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BREWERS, VICTUALLERS, &c.

̧” “ VICTUALLERS,

Number of Persons in the United Kingdom licensed as "BREWERS,' "to sell Beer to be Drunk on the Premises," and "to sell Beer not to be Drunk on the Premises."

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The following estimate, prepared from an average of the able table of Professor Brande, will show the gross amount of alcohol contained in the various kinds of intoxicating liquors consumed in this kingdom.

If we allow the average of alcohol contained in fermented liquors to be six per cent. the quantity of pure spirit, drunk in the form

Gallons.

of ale and porter, will be about 25,380,000 In spirits, allowing the average to be fifty per cent.

......

In wine, allowing the average to be twenty per cent.

If we deduct from this calculation a vast number of children, also persons who abstain altogether from inebriating liquors, and those who indulge in them to a very moderate extent only, we shall have a fearful view of the extent of intemperance in this country. A large proportion of our adult population indeed will be found to be free drinkers, if not frequent or habitual drunkards.

The title which this empire has to the appellation of a "wine bibbing nation," may 12,963,080 be estimated by the following fact. In 1835 a return was made of the quantity of wine 1,193,108 exported from Oporto, which amounted to 38,469 pipes. The people of Great Britain alone took 23,537 pipes. The great pro2,000,000 portion of this wine would of course be consumed by the higher classes of society. Total.... 41,536,188 That description of wine which is consumed by the operative portions of the community, is a vile compound of impure spirit and noxious and filthy drugs.

The quantity of alcohol in cider; perry, and home-made wines, it is supposed will exceed....

If we estimate the population of Scotland in 1830, at two millions and a half, at the usual average of five to each family, it will give 500,000 families. Dividing the amount consumed in Scotland amongst these, there will be ten gallons a year to each family, or nearly two and a half glasses of ardent spirits on an average, consumed in every family in Scotland every day in the year. Suppose these five millions of gallons are

In addition to this enormous consumption of alcohol, we must include a large additional amount as the result of the very extensive smuggling, which takes place in some districts in particular. If we estimate this at five millions of gallons, we shall have a gross total consumption of forty-six millions of gallons of pure alcohol. It is well known that alcohol is nearly double the strength of proof spirit, and thus taking into account the large quantity of ardent spirits and wines illicitly prepared, the consumption of proof spirit will not be much less than one retailed at a price not averaging more than hundred millions of gallons.

10s. per gallon, then Scotland pays a tax of If we estimate the population at twenty-two millions five hundred thousand pounds three millions, the result will be an annual consumption of not less than four gallons of proof spirit, or deadly poison, by every man, woman, and child.

sterling per annum, for what produces every species of disorder, immorality and crime.*

* Glasgow and West of Scotland Temp. Soc Report 1830. p. 12.

The amount of spirits consumed in Scot-mitted 343,000 times during the period of a land in 1831, was about 5,653,000 gallons. single year, in Glasgow alone.* Deduct from the gross amount of population, In 1827, the gin consumed in Great children and young persons under fourteen or Britain, amounted to twelve millions of fifteen years of age, (which, according to gallons; in 1829, the consumption of this Cleland's Statistics of Glasgow, form nearly pernicious poison (the chief part of it in two-fifths of the entire population,) also a England,) was twenty-four millons of gallons. pretty large proportion who never use ardent It is stated that this quantity would make a spirits, except on rare occasions, and the river of gin sixty feet wide, three feet deep members of the Temperance Societies with and very nearly five miles long. a considerable proportion of their families, The Educational Magazine, not long ago, inand it is evident that you reduce the con- formed its readers that there were in London sumers to at least about one-third part of upwards of 100,000 confirmed dram-drinkers, the whole population. who, on an average, drink two glasses of The Committee of the Scottish Temper- spirit each day. Calculating these at 1d. ance Society in their Annual Report for 1831, per glass, the daily cost would be £1,250, state that they have before them a list of which annually amounts to the large sum of about 100 towns, villages, and parishes, in £456,250

different parts of the country of which they| A few years ago, it was estimated that have the correct population returns, together the money expended in gin and whiskey with the number of individuals licensed to for the previous twenty years, amounted to sell ardent spirits in each; they ascertained no less a sum than £400,000,000. that the population of the whole was about These calculations might be extended to 765,000, and the licenses 8230, which gives a considerable extent. Those already adan average of one license to every ninety-duced are, however, sufficient for the present five individuals, or one for every nineteen to purpose. Perhaps no more conclusive twenty families. Leaving out a few of the evidence of the existence and extent of inlarger towns, where the number of retailers temperance in this country could be given, is greater in proportion than in the country than the number of houses appropriated to parishes, the average will be one for every the sale of inebriating liquors compared 113 individuals, or for every twenty-three with the houses in which are sold provisions or twenty-four families.* Thus if the above and other necessary articles of life. A account be assumed as a correct representa- few calculations of this kind are now tion of the whole nation, every twentieth adduced. family is supported by the remaining nineLondon.-In 1836, there were in the teen, to retail poison, and to spread disease, metropolis, crime, and desolation, on every hand. The Hotels..

Statistics of Dr. Cleland show, that in the city of Glasgow, there is one retailer of spirits to every twelve families.

Taverns

Public-houses and beer-shops
Gin-palaces..
Brewers

of whom were
Physicians.
Chemists
Surgeons
Notaries..
Lawyers.

207

447

5975

8649

200

15,478

300

580

1180

130

1150

And only 2100 bakers and 1800 butchers.

During the year 1829, 9636 commitments were made at the several offices of police in the city and suburbs, or twenty-seven persons, on an average, were brought to the offices every day in the year for being drunk of all other trades, there were only 15,839, and disorderly, many of these doubtless the same individuals, but at different periods. These, however, were but a fractional part of the intemperate drinkers-merely such as disturbed the public peace by their obstreperous revelry. At that period there were in the city and suburbs, somewhere about 1880 licensed places for retailing ardent spirits. A number of persons in a state of intoxication issued from a very that the demand for physicians, surgeons, large proportion of these places every day. On the supposition, however, that one half, that is 940, by their sales, produce a single case of intoxication every day, (and in this calculation is included all that is sold to be drunk by persons in their own houses,) we The following estimate is taken from the have the appalling amount of 343,000 cases of Annual Report of the Stamford Street and intemperance in a year. This statement New Cut Branch of the South London does not suppose that there are so many Auxiliary Temperance Society. It is more different persons who became intoxicated, specific in its details.

but that the crime of intemperance is com

* Annual Report, &c., 1831. p. 15.

In reference to this list, we may observe,

chemists, and lawyers, is to a great extent caused by the use of strong drink, so that a cessation of the traffic would necessarily issue in a removal of the chief sources of their professional emolument.

* Glasgow and West of Scotland Temp. Soc. Report, 1830. p. 11.

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of mankind.

to the moral, social and physical condition to a general inquiry into the real sources of national prosperity. The accumulation Judge Cranch estimates the annual con- of what is called wealth, certainly does not sumption of spirituous liquors in America, constitute national prosperity. Industry and at 72,000,000 gallons. This proportion he health, are essential to the acquisition of supposes thus to be distributed among the riches. These qualifications moreover, are, people of the United States. in a great degree, dependent on a certain The women and children under sixteen amount of knowledge or skill. In addition years of age, according to the census of 1810 to which, mankind are endowed with and 1820, constituted three-fourths of the feelings termed motives, which spur them whole population of the United States. on in their various enterprises. National It can hardly be supposed, remarks prosperity also more or less depends on Judge Cranch, that any considerable quantity other causes which may subsequently come of ardent spirits is drunk by children, and it under our consideration, among which we is to be hoped, a very small proportion by may include security of property, when the women. We will suppose, however, acquired, and the possession of individual that the women and children consume one- and national freedom. All of these exercise sixth of the whole quantity; say 12,000,000 greater or less degree of influence on the gallons. prosperity and happiness of nations, and form an interesting as well as important subject of investigation.

Of the men over sixteen years of age, constituting one-fourth of the whole population, one-half, probably, consists of those 1. Loss of disposition for industry—loss who wholly abstain, and of those who do of time and labour-capital, and employnot drink habitually, and who may therefore ment.—Intemperance has ever been ruinous average half a gill a day; one-eighth of in its consequences to national industry. 12,000,000 is 1,500,000 persons, at half a Idleness and poverty are the uniform congill a day, equal to 8,554,687) gallons. comitants of free indulgence in the use of One-half of the residue of the men, being intoxicating liquors. "Drunkenness," says one-sixteenth of the whole population, equal Dr. Johnson, "is the parent of idleness; for to 750,000 persons, may be habitual tem- no man can apply himself to the business of perate drinkers, averaging three-half gills a his trade, either while he is drinking, or when day, amounting to 12,832,031 gallons; he is drunk. Part of his time is spent in jollity, one-half of the remaining men, being one- and part in imbecility; when he is amidst thirty-second of the whole population, equal his companions, he is too gay to think of to 375,000 persons, may be regular topers, the consequences of neglecting his employand occasional drunkards, who average three gills a day, equal to 12,832,031 gallons.

Population.

Gallons. 12,000,000 8,554,687 12,832,031 12,832,031

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11,625,000

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46,218,750
25,781,250

375,000 12,000,000

72,000,000

ment, and when he has overburdened his stomach with liquor, he is too feeble and too stupid to follow it. Poverty is the offspring of idleness, as idleness of drunkenness; the drunkard's work is little, and his expenses are great, and therefore he must soon see his family distressed, and his substance reduced to nothing."*

One of the injurious effects of intemperance, according to the Report of the Committee of the House of Commons, which held its sittings during the year 1834, is "extinction of DISPOSITION for practising These quantities added, make 46,218,750 any useful art or industrious occupation.' gallons, which, deducted from the whole Such indeed will be found to be the uniquantity consumed, 72,000,000 gallons, will versal tendency of this vice. Those who leave 25,781,250 gallons to be divided indulge in strong drink, have little inclinaannually among the 375,000 remaining men, tion, or even capacity, for improvement. who will average more than six gills a day, Selfishness and apathy predominate in the and who will, of course, be confirmed drunkards.

This estimate supposes that one in every sixteen is an habitual temperate drinker, that one in every thirty-two is a regular tipler and occasional drunkard, and that one in thirty-two also is a confirmed drunkard. The whole of this immense quantity was consumed previous to the year 1828, when the influence of temperance operations began generally to be experienced.

character of the drunkard, and feelings of amendment, however frequently they may arise, are quickly dissipated in the love of sensual gratification.

Loss of time is another lamentable result of indulgence in intoxicating liquors. It is impossible to estimate the amount and value of this loss. Time is the means by which labour can be accomplished, and money earned, and is therefore the loss of labour and of wealth. If it were possible to calculate the value of all the loss of time thus

III. Evils resulting to national industry and wealth from intemperance. The consideration of this important subject leads * Johnson's Debates, 1742-3.

occasioned, there is reason to believe that it | which result from intemperance. On a would amount to a sum sufficient to prevent supposition, he further remarks, that the much, if not the whole of the poverty which excesses in which perhaps 200,000 of the at present exists in the land. labouring classes in the metropolis indulge, Loss of labour is a natural consequence shortens the natural period of their existence of the vice of intemperance. Wealth has only five years each, on an average, the been said, by an eminent writer, to consist labour of one million of years is lost in the of all that man desires as useful or delightful lives of this class of men, after the expense to him.* Labour is especially the property is incurred in rearing them to maturity; of the working man; everything, therefore, which, during a period of thirty-six years of which injures this property, must very adult labour, at £25 a year, establishes a greatly impair the condition of the working deficiency to the community of twenty-five classes. Intemperance not only causes millions sterling.* This calculation does positive loss of time, but induces physical not include the numerous other train of evils, debility, and renders its victims unfit for which arise to a nation from idle, dissolute, active and continued exertion. "The loss and immoral habits, as well as the immense of productive labour, in every department actual expense incurred in the repression of of occupation, through intemperance, is crime, and from other countless sources equal to one day in six throughout the originating in, and fostered by, the use of kingdom, or to £1,000,000 sterling out of strong drink. every six that are produced," this, however,

Loss of capital is another result of intemappears to be a small portion only of the perance. Capital, or rather money, is the actual loss which the nation sustains from proceeds or fruit of labour. "Labour was

the use of intoxicating liquors, an amount, the first price, the original purchase-money which, from a moderate calculation, "may which was paid for all things; it was neither be fairly estimated at little short of by gold, nor by silver, but by labour, that £50,000,000 sterling per annum."+ all the wealth of the world was originally

The following calculations are made by purchased."+ Labour procures wealth, but Judge Cranch, of America. In 1830, there economy increases it. were in the United States, 375,000 habitual Capital is that by which mankind lay the drunkards. These, upon an average, did not foundation of additional wealth. The use earn more than two-thirds as much as if of intoxicating liquors, with few exceptions, they had been sober. This annual loss of prevents the accumulation of capital. To 100 days labour of each drunkard, in his the poor man in particular capital is to be sober state, worth at least forty cents a desired, as a means of elevating his condition day, makes an annual loss of 15,000,000 of in life. If the drunkard has at times an dollars. The same individual estimates inclination to increase his worldly posthat of the habitual drunkards, one in ten sessions, his general improvidence deprives annually comes to a premature death, and him of those advantages which he would that their term of life is, upon an average, otherwise possess.

shortened ten years. 37,500, therefore of The improvidence of the English operative the 375,000 habitual drunkards, die annually in the beginning of the eighteenth century, from the use of strong drink. Ten years is thus described by De Foe. They are labour of each of them is thus lost to the the most lazy-diligent nation in the world. country. On a reasonable calculation, There is nothing more frequent than for an observes Judge Cranch, each of them, if Englishman to work till he has got his sober, might have earned, upon an average, pockets full of money, and then to go and be fifty dollars a year more than the cost of his idle, or perhaps drink, till it is all gone. I support. The loss of ten years labour of 37,500 men, at fifty dollars per annum, is an annual loss of 18,750,000 dollars.

once paid six or seven men together on a Saturday night, the least ten shillings, and some thirty shillings, for work, and have Professor Hitchcock estimates this loss, seen them go with it directly to the aleat from 30,000,000 to 50,000,000 of dollars.‡ house, be there till Monday, spend it every An accurate writer, about the commence- penny, and run in debt to boot, though all ment of the present century, estimated the of them had wives and children. From quantity of beer, porter, gin, and compounds, hence comes poverty, parish charges, and then sold in public-houses in the metropolis beggary."

and its environs, at nearly £3,300,000 per The same writer in his "True Born annum; an amount which he justly observes Englishman," in relation to the "labourto be equal to double the revenue of some of ing poor," whom he represents as "lavish the kingdoms and states of Europe, in- of their money and their time," says, dependent of the other evil consequences

* Lord Lauderdale's Inquiry into the Nature and

Origin of Public Wealth, ch. ii.

+ Parliamentary Report, pp. 5, 6.
Lectures on Diet, Regimen, and Employment.
By Ed. Hitchcock, Prof. of Chem. and Nat. Hist.,
Amherst College.

In English ale their dear enjoyment lies,
For which they'll starve themselves and families.

*Colquhoun's Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, 6th Edit. 1800.

+ Smith's "Wealth of Nations."

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