« ÎnapoiContinuați »
sheba, died a premature death, to expiate a Because we cannot reconcile the doctrine of crime of adultery, for which he could not be imputed crime, with the rewards offered as in. held responsible.
centives to virtue, should we renounce the But the most remarkable circumstance in practice of virtue? Let us examine ourselves, the subject now under consideration, is, that my brethren, let us inquire what are our the two great divisions of the Jews, that of thoughts of God, whether they are consistent the ten tribes, and that of the kingdom of Ju- with the humility we ought to possess; let us dah, are sometimes represented as the penalty defend our sentiments with more modesty, and due to crimes committed by men who had recollect, that the best solution of the difficul ceased to live before they happened. Hear lies in religion and Providence, is a conviction, what the prophet Ahijah said to the wife of and confession, that we are weak and shortJeroboam, “Go tell Jeroboam, Thus saith the sighted, that our capacity is limited, and we Lord God of Israel, forasmuch as I exalted thee are mistaken. from among the people, and made thee prince 2. We should consider the import of the deover my people Israel, and rent the kingdom clarations against which the house of Israel so away from the house of David, and gave it insolently rebelled. When God declared that thee, and yet thou hast not been as my servant for the sin of Manasseh, he would in after ages David. Therefore, behold I will bring evil bring destruction on Jerusalem, did he say, upon the house of Jeroboam; him that dieth of that the subjects should be involved in everlastJeroboain in the city, shall the dogs eat, and ing misery for the crimes of their king? I canhim that dieth in the field, shall the fowls of didly acknowledge, my brethren, that this apthe air eat, and he shall give Israel up because pears severe; and, at first view, unjust. If one of the sins of Jeroboam."
commit a crime fifty years ago, and for this This relates to the captivity of the ten tribes; crime, his son shall be condemned to eternal and we find the same judgments pronounced torments while he escapes unpunished, I own against the kingdom of Judah. “Because that, whatever is my idea of Divine omniManasseh, king of Judah, hath done these science and omnipresence, as well as of the abominations, and hath done wickedly above weakness of my own understanding, I could all that the Amorites did, which were before hardly persuade myself to regard as a transcript him, and hath made Judah also to sin with bis of the Divine will, a book in which such a docidols, therefore, thus saith the Lord God of Is- trine was held out, unreservedly and without rael, I am bringing such evil upon Jerusalem, restrictions. But to put the case in a different and Judah, and I will stretch over Jerusalem light, we will suppose that a king committed a the line of Samaria,” 2 Kings xxi. 11–13. crime, and that his posterity shall at a future Thus there seemed to be some foundation for period suffer some temporal chastisement; in the proverb, “The Fathers have eaten sour this we see no shadow of injustice; the differgrapes, and the children's teeth are set on ence between this, and the first mentioned case, edge."
is wide. God can make no amends to man But this reproach was in itself a spot of whoin he shuts up in eternal misery, but he guilt; and in this second point of view the way can amply compensate the trouble endured by of God is equal, and the way of Israel unequal: him, who is involved in the temporal calamithat the way of God is a way of justice, and ties of a rebellious people. A nation may be that of the house of Israel a way of blasphemy compared to the human body; it has its seasons and calumny.
of youth, manhood, and old age. God may It is not necessary in this place to discuss the visit in old age the sins committed in youth. abstruse and difficult doctrine of original sin. If he in mercy spared his people during the first We are accused by some theologians of not en- years of their rebellion, he is obliged by his tering at sufficient length on this subject, and justice, to punish them severely, when their of keeping it enveloped in obscurity; but if we posterity, far from repairing the crimes of their attempted to contradict the false and pedantic ancestors, become partisans in them. ideas, and to correct the mistakes prevalent, There is one evil which naturally and unawe should find ourselves involved in difficulties, voidably results from this law, that if among and should probably render little service to the this guilty nation, there be an individual, who cause we undertook to advocate. We are well abhors from his heart, and abstains in practice convinced that means would not be wanting to from their wickedness, he will perish with justify religion from any apparent contradic- them; but such a one God will abundantly retions, but we leave this task to other hands; pay. The same stroke which brings destrucwe are not here to treat of original sin, our lion on the guilty, shall crown the righteous concern is with the line of conduct that God with glory; in his life it will draw him off from pursued with regard to the people to whom the temporal things, by depriving bim of the obprophet was speaking; and in this view the ject of his wishes, but it will render him more way of the Israelites was a way of calumny meet for eternal joy. The same stroke which and blasphemy, in opposition to the way of precipitates the wicked into the deepest reGod, which was one of justice and equity. cesses of infernal torments, will open the gates
1. Admitting that our understanding is not of heaven to the just, and admit him to an sufficiently illuminated, to comprehend how eternity of bliss. God expressly declared to God can, consistently with justice, punish pos- the Israelites, that although he commonly terity for crimes committed by their forefathers, punished the children for the sins of their faare we on that account to accuse him of ini- thers, thus visiting them on the third and quity? Because we do not understand the mo- fourth generations, he would not do so in their tives which influence the Divine dispensations, case. If the condemnation pronounced, on acshall we take upon ourselves to condemn them? I count of the sin of Manasseh, appeared up
justly severe, he revoked it in their favour; he Jews, the severe dispensations of God, we declared to them that he would forget the sins should then be involved in the same guilty and of their king, and all their idolatry, and act blasphemous conduct as they were. toward them as if this wicked monarch had But do we suppose we should be gainers, if promoted instead of endeavoured to destroy re- God were to forget the crimes of our fathers, ligion and virtue. He might have thus ad- and to judge every one according to his own dressed them: “You complain of my conduct works? My brethren, let the blind and misin punishing the children for the sin of their guided heathens say, Delicta majorum immerifathers, you charge it with injustice; I will tus lues, Romane. O ye innocent Romans, ye punish your sin by acting differently towards must expiate the sins of your ancestors. Far you. I will judge you according to your ways. from supposing that the house of Israel were In those days they shall say no more, " The suffering for the sins of their fathers, let us refathers have eaten a sour grape, and the child member the words of Jeremiah, and apply dren's teeth are set on edge. But every man them not only to the children of Israel, but that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be view them as pointing to us also. “And it set on edge,” Jer. xxxi. 29, 30; "and to him shall come to pass, when thou shalt show this that hath not eaten upon the mountains, nei- people all these words, and they shall say unto ther hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the thee, Wherefore hath the Lord pronounced house of Israel; hath not defiled his neighbour's all this great evil against us, or what is our wife; neither hath oppressed any; hath not iniquity, or what is our sin, that we have withholden the pledge; neither hath spoiled by committed against the Lord our God? Then violence; but hath given his bread to the poor, shalt thou say unto them, because your fathers and covered the naked with a garment. But have forsaken me, saith the Lord, and have again. The soul that sinneth, it shall die; the walked after other gods, and have served them, son shall not bear the iniquity of the father; and have worshipped them, and have not kept neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the my law, and ye have done worse than your son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be fathers; for behold ye walk every one after the upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked imagination of his evil heart, therefore will I shall be upon him,” Ezek. xviii. 15. 20. cast you out of this land into a land that yo
But was it just, was it reasonable, that a know not, neither ye nor your fathers, and nation guilty not only of sins, but of crimes of there shall ye serve other gods day and night, the blackest dye, and the most aggravated na- where I will not show you favour." ture, a people chargeable with, and actually 3. We observed in the former part of this committing at that time, all the abominations discourse, that the ways of God were ways of with which God reproached their forefathers, mercy and kindness, and those of the Israeland who, according to the language of Jesus ites, were on the contrary, ways of malignity Christ, "filled up the measure of their fathers," and despair. Matt. xxiii. 32; given to idolatry, lascivious This will lead us, in concluding this disness, and covetousness, forgetful of God, and course, more closely to consider and meditate who neglected his worship; was it reasonable, upon these delightful and consolatory words I inquire, that a people of this description in our text, “ Cast away from you all your should seek so anxiously, should spend their transgressions, whereby ye have transgressed; timo in making fruitless researches into the and make you a new heart, and a new spirit; history of former generations, for the causes for why will ye die, O house of Israel? For Í of the punishments they endured? Was there have no pleasure in the death of him that not sufficient reason in their own sinful and dieth, saith the Lord God, wherefore turn guilty conduct, for the infliction of scourges yourselves, and live ye.”. still more dreadful? How did they dare, who, The Israelites carried their fury and despair to recall the language of their own proverb, to so great a length, that when the prophets had the sour grape still between their teeth, denounced upon them the judgments of God, and far from loathing and abhorring it, made they drew the inference, that they were conit their delight, to say, “The fathers have demned without hope of mercy. They regardeaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are ed the Divinity as a cruel and unjust Being, set on edged "Put the case to your considera- who delighted to overwhelm them with mistion, my brethren, in another form; let us sup- fortunes, instead of considering him in his true pose we ourselves in inquiring the causes of character, as a merciful and gracious God, the Divine judgments which fall continually who called them to repentance by his threatenon us, were to look back to the first ages of ings, and who declared to them, that in the this nation, to examine the characters and con- riches of his mercy there was yet a way open duct of our first conquerors, by what unjust to salvation; they rejected all the offers of his and cruel means they attained the object of grace as deceitful words, and thought any acts their ambition; with what sinister views they of humiliation or repentance that they could framed our constitution; how many widows attempt, to avert the divine anger, very unand orphans they oppressed; how they polluted likely to produce any effects on decrees already the holy places, and profaned the sanctuaries; become irrevocable. how insensible they were to the sufferings of There are in the sacred volume two passages, the church; how all their plans were formed that point remarkably to this subject. The without regarding the prosperity of religion; first that I shall notice, is in the eighteenth how worldly was their policy; how they per- chapter of Jeremiah; God after having humbled secuted the ministers and servants of God, who the people by the predictions of their appoachboldly and zealously reproved their crimes: ing desolation, again proposed to them means And were to trace back to them as did the to avert its dreadful consequences. He desired
the prophet to suppose himself placed in the proposed by these judgments? All tend to the workshop of a potter, who having broken a same conclusion. God sought for the just, for vessel that he had formed of clay, moulded it those who still remained faithful to him, or, into another form, thus of the same clay mak- rather he sought those penitent and humble ing a new vessel. God himself interpreted sinners who, by their tears, their repentance, this figure. "O house of Israel, cannot I do and return to God, obtained mercy, and avertwith you as this potter? saith the Lord. Be- ed the stroke of his justice. Thus we see, hold as the clay is in the potter's hand, so are that God is full of compassion, as well as ye in mine hand, O house of Israel. At what mercy; he showed his tenderness towards us as instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and much, when he sent a mortality among our concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, and to pull cattle, as when he preserved their life; when down, and to destroy it; if that nation against he sent floods of water over the country, as whom I have pronounced, turn from their when he made it fruitful; when he shipwreckevil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to ed our vessels, as when he filled their sails with do unto them,” Jer. xviii. 6–8. Jeremiah a favourable wind and brought them safe into instantly sbowed this vision to the Israelites, port. and explained to them its application. But His loving-kindness is visible when he gives this misguided people, far from accepting the us over to our enemies, as well as when he Divine offer, and clinging to the only hope left crowns us with victory; when he delivers our for them, answered, in the twelfth verse of the possessions into the hands of others, as much same chapter: “ There is no hope, but we will as when he increases our wealth; when he walk after our own devices, and we will every sends national calamities as when he gives us one do the imagination of his evil heart.” The prosperity. His favours, his judgments, all other passage referred to, is in the prophecies of call upon us to repent, to be converted, that Ezekiel, who thus addresses the Israelites in we may enjoy everlasting felicity. O highlythe words of Jehovah himself. “ Thus ye favoured, beloved nation, if while his wrath speak, saying; “ If our transgressions and our was hot against thee, he still opened so many sins, be upon us, and we pine away in them, cities of refuge, when he was ready to overhow should we then live?" Ezek. xxxiii. 10. whelm thee with his judgments, what is his These were the blasphemous expressions that favour now, he is loading thee with benefits. they dared to utter against the Divine Majesty. O highly-favoured nation, if God so powerGod is always jealous of his glory, but par- fully protected thee during the years of thy ticularly so of his mercy, which forms the rebellion, whilst thou wast lukewarm in his brightest part of his perfection, and shone service, and living in the habitual neglect of forth with the greatest lustre throughout his his sabbaths, whilst thou wast harbouring in dealings with this people. Let us, my bre- thy bosom his bitterest enemies and forgetting thren, apply these instructions to ourselves; it all his holy laws, in the dissipations of the often happens among us, that sinners become world, how would he act towards thee if thou confirmed in their impenitence by despair of became grateful and sensible of his good nessa pardon; or, in other words, despair of pardon How would he distinguish thee with his mercy, serves for a pretext to continue in their sin; or, if, amidst the rebellious spirit of the age, thou in the words of the prophet, “ to do the ima- wast the open and declared friend of religion, gination of their evii heart.” But when we and openly defended it from the attacks of its view the Divine dispensations, either towards inveterate foes. if thou makest his sabbaths us, as a nation, or individually, through the thy delight, attend diligently on his worship mercies of God, we shall find no foundation with fervour, devotion, humility, zeal, and all for the supposition, " that there is no hope left those feelings of self-abasement, which become for us, for the attainment of everlasting life.” | human beings when approaching the throne of It is true, that God has sent his ministers to their Creator, to pay their adoration, and to denounce his judgments upon this nation; it is praise him for their existence and happiness true, that they have sometimes represented it What I have here remarked as applied to as at the point of ruin, and that they were au- the nation is suitable also to every individual thorized to say so. “The end is come upon composing it; none has any reason to say, my people of Israel, I will not again pass by there is no hope, how shall wo live? There is, them any more," Amos viii. 2. “Yet forty | I acknowledge, among us a class of sinners, days, and Nineveh shall be destroyed,” Jonah who appear to have exhausted the stores of the iii. 4. Though Moses and Samuel stood be- Divine mercy, and seem to have reason for infore me, yet my mind could not be towards quiring, how shall we live? We would answer this people, cast them out of my sight, and let this question by another, Why will ye die? I them go forth. And it shall come to pass, if would still oppose the mercy of my God to they say unto thee, whither shall we go forth their terror and unbelief: yes, to the most then shalt thou tell them, Thus saith the Lord, guilty I would repeat this offer; let him, with such as are for death, to death; and such as all his objections, and as well as he is able, are for the sword, to the sword; and such as with all the reasons he has for despairing of are for the famine, to the famine; and such as pardon, let him look back on a life stained by are for the captivity, to the captivity,” Jer. the commission of crimes, and let him search xv. 1. We have seen part of these predictions into all the poisoned sources of despair, for any accomplished in ages that are past, there thing to justify this proposition; there is no fore we have every reason to suppose they will hope, how shall we live? I will throw open to receive a full accomplishment. But let us in his view all the treasures of God's mercy, quire, what was the object God had in view, which will cure all his wounds, if he will rein all these dispensations What was the end I sort to them; I will display the depths of the
loving-kindness of the Lord, which will give | who is our authority, and whence we derive life to his soul; and, I will oppose to all the our commission. Our warrant is the Holy objections that his fears may suggest, “Why One of Israel, and in confirmation of his prowill ye die, O house of Israel
mises, we have not only his word, but his oath. Perhaps ye may say, there is no hope, how St. Paul says, “ Men verily swear by the then can we live: we have offended a God who greater, and an oath for confirmation is an end is of purer eyes than to behold iniquity. A of all strife," Heb. vi. 6; but “God, because God in whose sight the heavens are not pure; he could swear by no greater, sware by hima God in whose awful presence even the sera- self (ver. 13,) when he made his promise to phim hide their faces with their wings. But Abraham.” And he has confirmed with an why will ye die, O house of Israel? This God, oath the solemn truths that we have just been although holy, is not inexorable, at the same preaching to you. He sware the most sacred time that he enforces the strictest observance oath, he sware by himself, in the twenty-third of his orders, he pities those who stray from chapter of the prophecies of Ezekiel, “ As I them; he knows of what we are made, he live, saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure knows that we are weak, and unable to keep in the death of the wicked; but that the wickourselves from falling.
ed turn from his way and live: turn ye, turn There is no hope, how shall we live? we ye, from your evil way, for why will ye die, have engaged ourselves as servants to sin and house of Israel?” iniquity, and "the wages of sin is death,” Oh! how delightful must be the service of so Rom. vi. 23. And according to this, if God merciful a God, what a motive have we for remain just, the sinner must die. But why energetic exertions for the conversion of men, will ye die, O house of Israel, justice is satis- when we have such a security for its success. fied, Jesus Christ " was made sin for us,” 2 How must they be infatuated, who rush into Cor. v. 21. He took upon himself the burden of the abyss of despair, when their Judge himour sins, and the punishment due to them. If self has declared, that he is willing to pardon any man sin, we have an advocate with the our guilt. But how blind must they be, who, Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, 1 John, ii. on the other hand, do not find abundant rea1. “If God be for us, who shall be against son for love and gratitude towards him who us; he that spared not his own son, but deli- has made us such rich offers of grace, and who vered him up for us all, how shall he not with are not willing to devote themselves to his serhim freely give us all things; who shall lay vice. Let us then, my brethren, let us say in any thing to the charge of God's elect: It is the words of the psalmist, “ O Lord, there is God that justifieth."
forgiveness with thee that thou mayest be fear But it is sometimes said, “There is no hope, ed,” Ps. cxxx. 4. “I will hear what God the how can we live?" The sins we have com- Lord will speak; for he will speak peace unto mitted, do not come under the description of his people, and to his saints, but let them not human frailties. They were sins committed turn again to folly,” Ps. lxxxv. 8. May God malignantly, and the influence of the worst grant to us this pardon, and to him be all hopassions, with the most inveterate hatred, im- nour and glory, both now and ever. Amen. purity, adultery, injustice, and crimes of the blackest die, “But why will ye die, 0 house of Israel?” There is a fountain of life open for
SERMON C. the house of David. The same God who exhorts you in the words of the text, to make you a new heart and a new spirit, promises to THE ADDRESS OF CHRIST TO JOHN give you one. There is nothing can oppose
AND MARY. these powerful operations of the Holy Spirit, and nothing can hinder him from acting upon
John xix. 26, 27. us, and he will effectually assist us, if we ask him in sincerity, and bumbly yield ourselves Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, to his direction and influence.
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of CleoBut again, “ There is no hope, how shall phas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus we live?" We have lived so long in our sins,
therefore saw his mother, and the disciple stand. it is too late for repentance. Too late did you
ing by whom he loved, he saith unto his mosay; those who now say it is too late, have
ther, Weman, behold thy son. Then sailh he often replied to our serious exhortations and
to the disciple, Behold thy mother; and from earnest entreaties, it is too soon; “But why
that tour that disciple look her unto his own will ye die, 0 house of Israel?" It can never
home. be too late to be converted, if you are really
“I am become a stranger unto my brethren, desirous of salvation. The irrevocable sen- and an alien unto my mother's children,” Ps. tence yet remains unpronounced. At all events lxix. 9. “My lovers and my friends stand aloof it is not yet executed--the day of grace still from my sore, and my kinsmen stand afar off,” remains the treasures of God's mercy are Ps. xxxviii. 11. The prophets who predicted still open-his loving-kindness and long-suffer- the coming of the Messiah, introduce him to ing still remains the same; “ Behold now is the our notice, uttering the foregoing language of accepted time, behold now is the day of salva- complaint, in which is depicted one of the bittion," 2 Cor. vi. 2.
terest circumstances of his life of sorrow; and But, my brethren, do not suppose that the this affecting lamentation, we find fully justionly security you have on this important point fied, when we view our Divine Lord and Sais the mortal voice, which now proclaims these viour, surrounded by an unfeeling crowd, nail. consolatory truths. Listen while I declare ed to his cross, enduring all the agonies of his
dreadful sentence, and deserted by his disci 2. The conflict, or rather the triumph of our ples; abandoned by the very persons, who had Lord himself, while expiring in their sight. solemnly pledged themselves to serve him faith- The first suggested by these words in our text, fully, even to death. This added a poignancy“ now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his to every pain he felt, and pointed every thorn. mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife For whatever may be the acuteness of the tor- of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene." The next ments we suffer, they become comparatively we find in the following words, “When Jesus light when shared and softened by friendship. therefore saw his mother, and the disciples How delightful is the affectionate sympathy of standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his a kind father, into whose bosom we can pour mother, Woman, behold thy son. Then saith our grief, or of an affectionate mother, who he to the disciple, Behold thy mother, and from wipes away every tear.
that hour the disciple took her unto his own But, my brethren, if the Saviour of the home.” world felt so acutely this desertion of his dis O ye losty speculations, which aspire to the ciples, and those for whom he had shown such most impenetrable secrets of science! Ye soara lively interest, he felt still more the presence ings of the imagination, which rise high as the of his near relations, and even in the moments heavens, and descend into the deepest recesses of death, manifested a tender concern for their i of knowledge, in quest of sublime and abstract welfare. We now hear language from him ideas! I do not to-day call on you for assistquite opposite to that put into his mouth by ance; it is to the emotions of nature, the sentithe prophet. We hear him now saying, “I am ments of the soul, the powerful sympathies of acknowledged by my brethren, and recognised the heart, that I appeal in this discourse, they by my mother's children. They who love me will furnish the best commentary on our text: stand round me, and my friends pity my sore.” and that heart, which is under such an influAnd experience shows us, that how difficult ence, can best understand the conflict to which soever to bear, how appalling soever to the we all approach, with the rapid flight of time. mind, may be the preparations for death, how And happy will he be, who having received agonizing the thoughts of a patient who per- grace rightly to apply to himself this subject, ceives the countenance of his physician change, shall come off triumphant. a preacher announce to him the approach of First. Let us consider the import of the his last hour, or a cold sweat, the precursor of words contained in our text. There are few death, spread itself over his whole body, there circumstances, in the whole of the sacred Scripis still a more heart-rending pang which he tures, or perhaps, we might say, in any history, feels when bidding adieu to the objects of his sacred or profane, which are related in a manaffectionate solicitude and care. In perusing ner so simple and intelligible, and consequently the history of those who have suffered martyr. so little susceptible of contradiction, as that now dom, we see many who have borne with cour- under consideration. The sight of the soldiers age and firımess the view of the executioners ready to seize the person of the Redeemer, about to take away their lives, the stake to the infuriated Jews, the decision of Pontius which they were shortly to be bound, and even Pilate, the view of the cross; all these objects of the flames ready to devour them, and put struck consternation into the minds of the aposan end to their mortal existence in the most tles, and they thought at first more of their own excruciating torments, whose constancy has safety, than of the great peril in which their yielded in the presence, and sunk under the Divine Master stood; and either from motives einbraces, of those who were dear to them. of prudence or cowardice, they abandoned
Jesus Christ is presented to our view this Christ in the moment of danger, from which day, my brethren, as called to suffer such a they had neither the courage nor presence of trial. He saw standing at the foot of the mind to attempt to rescue him. But the three cross, Mary his mother, overwhelmed with Marys, either impelled by the ardour of their the most violent grief that the imagination affection to surmount the greatest obstacles, or can depict, called to witness the most cruel sheltered by their sex from the fear of the Jews, spectacle that could be presented to mortal remained with him, throughout all this awful eyes, borne down, and almost sinking under scene; and, as far as they were permitted by the weight of her accumulated sorrows. The the fury of the soldiers, they received from same sword which transfixed the soul of this the mouth of our Lord his dying injunctions. heart-broken mother, and those of St. John Perhaps the rest of the disciples, ashamed of and the other Mary's, pierced our blessed Lord their former conduct, and following the suggesalso. He felt his own grief as well as theirs, tions of love to their suffering Lord, which had thus, suffering the agony of a double crucifix- given way to timidity, and fear for their own ion, and dying a double death. Let me en- security, now might come back to seek him treat you, my brethren, to give me your most whom they had so shamefully deserted. This earnest attention, and, when we have ascer we gather from the words of another evangetained the exact import of our text, to consi- list, who says, “ that all his acquaintance stood der seriously the instruction which, from the afar off beholding these things,” Luke xxiii. uncertainty of life, our fate may soon, perhaps, 49. But wherever the rest were, we know that furnish to those around us; or, should they St. John, who was always distinguished for his first receive the summons from the king of ter- love to the Redeemer, who had witnessed his rors, the lesson which they will then furnish agony in the garden, who had followed him We will consider,
into the court of Caiaphas, was near him with 1. The conflict which was passing in the the women. Christ, who was sufficiently eleminds of Mary and St. John, while eye-wit- vated on the cross, to be able to see all those nesses of the death of Christ.
who were assembled to witness his death, but