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I HAVE undertaken this work under the conviction that it would be of great advantage to reduce into the form of a Code the leading principles of the Law of Nations; that the greater diffusion of knowledge of such Law would often prevent disputes; and that, on the occurrence of differences between States, a collection of the well-established rules of the same would facilitate a resort to International arbitration, as the best method for securing just and equitable decisions consistent with the rights and dignity of States. The codification of International Law, in as far as it is in the power of a private writer to accomplish, has already been attempted by David Dudley Field and Bluntschli, but their works did not include the positive portion of the Law—that resulting from Treaties and Conventions. Yet these cover a large and ever-widening field, and determine the rights and

duties, not only of States, but of subjects or citizens of the same, on many important civil and commercial relations, in time of peace and war. Especially useful, moreover, will be found the copious statements of the Treaties concluded between different States on the various subjects treated in the work, for which I am indebted to Martens' collection of Treaties. Though the need of keeping within certain limits has restrained me from making the work as haustive as I would have desired, and hindered my giving frequent and copious reference to the leading authorities, I trust that the materials now supplied for a Code will be found sufficiently full, lucid, and sequent.




September, 1887.

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