,120 equal to £4271 In Leeds, during the year 1835, there

108. per week. were two hundred and ninety-seven inns, Persons engaged in the sale, 2086. hotels, and taverns, in addition to two The local taxes are £35,480 per annum, hundred and eighty-nine beer shops within being less than one-sixth of the sum an. the borough, making a total of five hundred nually expended in liquor. and eighty-six houses licensed for the sale The visitors, who frequent the town, of of intoxicating liquors. A calculation was course add to the consumption. Yet, says made that the former averaged in their Mr. Edwards, with all this multitude of receipts at least £17 per week, and the licensed houses and beer shops at present latter £3, during the same period. This existing, the magistrates are pestered to expenditure amounts to £307,632 per annum. grant more licenses, and every sort of means A similar calculation makes the same annual is resorted to to obtain them.

The high expenditure in Stockport £126,000. constable indeed had been obliged to furnish

A recent Report of the Bristol Temperance a plan of the town, showing, in every street, Society states that in that city and its im- the situation of the existing establishments, mediate neighbourhood a sum exceeding which were thickly studded in all directions. £150,000 is annually spent in strong drink, The influence of intemperance, in the proby the labouring classes and those ranking duction of crime, will be shown in a succeedimmediately above them.

ing portion of this section. It will be suffi. In Glasgow, accurate calculations make cient, in this place, to remark that the cost the total annual expenditure in spirits no of three-fourths of crime is directly chargeless than £450,000.

able to intemperance.

no data

Mr. S. Redgrave, in an article entitled | Hops, 1 lb. per bushel, at 18. “ Some data on the present state of Crime per lb. ...

311,179 in England and Wales,” gives the following Interest upon capital, and wear calculations in reference to the cost of crime. and tear of private brewing The county-rate commissioners, in their utensils

1,050,230 preliminary report state, that the average expense of a prosecution at the assizes is Total ANNUAL cost of malt about £19 ; at the quarter sessions £7 108.; liquor

42,857,243 and at the municipal courts £5 88. 6d. 6,420,342 imperial gallons of At these rates the expenses of

wine, at 228. 6d. per gallon 6,750,000 prosecutions would be...... £186,915 This is supposing 6 bottles to 'In the Lords' Report on County

the gallon, half used at private Rates the expenses of prisons,

tables, 28. 6d. per bottle; the for one year, are stated to

other half at public tables, at amount to... 177,245 58. per bottle

1,500,000 And the maintenance of prisoners 127,297 Cyder, perry, home-made wines To these sums must be added the

annual charge for maintaining 20,528,889 imperial gallons of transports, at home and in

spirit, averaged to cost conBermuda, about 75,000 sumer

17,250,000 In New South Wales and Van

Police, jails, prosecutions, &c., 2,000,000 Dieman's Land....

130,000 The cost of pauperism, say at a And in the Penitentiary 20,000 very low estimate

5,000,000 Loss of labor, taken' by Mr. Total per annum £716,457 Buckingham, at 50 millions, say

30,000,000 If to these sums, which are all taken from Parliamentary Papers, could be ascer

105,357,243 tained and added, the expenses of the For medicinal purposes, &c... 5,357,243 judges, clerks of assize, and many other attendant charges, the amount would be Showing an annual sacrifice of 100,000,000 considerably increased; but if the costs incurred in the prevention of crime were in

To these items we might add numerous cluded in the calculation, the amount would others, such as a large proportion of the be almost doubled. Some idea may be expenses incurred by lunatic asylums, informed on this point from the expense of the firmaries, and other hospitals for the sick, police establishments of the Metropolis and the maim. By far the most important alone, which are not less than £300,000 loss, however, will arise from so vast an per annum. Mr. Redgrave suggests that, amount of money not being devoted to usesupposing the total annual cost to the ful purposes, or employed in the purchase of country for the prevention, prosecution, and useful articles. punishment of crime, to be one million and a half, and the number of persons living by

It will be seen from the above table that the violation of the laws to be fifty thousand, the sum of £51,107,243 is annually expended the good behaviour of every criminal might on fermented drinks, £17,250,000 only be purchased by a gratuity of £30 per being paid for ardent spirits. The amount annum, and the public be gainers by the of alcohol in fermented liquors exceeds very arrangement, of the whole amount of property much that in distilled spirits, as the following of which they are annually plundered, and of calculation will show. a feeling of security above all price.*

Fermented liquor will The following table, though imperfect, has been carefully prepared from the official

be equal, in intoxi

Gals. of spirits. returns for 1836, as published in the Total of distilled spirits.... 29,528,889

cating power, to ...... 63,780,095 Companion to the Almanack. 32,823,024 bushels of malt

Excess of intoxicating brewed by public brewers and licensed victuallers, taken at

power in fermento 12 gallons to the bushel, and

ed liquors above

34,251,206 at 28. per gallon .

£39,387,628 Deduct formalt liquorexported 225,641

Malt liquor is taken, at eight gallons as

being equal in alcohol, or intoxicating quality, 39,161,987

to one gallon of spirits ; and two gallons of 6,223,592 bushels brewed by

wine as equal to one of distilled spirit, of private families, cost of malt

ordinary strength, as sold to the conat 78. 6d.



Proceedings of the Statistical Society of London. Vol. 1. p. 180.

The use of inebriating drinks in Great Britain has occasioned a greater expenditurs

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