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to the same, viz. Bolivia, Bulgaria, Chile, the United States of Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Guatemala, Hayti, Hawai, Liberia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Siam, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

The principal clauses of such Treaties are as follow :

238. The countries between which the present Convention is concluded, as well as those which may join it hereafter, form, under the title of “Universal Postal Union,” a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of correspondence between their Post-offices.

239. The stipulations of this Convention extend to letters, post-cards, printed papers of every kind, commercial papers, and patterns or samples of merchandise, originating in one of the countries of the Union and intended for another of those countries. They also apply, as far as regards conveyance within the Union, to the exchange by post of the articles above mentioned between the Countries of the Union and countries foreign to the Union whenever that exchange makes use of the services of two of the contracting parties at least.

240. The right of transit is guaranteed throughout the entire territory of the Union.

241. There is maintained, under the name of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union,” a central Office, which is conducted under the surveillance of the Swiss Postal Administration, and the expenses of which are borne by all the offices of the Union.

242. In case of disagreement between two or more members of the Union as to the interpretation of the present Treaty, the question in dispute shall be decided by arbitration. To that end each of the offices concerned shall choose another member of the Union not interested in the affair. The decision of the arbitrators shall be given by an absolute majority of votes. In case of an equality of votes, the arbitrators shall choose, with the view of settling the difference, another Administration equally uninterested in the question in dispute.

To the Treaty are appended detailed regulations for the execution of the Treaty concluded at Berne.

243. Congresses of plenipotentiaries of the

countries participating in the Convention, or simple administrative conferences, according to the importance of the question to be solved, are held, when a demand for them is made or approved by two-thirds at least of the Governments or administrations, as the case may be. But a Congress shall be held at least once every five years.



[Convention between the Argentine Confederation, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Greece, Guatemala, Italy, Lucembourg, Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Salvador, Servia, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Turkey, the United States of America, United States of Colombia, and Uruguay (Paris, March 14, 1874).]

244. The Convention applies outside territorial waters to all legally established submarine cables, landed on the territories or possessions of one or more of the high contracting parties.

245. It is a punishable offence to break or injure a submarine cable, wilfully and by culpable

negligence, in such manner as might interrupt or obstruct telegraphic communication, either wholly or partially, such punishment being without prejudice to any civil action for damages. This provision does not apply to cases where those who break or injure a cable do so with the lawful object of saving their lives or their ships, after they have taken every necessary precaution to avoid so breaking or injuring the cable.

246. The contracting parties undertake that, on granting a concession for landing a submarine cable, they will insist, so far as possible, upon proper measures of safety being taken, both as regards the track of the cable and its dimensions.

247. It is understood that the stipulations of the present Convention do not in any way restrict the freedom of action of belligerents.


[Convention between Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey, to guarantee and to facilitate the International Telegraph Service. To

this Treaty Great Britain acceded on December 21, 1875 (St. Petersburg, 1875).]

248. The contracting parties recognize the right of all persons to correspond by means of the international telegraphs.

249. They undertake to adopt all accessary measures to secure the

of messages

and their prompt despatch.

250. They, however, announce that they accept no responsibility on account of the service of the international telegraphs.

251. Each Government undertakes to devote to the international telegraph service, special wires, in sufficient number to ensure the rapid transmission of telegrams. These wires shall be established and worked in the best manner that experience in the service has made known.

252. Government and service telegrams may be forwarded on all occasions in secret language. Private telegrams in secret language may be exchanged between two States which admit that mode of correspondence. States which do not admit private telegrams in secret language to

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