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would so directly tend to prevent this mistake, as that of prohibiting those whom he employed from personating their great employer, using any of his names as if they might occasionally be given to them, or expressing themselves in such terms as might lead the hearers to imagine that God himself was the immediate speaker. If, on the contrary, this necessary caution has been neglected; if God has permitted a creature to say to his fellow, I am Jehovah, I am that I am; so far was he from using those means that were most consistent with infinite wisdom for the prevention of idolatry, that we cannot conceive that he could have taken more direct or effectual methods for establishing it, although this had been his avowed design in the whole of that revelation contained in the Old Testament,

Now, it is very evident from the sacred Scripture, that Jehovah is very jealous that no creature shall share in his incommunicable characteristics. Thus says Jehovah," Thou shalt have no other gods before me, for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God." Exod. 20 : 3-5. “ Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of the Lord your God which he made with you, and make you a graven image, or the likeness of any thing which the Lord thy God hath forbidden thee; for the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God." Deut. 4: 23, 24. See also Deut. 6: 13–15; 32 c. 16 : 21; Joshua, 24: 19.

§ 3. It is agreed on all hands, that there can be no cri. teria more descriptive and distinctive of the true and living God than those of names, titles, attributes, works, and wor. ship. The peculiar divine names are chiefly these two; viz. the name Jehovah, and the name God; with some additional word of honor, as the true God, the great God, the mighty God, the only wise God, God and none else, and God blessed for ever. The peculiar divine titles are, the God of Abraham, the Lord of hosts, King of kings, and Lord of lords, the First and the Last. The peculiar divine attributes are, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, eter

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nity, and immutability. The peculiar divine works are, the creation and conservation of all things, the changing of the heart, and raising the dead. These are the distinguishing characters by which God was pleased to inake himself known under the Old Testament, and it is upon these accounts that he, in opposition to other gods, claims to be received and honored as God. This is abundantly evident from the following passages of Scripture, which I would recommend to my dear Benjamin to read and meditate on. Gen. 21 : 33. Deut. 3 : 24. 4:7. 7: 19. 10: 17. 32 : 39. 33 : 32. 2 Kings, 19 : 15. i Chro. 29 : 11. Job, 9: 4. 12 : 16, 26. 37 : 16. 42 : 2. Psa. 8: 4. 93: 2. 13: 7. Isa. 26: 4. 42 : 5. 45 : 7, 18. 57 : 15. Jer. 10 : 12. 22 : 23, 24. Dan. 2:20. Mal. 3: 6.

$ 4. It may, however, not be improper, my dear Benjamin, to show more particularly that these criteria are incommunicable. With respect to the names and titles, I shall no. tice at present only the name Jehovah.

This is the grand, the peculiar and incommunicable name of God. It is not applied to any created being throughout the sacred Scriptures. This is evident,

1. From its peculiar structure and signification. It is composed of the three essential parts of the Hebrew verb to be, viz. the preter tense Hayah, he was; present participle Howe, he is; and the future tense Yihye, he shall be. Hence it imports the necessary, independent, unchangeable, and eternal existence of the Most High, whose name is " I am that I am.” Exod. 3 : 14. If this name, therefore, be applied to any living being, it constitutes an irrefragable proof of his divinity from an infallible evidence.

It is much to be regretted that this sublime and awful name has not been retained in the sacred volume. There is nothing in the word Lord expressive of the grand and comprehensive ideas included in the word Jehovah. Besides, there are gods many and lords many, but to us there is but one Jehovah. True, the translators have

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distinguished it from the common word Lord, which sig, nifies mere dominion or authority, by putting it in large or capital letters; but the generality of readers neither know the reason nor are apt to take notice of the distinction.

2. It is further evident from the express declaration of Jehovah himself. The attentive reader of the Scriptures must have observed how the one true God insists upon his being Jehovah in opposition to all other gods, glorying in a manner and triumphing in it, as the distinguishing character by which he will be known to be infinitely superior to all the gods of the nations. How expressive the language, “I am that I am !" Exod. 3 : 14. By the prophet Isaiah he speaks thus : “I am Jehovah, that is my name, and my glory I will not give to another.” Isa. 42 : 8. Again, “ I am Jehovah, and there is no God beside me.” Isa. 45:5. How striking the words of the Psalmist : That men may know that thou whose name alone is Je; hovah, art the most high over all the earth.” Psa. 83 : 18. See also 135 : 13. Deut. 28 : 58. Hosea, 12 : 5. Mal. 3:6. From these, and many other passages, it is evident that the Lord made himself known to his people by the name Je. hovah, to express his peculiar nature, and to distinguish himself from all those whom he called gods, or who were so called by others; and when therefore this name was in composition imposed on a place, as Jehovah Shamah, Jehovah Nisi, or Jehovah Shalem; there could be no danger of its being mistaken by them for God, or of being supposed to be possessed of a divine nature: but as the idolatry of the world in general consisted in deifying intelligent creatures, had he permitted this name to be given to any such, he would have defeated his own design in the use of it, and would himself have signally contributed to idolatry.

$ 5. The only place in the whole Bible, urged as an objec. tion, is Jer. 33 : 16, where Jerusalem, or the church, is said to be called Jehovah; but a little attention will show that it is not Jerusalem, or the church, but the Messiah,

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which is called in that place Jehovah our Righteousness. You will observe that the prediction delivered by the pro. phet in this chapter, v. 15, 16, is literally the same as that in chap. 23:5, 6, with no other difference except the last clause of the 16th verse,' now under consideration. In chap. 23 it reads thus, " And this is his name whereby he shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness;" and in chap. 33 it is translated, And this is the name wherewith she shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness." Now you will please to take notice,

1st. That in chap. 33 : 16, the words " is the name in italics, to show that they are not in the original text.

2d. That if it were the church that is called Jehovah, the word lah, translated she, ought toʻbe the accusative, othah, her, and not the dative, lah, to her.

3dly. That several manuscript copies have the clausę in chap. 33 the same as in chäp. 23.

4th. That the Targumi also translates both passages alike. viz. " This is the name wherewith they shall call him, the Lord our Righteousness."

5th. That the words in the original in chap. 33: 16, are these, weseh Asher yikra lah, literally, "and this that shall call' to her."

Now, you know, dear Benjamin, that the word Kara, to call, means frequently to produce, effect, accomplish. Thus Jehovah says, “I will call for the corn, and will increase it.” Ezek. 36: 29; the Hebrew word is Wekarathi, I will call, i. e. I will effect it, I will cause the earth to bring forth plentifully. Again, "Shall I call a nurse?" Exod. 2:7; i. e, shall I go and bring one? In the same sense the

apostle Paul uses the word to call, when he

Whom he did predestinate, them he also called;" i. e. wrought a change in them, and brought them out of darkness into his marvelous light. Rom. 8:30. Again he says, “God, who quickens the dead, and calls those things which be not, as though they were ;"' i. e. he causes, by a powerful word.


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those things to exist which had no being before. He said, let there be light, and there was light. You will then easily perceive, my dear Benjamin, that the plain meaning of the passage is, “this is he who shall call to her," i. e. that shall accomplish it for her. Substitute the word effect or accomplish in the place of call, and it contains an answer to the supposed question, Who shall cause Jerusalem to dwell in safety? Answer, Jehovah our Righteousness shall accomplish it for her. I am pleased to find, after much research, that this sense of the passage is sanctioned by R. Joseph Kimchi, who reads it thus: “And he who calls her is Jehovah, our righteousness." Pagninus, Montanus Vatabulus, translate it in the same manner.

In referring to the Jewish Expositor of 1819, 'page 20, I find the following criticism, which will remove all difficul. ties. " I shall confine my critical remarks,” says he, “to the latter part of the 16th verse; and this is the name whereby she shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness. In these few words there appears to be no less than three errors, which the collated readings enable us to correct. First, the omission of the word Shemo, Name, which our translators have very properly inserted in italics, as necessary to complete the verse. This word is preserved in three manuscripts collated by Kennecott, and was the original reading of two collated by De Rossi. It is also confirmed by the Chald. Vulg. Syr. Ar, (Waltoni Bib. Poly.)

Secondly, for yickra, i. e. he shall call, two of De Rossi's manuscripts read yikreoo, i. e. they shall call, and it was the original reading of another manuscript (Doederlein.) This reading is confirmed by the Chaldaic Vulg, Ar. (Walt

. Bib. Poly.) as well as by the parallel passage, Jer. 23.6, and by the Chald. Vulg. Syr. and Arab. versions of that passage

“The third error is the substitution of Lah, her, for LP, him. But Lo is happily preserved in one of Kennicott's manuscripts, and in another Hay is an erasure.. Lo is also


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