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X. OBJECTIONS

XI. IDEALISM OLD AND NEW

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SECTION III.

MAN.

XII. STRUCTURE OF THE BODY...

XIII. THE ACTIVITIES OF THE BODY

XIV. OUR LOWER MENTAL POWERS

XV. OUR HIGHER MENTAL POWERS

XVI. LANGUAGE

XVII. PERCEPTIONS OF TRUTH, GOODNESS, AND BEAUTY

XVIII. THE WILL

XIX. MANKIND

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ON TRUTH.

CHAPTER I.

EVIDENCE AND CERTAINTY.

Certainty exists, and universal doubt is unreasonable. There must be

ultimate truths which do not need proof. The ground on which we believe them is their self-evidence, and no better criterion is possible.

The pursuit of truth and of truths-Need of certainty-Two mental

associations-Certainty exists-Unhealthy and irrational scepticism-Reflex mental acts-Some views as to what truths are most indisputable-This inquiry refers to the grounds and criterion of beliefs, not to their origins-Ultimate truths cannot be provedSelf-evidence is the criterion of truth-General, or abstract, necessary truths-Three orders of fundamental certaintyIs a better criterion than evidence possible ? The task of the inquirer after truth.

Most of us

are eager for truth. The popularity of science and the spread of criticism show it. The spirit of inquiry was possibly as keen three hundred years ago, though, perhaps, mainly prompted by ideas of advantage in this world or the next. Now, there are multitudes who seek truth * for its own sake, apart from any advantage it may bring with it.

A passionate devotion to truth is the well-founded boast of our scientific worthies, who are above all things anxious not "to believe a lie.”

* A special inquiry as to our perception of truth, will be made in our seventeenth chapter.

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