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and idolatrous worship; nor would this angel have suffered such conduct more than he who said, “See thou do it not; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus : worship God." Rev. 19: 10. You will further observe that it could not have been the Father, for he is never called an angel, and has never been seen by any creature, as has been shown before. And although some may tell us, but without proof, that a mere angel often assumes the name and claims the attributes of Jehovah, yet it is not credible that our fathers, who were so superstitiously tender of the name Jehovah that they would neither pronounce or write it lest they should take it in vain, would ever think of conferring it, or imagine that it was conferred by God on a created angel; when, therefore, they call this angel the Word, it argues a conviction that he was both distinct from the Father and equal to him. Now, this angel, called by the paraphrasts the Word, is called in the text Jehovah, is the object of prayer, and promises to multiply her seed, and therefore was the true God.

The remainder of this subject we will consider in the next letter.


Yes, there is one of human frame,

Jesus, array'd in flesh and blood,
Thinks it no robbery to claim

A full equality with God.

Their glory shines with equal beams;

Their essence is for ever one;
Though they are known by different names,

The Father God, and God the Son.

Letter V.


Dear Brother,

I will now invite your attention to the remainder of the appearances of the angel Jehovah, and commence with that to Abraham our venerable father. · § 1. First, that which is recorded in Genesis, chap. 19. Here you will observe that the person who appeared to Abraham and spake about the destruction of Sodom, is repeatedly called Jehovah, but could not be Jehovah, the Father, for the reasons just mentioned, that he never appeared or was seen by any creature; but of this angel it is said that he was on the earth, for “ Abraham stood yet before the Lord; and Abraham drew near, and Jehovah went his way.” It was, therefore, the Memra, the word Jehovah, as is acknowledged by the Jerusalem Targum on Gen. 18: 2. " Three angels were sent unto our father Abraham; and these three were sent for three purposes, since it is impossible for one of the highest angels to be sent but for one thing. The first angel was sent to tell our father Abraham that Sarah should bring forth Isaac; the second was sent to deliver Lot out of the midst of the overthrow; the third angel was sent to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim. Therefore he was the prophetic Memra, word, and the Memra, word of the Lord, appeared to him in the valley of vision." Philo also, on the same passage, calls him the Memra, word of the Lord.

This Jehovah, or the word of the Lord, who destroyed Sodom, was a distinct person from Jehovah who was then in heaven; for it is said, Gen. 19:24, " Jehovah rained upon

Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah out of heaven.” He who is called the word of the Lord, our Rabbins teach to be the same as he who is called the Angel Jehovah. Now this person assumes unto himself several of the incommunicable criteria. He is not only called Jehovah, but Abraham knew that it was Jehovah, for he calls him by that name, and also “ the Judge of all the earth," and directed his supplications in behalf of the cities to him. There is, therefore, in this place, an appearance of Je. hovah in a human shape, and that of one distinct person from Jehovah in heaven; and as the Father and the Holy Ghost never appeared, as is acknowledged by our Rabbins, it must have been the Son of God, the second person in the blessed Trinity, who now presented himself to Abraham in the form and shape wherein he would dwell amongst men, when of his seed he should be made flesh. Herein was at once a revelation of his Divine nature and person, and a pledge of his incarnation. And it is more than probable that our Lord and Savior referred to this as one prominent instance in which Abraham saw his day and was glad. John,8: 56,58.

§ 2. Passing by the appearance of the same person mentioned Gen. 20, and again chap. 21, permit me to call your particular attention to that recorded Gen. 22, Abraham offering up his only son Isaac. Here you find the angel speaking twice to Abraham out of heaven. In ver. 11, 12, he claims sovereign dominion, in having commanded Abraham to offer up his son; he receives divine worship, the offering up of an only son, and declares that he was the object of Abraham's fear, which is another part of divine worship.

In his second address, in verses 15–18, he renews the divine covenant, enlarges divine promises, and confirmš them by an oath; and not being able to swear by a greater, (says the inspired writer in the epistle to our forefathers, Heb. 6 : 13,) he swore by himself.

Now, my dear Benjamin, who could believe that our fa.

ther Abraham would offer his son to a creature, or that any angel would dare to claim such an unusual act of worship? In vain is it said that the angel only repeated the words of Jehovah, because of the sentence in ver. 16,“ says Jehovah." Let it be noticed that this sentence is not in his first address, verses 15, 16; and yet


" thou hast not withheld thy son from me.” Now, if the speaker, on this occasion, was a created angel, the proof that satisfied him that Abraham truly feared God, (seeing he was willing to offer up his son to the speaker, a mere creature,) was the strangest that could be imagined. Instead of being a proof that he feared God, it would have been the most daring act of idolatry.

Further : the very place mentioned where this angel spoke, both on this occasion and that of Hagar, evidently distinguishes him from a created angel ; for it is mentioned as the prerogative of Jehovah to speak from heaven, and he appeals to it as an evidence of his Deity. “ And the Lord said unto Moses, thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven; ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.” Exod. 20 : 22, 23. Again Moses says, “ Unto thee it was showed that thou mightest know that the Lord he is God; there is none else beside him: out of heaven he made thee to hear his voice, that he might instruct thee.” Deut. 4: 36, 37. This simple circumstance of speaking out of heaven, is a proof of omniscience and of almighty power. See Psa. 68 : 32–35. Neh. 9 : 27, 28.

3. The next appearance of this angel is that to our father Jacob when he fled from his brother Esau, and was favored with a very singular and encouraging vision from the Almighty, who declared himself to be the God of his fathers Abraham and Isaac. You have doubtless, my

dear Benjamin, read and compared the passages formerly recommended to you, in which you will observe that he who is called the God of our fathers Abraham and Isaac, is also called an angel; and you will again remember that Jehovah the Father never appeared nor is ever called an angel, and that our Rabbins ascribe all these appearances to the selfsame person, even to the Messiah, who should hereafter become incarnate. Examine then carefully what is said by this angel, and what our father Jacob ascribed to him, and you will plainly perceive that most if not all the divine criteria are ascribed to him, and therefore he must be Jeho. vah the true God, in unison with, but distinct from Jehovah the Father. Let us further notice, in connection with this appearance,


appearance that is recorded Gen. 32, where we read of a man wrestling with Jacob, and by comparing this account with what is said in Hosea, 12:3-5, we find that this man is called by different names, viz. God, Jehovah, and the God of hosts, and that it was the same that appeared to Jacob at Bethel. Here then we have, besides the name Jehovah, the title of the God of hosts also. Now this is the peculiar title of the true God, he that is supreme over all the hosts or armies of heaven and earth, as appears from the following passages: “And David arose and went with all the people that were with him from Baal of Judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, whose name is called by the name of the Lord of hosts that dwelleth between the cherubims.” 2 Sam. 6:2; and again, "Let thy name be magnified for ever, saying, the Lord of hosts is the God of Israel," chap. 2: 26; again, “Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he is the King of glory." Ps. 24: 10. Again it is said, “ And one cried unto another and said, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory." Isa. 6:3. You will further notice that divine worship is paid to this angel: “And he wept and made supplication to him.” Also, divine work is ascribed to him: “ To bless him there;" and Jacob made a religious vow unto him.

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