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BREWERS, VICTUALLERS, &c. Number of Persons in the United Kingdom licensed as “ Brewers,"

" " VICTUALLERS," " to sell Beer to be Drunk on the Premises," and "to sell Beer not to be Drunk on the Premises."

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The following estimate, prepared from an If we deduct from this calculation a vast average of the able table of Professor Brande, number of children, also persons who abstain will show the gross amount of alcohol con- altogether from inebriating liquors, and tained in the various kinds of intoxicating those who indulge in them to very liquors consumed in this kingdom.

moderate extent only, we shall have a fear

Gallons. ful view of the extent of intemperance in If we allow the average of alcohol

this country. A large proportion of our contained in fermented liquors

adult population indeed will be found to be to be six per cent. the quantity

free drinkers, if not frequent or habitual of pure spirit, drunk in the form

drunkards. of ale and porter, will be about 25,380,000 The title which this empire has to the In spirits, allowing the average

appellation of a wine bibbing nation,” may to be fifty per cent.

12,963,080 be estimated by the following fact. In 1835 In wine, allowing the average to

a return was made of the quantity of wine be twenty per cent.

1,193,108 exported from Oporto, which amounted to The quantity of alcohol in cider;

38,469 pipes. The people of Great Britain perry, and home-made wines,

alone took 23,537 pipes. The great proit is supposed will exceed.... 2,000,000 portion of this wine would of course be

consumed by the higher classes of society. Total.... 41,536,188 That description of wine which is consumed

by the operative portions of the community, In addition to this enormous consumption is a vile compound of impure spirit and of alcohol, we must include a large additional noxious and filthy drugs. amount as the result of the very extensive If we estimate the population of Scotland smuggling, which takes place in some in 1830, at two millions and a half, at the districts in particular. If we estimate this usual average of five to each family, it will at five millions of gallons, we shall have a gross give 500,000 families. Dividing the amount total consumption of forty-six millions of consumed in Scotland amongst these, there gallons of pure alcohol. It is well known will be ten gallons a year to each family, or that alcohol is nearly double the strength of nearly two and a half glasses of ardent proof spirit, and thus taking into account spirits on an average, consumed in every the large quantity of ardent spirits and wines family in Scotland every day in the year. illicitly prepared, the consumption of proof Suppose these five millions of gallons are spirit will not be much less than one retailed at a price not averaging more than hundred millions of gallons.

108. per gallon, then Scotland pays a tax of If we estimate the population at twenty-two millions five hundred thousand pounds three millions, the result will be an annual sterling per annum, for what produces every consumption of not less than four gallons of species of disorder, immorality and crime.* proof spirit, or deadly poison, by every man,

* Glasgow and West of Scotland Temp. Soc woman, and child.

Report 1830. p. 12.


The amount of spirits consumed in Scot-mitted 343,000 times during the period of a land in 1831, was about 5,653,000 gallons. single year, in Glasgow alone.* Deduct from the gross amount of population, In 1827, the gin consumed in Great children and young persons under fourteen or Britain, amounted to twelve millions of fifteen years of age, (which, according to gallons ; in 1829, the consumption of this Cleland's Statistics of Glasgow, form nearly pernicious poison (the chief part of it in two-fifths of the entire population,) also a England,) was twenty-four millons of gallons. pretty large proportion who never use ardent It is stated that this quantity would make a spirits, except on rare occasions, and the river of gin sixty feet wide, three feet deep members of the Temperance Societies with and very nearly five miles long. a considerable proportion of their families, The Educational Magazine, not long ago, inand it is evident that you reduce the con- formed its readers that there were in London sumers to at least about one-third part of upwards of 100,000 confirmed dram-drinkers, the whole population.

who, on an average, drink two glasses of The Committee of the Scottish Temper- spirit each day. Calculating these at 1fd. ance Society in their Annual Report for 1831, per glass, the daily cost would be £1,250, state that they have before them a list of which annually amounts to the large sum of about 100 towns, villages, and parishes, in £456,250 different parts of the country of which they A few years ago, it was estimated that have the correct population returns, together the money expended in gin and whiskey with the number of individuals licensed to for the previous twenty years, amounted to sell ardent spirits in each; they ascertained no less a sum than £400,000,000. that the population of the whole was about These calculations might be extended to 765,000, and the licenses 8230, which gives a considerable extent. Those already adan average of one license to every ninety- duced are, however, sufficient for the present five individuals, or one for every nineteen to purpose. Perhaps no more conclusive twenty families. Leaving out a few of the evidence of the existence and extent of inlarger towns, where the number of retailers temperance in this country could be.given, is greater in proportion than in the country than the number of houses appropriated to parishes, the average will be one for every the sale of inebriating liquors compared 113 individuals, or for every twenty-three with the houses in which are sold provisions or twenty-four families.* Thus if the above and other necessary articles of life. A account be assumed as a correct representa- few calculations of this kind are tion of the whole nation, every twentieth adduced. family is supported by the remaining nine

London.-In 1836, there were in the teen, to retail poison, and to spread disease,

metropolis, crime, and desolation, on every hand. The


207 Statistics of Dr. Cleland show, that in the


447 city of Glasgow, there is one retailer of Public-houses and beer-shops 5975 spirits to every twelve families.

Gin-palaces ..

8649 During the year 1829, 9636 commitments


200 were made at the several offices of police in the city and suburbs, or twenty-seven per

15,478 sons, on an average, were brought to the offices every day in the year for being drunk

Of all other trades, there were only 15,839, and disorderly, many of these doubtless the

whom were same individuals, but at different periods.


300 These, however, were but a fractional part


580 of the intemperate drinkers—merely such as


1180 disturbed the public peace by their ob


130 streperous revelry. At that period there

1150 were in the city and suburbs, somewhere

Lawyers. about 1880 licensed places for retailing

And only 2100 bakers and 1800 butchers. ardent spirits. A number of persons in a

In reference to this list, we may observe, state of intoxication issued from a very that the demand for physicians, surgeons, large proportion of these places every day. chemists, and lawyers, is to a great extent On the supposition, however, that one half, caused by the use of strong drink, so that that is 940, by their sales, produce a single a cessation of the traffic would necessarily case of intoxication every day, (and in this issue in a removal of the chief sources of calculation is included all that is sold to be their professional emolument. drunk by persons in their own houses,) we The following estimate is taken from the have the appalling amount of 343,000 cases of Annual Report of the Stamford Street and intemperance in a year. This statement New Cut Branch of the South London does not suppose that there are so many Auxiliary Temperance Society. It is more different persons who became intoxicated, specific in its details. but that the crime of intemperance is com

* Glasgow and West of Scotland 'Temp. Soc. * Annual Report, &c., 1831. p. 15.

Report, 1830. p. 11,




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STATISTICS OF THE BRANCH. Accommodation for people to attend

divine worship

7400 The extent of this branch is less than

Leaving without room to attend the half a mile square, and contains of

means of grace ....... roads, streets, and places..


...... 37, 686 Schools, on the British system....

3 Number of houses from two rooms each to twenty ....:


National, infant, Sunday schools, a

total number Number of persons residing in the

With room for, at present.

2106 branch, male & female, including children

45, 005

The next calculations include Glasgow, Number of confirmed, habitual, and Birmingham, and St. Helier's, Jersey. occasional drunkards in the

Dr. Cleland, in his Statistics of Glasgow, branch, known

1125 informs us, that in the city and suburbs, Nuinber of houses of ill fame at

there are 2913 persons employed as brewers, present

261 distillers, and wholesale and retail dealers, 130 of which contain not less than to which may be added a proportion of 716

four prostitutes in each........ 520 persons, who are designated as “waiters in 131 of which contain two on the taverns, post-boys, hostlers, and grooms." average, which is

262 There are engaged as bakers, conTotal number of prostitutes in the

fectioners, &c.

1063 branch

782 Fleshers, fishmongers, and poulterers 426 And at which houses above £400 is

Grocers and victuallers...

1127 spent weekly in alcoholic drinks. Gardeners,fruiterers,&c.

409 Number of taverns and hotels Public-houses or licensed victuallers 40 Making a total of

3055 Gin-shops

24 Beer-shops


So that it will be found that an equal number Total number of drunkeries in branch 118

of persons are employed in Glasgow in brew

ing, and distilling, and retailing liquors, as Wholesale brewers.


are occupied in all the other trades for the Retail

ī supply of good and nutritious food. Ale stores

The Birmingham Temperance Society Manufactories of British wines


exhibit in their late Annual Report, Dealers in ditto ..


sorrowful disproportion of persons engaged Malsters


in the sale of intoxicating liquors, (in that Dealers in malt

3 town) and those engaged in the sale of

wholesome and necessary provisions.” TEMPERANCE DEALERS, &c. Wholesale dealers in wine, spirits, Bakers

38 porter, ale, cider, &c.......

57 Butchers

Hotels, inns, and public-houses.. 380

71 Grocers and tea dealers, including all


479 who are licensed to sell tea and coffee

73 Cheesemongers

Bacon, corn, and flour dealers ..

109 Fishmongers ....

Cheese, butter, and bacon dealers

160 Poulterers


Greengrocers and fruiterers

765 Pastry cooks

9 Corn-chandlers

9 The drinking habits of the people of the Millers ...

1 large towns at least, in Jersey, may be Oil shops

23 estimated by the following recent calculaLinen-drapers

27 tion:Temperance coffee-houses, the

The population of St. Helier's about 21, 000. keepers of which are signed mem

Inns and hotels....

14 bers of the TotalAbstinence Society 6

Taverns and public-houses

84 Other coffee-houses

Wine and spirit merchants..

8 Number of eating houses ........ 20

Grocers and spirit dealers

71 Number of surgeons in this branch 30

177 Chemists

Bakers and confectioners


24 Pawnbrokers


Corn merchants and millers Ministers of the gospel of the Established Church .....

66 3 Others

4 A resident in that place may well observe,

that the consequences of such a state of Total

7 things there, as elsewhere, is “ruin, temPlaces of worship, churches

2poral and eternal, to thousands!” Dissenting chapels.

7 In succeeding portions of this section, the

existence and extent of intemperance will be Total

3 exhibited in various ways, both in reference

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to the moral, social and physical condition to a general inquiry into the real sources of mankind.

of national prosperity. The accumulation Judge Cranch estimates the annual con. of what is called wealth, certainly does not sumption of spirituous liquors in America, constitute national prosperity. Industry and at 72,000,000 gallons. This proportion he health, are essential to the acquisition of supposes thus to be distributed among the riches. These qualifications moreover, are, people of the United States.

in a great degree, dependent on a certain The women and children under sixteen amount of knowledge or skill. In addition years of age, according to the census of 1810 to which, mankind are endowed with and 1820, constituted three-fourths of the feelings termed motides, which spur them whole population of the United States. on in their various enterprises. National

It can hardly be supposed, remarks prosperity also more or less depends on Judge Cranch, that any considerable quantity other causes which may subsequently come of ardent spirits is drunk by children, and it under our consideration, among which we is to be hoped, a very small proportion by may include security of property, when the women. We will suppose, however, acquired, and the possession of individual that the women and children consume one- and national freedom. All of these exercise sixth of the whole quantity; say 12,000,000 greater or less degree of influence on the gallons.

prosperity and happiness of nations, and Of the men over sixteen years of age, form an interesting as well as important constituting one-fourth of the whole popula- subject of investigation. tion, one-half, probably, consists of those 1. Loss of disposition for industry-1088 who wholly abstain, and of those who do of time and labour-capital, and employnot drink habitually, and who may therefore ment.--Intemperance has ever been ruinous average half a gill a day; one-eighth of in its consequences to national industry. 12,000,000 is 1,500,000 persons, at half a Idleness and poverty are the uniform congill a day, equal to 8,554,6874 gallons. comitants of free indulgence in the use of

One-half of the residue of the men, being intoxicating liquors. “Drunkenness," says one-sixteenth of the whole population, equal Dr. Johnson, " is the parent of idleness ; for to 750,000 persons, may be habitual tem- no man can apply himself to the business of perate drinkers, averaging three-half gills a his trade, either while he is drinking, or when day, amounting to 12,832,031} gallons ; he is drunk. Part of his time is spent in jollity, one-half of the remaining men, being one- and part in imbecility; when he is amidst thirty-second of the whole population, equal bis companions, he is too gay to think of to 375,000 persons, may be regular topers, the consequences of neglecting his employand occasional drunkards, who average three ment, and when he has overburdened his gills a day, equal to 12,832,031 gallons. stomach with liquor, he is too feeble and Population.

Gallons. too stupid to follow it. Poverty is the 9,000,000 Consume. 12,000,000 offspring of idleness, as idleness of drunken1,500,009

8,554,6874 ness; the drunkard's work is little, and his 750,000

12,832,031 expenses are great, and therefore he must 375,000

12,832,0311 soon see his family distressed, and his sub

stance reduced to nothing."* 11,625,000

46,218,750 One of the injurious effects of intemper375,000

25,781,250 ance, according to the Report of the

Committee of the House of Commons, which 12,000,000

72,000,000 held its sittings during the year 1834, is

extinction of DISPOSITION for practising These quantities added, make 46,218,750 any useful art or industrious occupation.gallons, which, deducted from the whole Such indeed will be found to be the uniquantity consumed, 72,000,000 gallons, will versal tendency of this vice. Those who leave 25,781,250 gallons to be divided indulge in strong drink, have little inclina. annually among the 375,000 remaining men, tion, or even capacity, for improvement. who will average more than six gills a day, Selfishness and apathy predominate in the and who will, of course, be confirmed character of the drunkard, and feelings of drunkards.

amendment, however frequently they may This estimate supposes that one in every arise, are quickly dissipated in the love of sixteen is an habitual temperate drinker, sensual gratification. that one in every thirty-two is a regular Loss of time is another lamentable result tipler and occasional drunkard, and that one of indulgence in intoxicating liquors. It is in thirty-two also is a confirmed drunkard. impossible to estimate the amount and value

The whole of this immense quantity was of this loss. Time is the means by which consumed previous to the year 1828, when labour can be accomplished, and money the influence of temperance operations began earned, and is therefore the loss of labour generally to be experienced.

and of wealth. If it were possible to calJII. Evils resulting to national industry oulate the value of all the loss of time thus and wealth from intemperance. The consideration of this important subject leads * Johnson's Debates, 1742-3.


occasioned, there is reason to believe that it which result from intemperance. On a would amount to a sum sufficient to prevent supposition, he further remarks, that the much, if not the whole of the poverty which excesses in which perhaps 200,000 of the at present exists in the land.

labouring classes in the metropolis indulge, Loss of labour is a natural consequence shortens the natural period of their existence of the vice of intemperance. Wealth has only five years each, on an average, the been said, by an eminent writer, to consist labour of one million of years is lost in the of all that man desires as useful or delightful lives of this class of men, after the expense to him.* Labour is especially the property is incurred in rearing them to maturity; of the working man; everything, therefore, which, during a period of thirty-six years of which injures this property, must very adult labour, at £25 a year, establishes a greatly impair the condition of the working deficiency to the community of twenty-five classes. Intemperance not only causes millions sterling. * This calculation does positive loss of time, but induces physical not include the numerous other train of evils, debility, and renders its victims unfit for which arise to a nation from idle, dissolute, active and continued exertion. “ The loss and immoral habits, as well as the immense of productive labour, in every department actual expense incurred in the repression of of occupation, through intemperance, is crime, and from other countless sources equal to one day in six throughout the originating in, and fostered by, the use of kingdom, or to £1,000,000 sterling ut of strong drink. every six that are produced,” this, however, Loss of capital is another result of intemappears to be a small portion only of the perance. Capital, or rather money, is the actual loss which the nation sustains from proceeds or fruit of labour. “ Labour was the use of intoxicating liquors, an amount, the first price, the original purchase-money which, from a moderate calculation," may which was paid for all things; it was neither be fairly estimated at little short of by gold, nor by silver, but by labour, that £50,000,000 sterling per annum.”+ all the wealth of the world was originally

The following calculations are made by purchased.”+ Labour procures wealth, but Judge Cranch, of America. In 1830, there economy increases it. were in the United States, 375,000 habitual Capital is that by which mankind lay the drunkards. These, upon an average, did not foundation of additional wealth. The use earn more than two-thirds as much as if of intoxicating liquors, with few exceptions, they had been sober. This annual loss of prevents the accumulation of capital. To 100 days labour of each drunkard, in his the poor man in particular capital is to be sober state, worth at least forty cents a desired, as a means of elevating his condition day, makes an annual loss of 15,000,000 of in life. If the drunkard has at times an dollars. The same individual estimates inclination to increase his worldly posthat of the habitual drunkards, one in ten sessions, his general improvidence deprives annually comes to a premature death, and him of those advantages which he would that their term of life is, upon an average, otherwise possess. shortened ten years. 37,500, therefore of The improvidence of the English operative the 375,000 habitual drunkards, die annually in the beginning of the eighteenth century, from the use of strong drink. Ten years is thus described by De Foe.

“ They are labour of each of them is thus lost to the the most lazy-diligent nation in the world. country. On a reasonable calculation, There is nothing more frequent than for an observes Judge Cranch, each of them, if Englishman to work till he has got his sober, might have earned, upon an average, pockets full of money, and then to go and be fifty dollars a year more than the cost of his idle, or perhaps drink, till it is all gone. I support. The loss of ten years labour of once paid six or seven men together on a 37,500 men, at fifty dollars per annum, is Saturday night, the least ten shillings, and an annual loss of 18,750,000 dollars. some thirty shillings, for work, and have

Professor Hitchcock estimates this loss, seen them go with it directly to the aleat from 30,000,000 to 50,000,000 of dollars. I house, be there till Monday, spend it every

An accurate writer, about the commence- penny, and run in debt to boot, though ail ment of the present century, estimated the of them had wives and children. From quantity of beer, porter, gin, and compounds, hence comes poverty, parish charges, and then sold in public-houses in the metropolis beggary.and its environs, at nearly £3,300,000 per The same writer in his - True Born annum; an amount which he justly observes Englishman,” in relation to the “labourto be equal to double the revenue of some of ing poor," whom he represents as “lavish the kingdoms and states of Europe, in- of their money and their time," says, dependent of the other evil consequences

In English ale their dear enjoyment lies,

For which they'll starve themselves and families. * Lord Lauderdale's Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth, ch. ii.

+ Parliamentary Report, pp. 5, 6.

| Lectures on Diet, Regimen, and Employment. * Colquhoun's Treatise on the Police of the By Ed. Hitchcock, Prof. of Chem. and Nat. Hist., Metropolis, 6th Edit. 1800. Amherst College.

+ Smith's “ Wealth of Nations."

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