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All the reasonings of this work on European society, are based on the statu quo of its condition before the convulsions of 1848. It must be seen that these recent and current events are not sufficiently ripe to be used as materials in a work of this kind.



....... PAGE 17

The Task attempted in this Work - The Doctrine of Free Trade Economists not a Sci-

ence-This false Pretension a stolen Shield.-On common Ground. Free Trade Econ.

omists have done some Good.--This Work a System for the United States — The New

Features of this work not Novelties — The proper Functious of Hypothesis.-Free.

Trade Economists have made an upjustifiable Use of Hypothesis.- It leads to no Result.

-Mill's. Compte's, Newton's. and Reid's views of Hypothesis – Reasons for the lim.

ited Scope of this work.—Reasons for changing the Name of the General Subject.

Politics and Political Economy.-The Comprehensiveness of this work, and the Unity

of its Plan.

CHAPTER 11.-THE New Points of THIS WORK ..

..... PAGE 26

What is meant by these New Points.— The First: Definition of the General Subject.-

Importance and Influence of Definitions.— Public Economy not heretofore reduced to a

Science.—The Definition bere given of the Subject is consistent with a Science. It res-

cues the subject from an embarrassed Condition.—The Free Trade Theory composed of

uniform Propositions. The Exact Sciences.--All Sciences, when fully constructed, are

necessarily exact.--Science appertains to all Subjects. --The Science of Sociology, as

announced by M. Compte, in an imperfect State.—John Stuart Mill's Definition of Sci.

ence. Why the Science of Sociology is Imperfect.-Mr. Mill, a Free Trader by Sym.

pathy, has demolished the Theory by Logic.-Citations of a remarkable Character from

Mr. Mill.–What they prove.- Private and Public Economy compared.- Napoleon on

this Subject.-Common Principles in Systems fundamentally different.-How our Defi.

nition affects the General Argument.--Empirical Laws defined — Public Economy. down

to this Time, lies scattered over the Field of Empirical Laws, and has not been reduced

to a Science.—The Free Trade Hypothesis belongs to a Category of Empirical Laws

incapable of being reduced to a Science – The recognised Canous of Experimental In-

duction, as laid down by Logicians, fully sustain the Claims of Protection against those

of Free Trade — The Formation of the Science of Public Economy is yet iu Aleyance

to some skilful and competent Hand.-A Science can not be made out of the Laws of

Public Economy, except for one Nation, each by Itself. The true Position of Labor. -

Labor robbed of its Rights by a False Position in Public Economy.- Protective Doties

not Taxes in the United States, but a Rescue from Foreign Taxation. How Public

Economy is affected by different States of Society.–New Points in regard to Money

and a Monetary System.—The Reasons for Free Trade, with the People, are Reapons

for Protection --All desire the same Thing.–The Destiny of Freedom not yet achieved.

- The Protective Principle identical with that of the American Revolution.-Free Trade

in Great Britain not based on Science, but on Public Policy.-Rise and Progress of the

Free Trade Theory - Definition of Freedom.–An American System of a Peculiar Char.

acter.-Free Trade identical with Anarchy.-Protection can never be dispensed with,

in any supposable Perfection of American Arts - Agricultural Labor and Products in

the Guise of Manufactures.-Not two kinds of Economy.



..... PAGE 69

This a New Position. It is based on the Principle of Anarchy.—The Essence of Free

Trade is a plea for no Law over an important and wide Domain of Interests. -Defini-

tion of this Domain.—Nations are Commonwealths, and may be vulnerable or injurious,

in their Relations to each other, the same as Private Individuals in each.—The Defensive

of Man's Position, in all Circumstances, requires most Care, and costs Most.—Time only,

and protracted Experiment, will determine the relative Merits of Free Trade and a Pro-

tective System.—The Point of Vulnerability in the United States, opened by Free Trade.

-The great Problem one of Figures and Quantities, that can be worked out. The

Negative Losses occasioned to Individuals and to the Country, by Free Trade, though

Real and Serious, not easily ascertained.-More and greater Interests at Stake, on the

Ground proposed to be given up to Anarchy by Free Trade. than anywhere else.— Tbe

Hen and Chickens and Hawk, are like Nations and Free Trade.-How this Anarchy of

Free Trade operates. It is real Anarchy quo ad hoc, opening a vast Field for Depre-

dation.- Free Trade is the Sway of the Will of the Individual, as opposed to that of

Society.—The Principle of Free Trade everywhere at Work for Depredation.-Free

Trade not equally Fair for both Sides. —Great Britain not for Free Trade. — An important

Confession of a Member of Sir Robert Peel's Government.— The Absurdity of making

Laws for the less important Sphere, and doing without Law in the most important-

The Charge of Free Trade against Protection, falls back on Itself, in precisely the same

Form.—Under Free Trade we are forced to bay, in the Form of Manufactures, the same

Things which we produce, wbie our Products perish on Hand.—Answer to Objections

to the Theory of this Chapter.-Free Trade operates, through a second Party, to injure

a third Party, and the Scope of this Influence takes in whole Nations, as Subjects of its




The Importance of Position, in all Competition, illustrated by familiar Examples.-Adam

Smith's Illustration.—The Tribe or Nation that is ahead in Manufactures, can keep ahead,

by Free Trade.—The first Lessons on Protection to Great Britain.—The Way of her

Beginning, and its Results.--It was by this System that she was able to triumph over

Napoleon.--Great Britain was Poor when she began her Protective System.-Behold

the Consequences.-Great Britain always consults the Parties interested in Protection,

and complies with their Wishes.-Not so the United States.- A remarkable Example of

tarning Witnesses out of Court.—British Manufacturers, from the Strength of their Posi.

tion, have consented to dispense with Protection.—M Gregor's Evidence and Advice to

the British Government.-M.Culloch's Confession.-Action of the States of Europe. after

the Overthrow of Napoleon, in Favor of Free Trade.- Their Repentance.—Repent.

ance of Russia.-Manifesto of Count Nesselrode.—The Zoll. Verein Treaty.–Napoleon's

Policy.—The Policy of the European Continental Nations against Great Britain, defen-

sive.—The greater Cost of Money and Labor in the United States an insuperable Bar

to Free Trade.—The Weak, not the Strong, require Protection.—British Free Trade,

Dot Free Trade.—British Differential Duties retained.-Effect of Commercial Treaties.

-The Whole Truth in few Words.



..... PAGE 126

A Restatement of the Object of this work, and of the great Error of the Economists. The

Theme of this Chapter important as a Starting point in the General Argument.— The

Instinctive Policy of a Parent State toward Remote Dependencies, fatal to the End in

View.-Such was the Policy of Great Britain toward her North American Colonies.--A

Review of that Policy.—The Doctrines of Joshua Gee.— Their Influence on Parliament

and the Board of Trade.--Acts of Opposition and Wrong Provoked the Revolution.-

Declaration of Independence.-Commercial Values, as the Fruits of Labor, the Occasion

of the Contest. — The Position of the Free Trade Economists as to the Elements of this

Controversy.- They were forced to justify Wrong.-The Wrong a Commercial one.-

The Aim of the Revolution was to break down the Old, and to establish a New System

of Public Economy, that is, a Protective System.— The Struggle was based on the Prin-

ciple of Mine and Thine, as it determines Commercial Rights.-A Protective System of

Bociety the great Object in this country from the First.— The great Movement from

Europe to America was and is for this.— The Confederation a Rope of Sand.-A Pro.

tective System the great Object of the Federal Constitution.-One of the first Acts of

the new Congress was to establish a Protective System.-Documentary Evidence for

Fifty Years, that Protection was the Uniform Policy of the Country. The Cause of

A postacy from this Ancient Faith.

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