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may infer that St. Peter and not Jude was the borrower.1 It is quite possible, however, that the Epistle of Jude may itself be the translation of an Aramaic original-judging, for example, from its fondness for threefold expressions.2

The Epistle is remarkable for several allusions to matters of ancient history that are not recorded in the Old Testament. It contains a quotation from an apocryphal book of Enoch, and one of its illustrations, Origen tells us, was derived from a book called “The Assumption of Moses," only about a third part of which, in the form of a Latin version, has been preserved to us.3 These allusions are

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stroyed"; ui=ii. 13, 15:“Woe unto them ! for they went in the way of Cain, and ran riotously in the error of Balaam for hire, and perished in the gainsaying of Korah," "Suffering wrong as the hire of wrong-doing, ... forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the hire of wrong-doing"; 12=ii. 13: “These are they who are hidden rocks in your love-feasts when they feast with you, shepherds that without fear feed themselves”; “Men that count it pleasure to revel in the day-time, spots and blemishes, revelling in their love-feasts while they feast with you"; 12, 13=ii. 17: “ Clouds without water, carried along by winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; wild waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame ; wandering stars, for whom the blackness of darkness hath been reserved for ever," “ These are springs without water, and mists driven by a storm ; for whom the blackness of darkness hath been reserved"; 16=ii. 18: " These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their lusts (and their mouth speaketh great swelling words), shewing respect of persons for the sake of advantage,” « For, uttering great swelling words of vanity, they entice in the lusts of the flesh, by lasciviousness, those who are just escaping from them that live in error"; 17=iii. 2: “But ye, beloved, remember ye the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ,” “That ye should remember the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and the commandment of the Lord and Saviour through your apostles "; 18=iii. 3:

“ How that they said to you, In the last time there shall be mockers, walking after their own ungodly lusts,"

* Knowing this first, that in the last days mockers shall come with mockery, walking after their own lusts."

E.8. Jude 9 (quoted above); cf. 2 Peter ii. 11 (quoted above), which would be unintelligible to us but for the light afforded by the more definite statement of Jude. Similarly the sin of "angels which kept not their own principality” is brought out in Jude 6, 7, in connection with the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah, as it is not in 2 Peter ii. 4-6. The incorporation of the shorter epistle in the longer is also more natural than the republication of an extract from 2 Peter (with a few additional verses) by one whose name would give it far less weight than that which it had hitherto borne. The freshness and vigour of style of the Epistle of Jude, as compared with the occasional amplification and attempted improvement (in the way of softening strong features and modifying unusual expressions) which can be traced in 2 Peter, lead to the same conclusion. On the ethics of Apostolic borrowing, see Salmon's Introduction, 5th edition, p. 493.

2 Ver. I: “To them that are called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ”; 8: “Defile the flesh, and set at nought dominion, and rail at dignities"; 11: “The way of Cain,

the error of Balaam, gainsaying of Korah," &c.

3 Vers. 14, 15: “And to these also Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying, Behold, the Lord came with ten thousands of his holy ones, to execute judgement upon all, and to con

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not more at variance with the doctrine of Inspiration than the quotations in the Old Testament from the “Book of Jasher," and other such documents, or Paul's allusions to “ Jannes and Jambres,” or his quotations from heathen writers.1 In 2 Peter, however, these quotations almost disappear, and there is also an omission of one or two seeming references to Levitical uncleanness, as if the writer desired to adapt his epistle as far as possible for general use.2

This epistle is full of sharp and stern denunciation, aimed at practical evils of a most heinous character, committed by men who were turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ." 3

These evils were founded upon a gross abuse of Christian liberty, and were somewhat similar to the terrible excesses which broke out among the Anabaptists after the Protestant Reformation, resulting from the abuse of the doctrine of Justification by Faith, when professing Christians combined the guilt of Cain (bloodshed), of Balaam (seduction), and of Korah (insubordination). In view of the corruption both of faith and manners vict all the ungodly of all their works of imagination, of a desultory kind. The ungodliness which they have ungodly Assumption of Moses is cited by Clement wrought, and of all the hard things of Alexandria, Origen, and others. The which ungodly sinners have spoken extant portion does not extend to the against him"; ver. 9: “But Michael death of Moses, and therefore does not the archangel, when contending with contain the incident referred to by Jude. the devil he disputed about the body of 1 Joshua x. 13, &c.; 2 Tim. iii. 8; Moses, durst not bring against him a Titus i. 12; Acts xvii. 28. railing judgement, but said, The Lord

2 Vers. 8 and 23. rebuke thee.” Jerome mentions that

Beloved, while I was the quotation from the Book of Enoch giving all diligence to write unto you had led many to reject the Epistle ; but of our common salvation, I was conTertullian thought the Book of Enoch strained to write unto you exhorting itself should be received as canonical, you to contend earnestly for the faith although rejected by the Jews. Several which was once for all delivered unto copies of an Ethiopic version of this the saints. For there are certain men book were brought from Abyssinia by crept in privily, even they who were the traveller Bruce in 1773, of which an of old set forth unto this condemnation, English translation was published in ungodly men, turning the grace of our 1821, and a German translation in 1853, God into lasciviousness, and denying enabling us to identify the passage our only Master and Lord, Jesus quoted by Jude; and recently a large Christ." part of it in Greek has been dis- 4 Ver. II: "Woe unto them ! for covered in Egypt. Its original compo- they went in the way of Cain, and ran sition (possibly in Hebrew) is generally riotously in the error of Balaam for hire, assigned to the century preceding the and perished in the gainsaying of Christian era. It is largely a work of Korah." · The persons whom St. Jude

3 Vers. 3, 4:

that was thus beginning to infect the Church, Jude exhorts his readers to “contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints,” and appeals to the past history of God's judgments for proof of the punishment in store for the present offenders, whom he commends nevertheless to the compassion and care of their believing brethren.

The Epistle concludes with one of the most beautiful doxologies to be found in the New Testament.1

so vehemently denounces find their exact analogue in the days of the Reformation. They are the invariable product of an epoch of religious ferment and excitement. Their abuse of the preaching of St. Paul exactly resembles the abuse of Luther's preaching by men like Storch and Matthys and Rothman and even Carlstadt. Such men would have been denounced equally by JudæoChristians like James and Jude, or by St. Peter, or by St. Paul himself, just as the Anabaptists were by men like Cardinal Cajetan, or like Erasmus, or like Luther. . . . The Epistle of St. Jude draws a picture which might be applied line by line, and word by word, to the obscure wretches (άνθρωποι

TLVES)—the Bochelsons, and Knipper-
dollings, the Krechtings and Hoffmans,
the Stübners, and Münzers—of the
years 1521 to 1535 ; and something of
Jude's own tone rings through the eight
sermons which Luther preached at
Wittemberg on the days after his re-
turn to that city in 1522." Farrar,
Messages of the Books, p. 456.
2 Vers. 24, 25:

Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, to the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and for ever. Amen." -A.V. Cf. Rom. xvi. 25-27.

CHAPTER XXIII.

I, 2, AND 3 JOHN.

“ THE FIRST EPISTLE GENERAL OF JOHN.”

1. Authorship. This epistle was used by two of the Fathers who had been disciples of the Apostle John, viz., Polycarp and Papias. It was recognised and quoted as John's by Irenæus, who had been a disciple of Polycarp, and it was evidently known by the writer of the Letter to Diognetus. It is freely quoted by Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian, is referred to in the Muratorian Fragment, and is one of the books contained in the Syriac, as well as in the Old Latin Version.

Its internal character is such as to confirm us in the belief that it was written by the author of the Fourth Gospel. Not only has it many verbal similarities, but it

1 E.g. i. 1: That which was from the eternal life, which was with the the beginning, that which we have Father, and was manifested unto us)”; heard, that which we have seen with our cf. John iii. II: “Verily, verily, I say eyes, that which we beheld, and our unto thee, We speak that we do know, hands handled, concerning the Word of and bear witness of that we have seen; life”; cf. John i. 1, 14: “In the be- and ye receive not our witness. i. 3: ginning was the Word, and the Word " that which we have seen and heard was with God, and the Word was God. declare we unto you also, that ye also

And the Word became flesh, and may have fellowship with us : yea, and dwelt among us (and we beheld his our fellowship is with the Father, and glory, glory as of the only begotten from with his Son Jesus Christ"; cf. John the Father), full of grace and truth” ; xx.

xvii. 21 : " that they may all be one; "Then saith he to Thomas, Reach even as thou, Father, art in me, and I hither thy finger, and see my hands; and in thee, that they also may be in us : reach hither thy hand, and put it into that the world may believe that thou my side : and be not faithless, but be- didst send me. i. 4: “and these things lieving." i. 2: "(and the life was mani- we write, that our joy may be fulfilled " ; ested, and we have seen, and bear cf. John xvi. 24 : Hitherto have ye witness, and declare unto you the life, asked nothing in my name : ask, and

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is dominated by the same Christian idealism which refers all things in human life to the ultimate principles of light and darkness, truth and error, good and evil, love and hatred, life and death, God and the devil. So intimate is the connection between the two books that the epistle was regarded by the late Bishop Lightfoot and others as forming a postscript to the Gospel.

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2. The Readers.? In all probability it was addressed in the first instance ye shall receive, that your joy may be that he gave his only begotten Son, fulfilled." i. 5, 6: “And this is the that whosoever believeth on him should message which we have heard from him, not perish, but have eternal life.” iv. 14: and announce unto you, that God is “And we have beheld and bear witness light, and in him is no darkness at all. that the Father hath sent the Son to be If we say that we have fellowship with the Saviour of the world"; cf. John iv. him, and walk in the darkness, we lie, 42: “and they said to the woman, and do not the truth"; cf. John i. 5: Now we believe, not because of thy “And the light shineth in the darkness; speaking: for we have heard for ourand the darkness apprehended it not"; selves, and know that this is indeed the iii. 21:

“But he that doeth the truth Saviour of the world." v. 6: “This is cometh to the light, that his works may he that came by water and blood, even be made manifest, that they have been Jesus Christ; not with the water only, wrought in God”; viii. 12 : Again but with the water and with the blood therefore Jesus spake unto them, saying, of. John xix. 34 : "howbeit one of the I am the light of the world : he that soldiers with a spear pierced his side, followeth me shall not walk in the dark- and straightway there came out blood ness, but shall have the light of life." ii. and water.

“ But he that hateth his brother is in i Prof. Ramsay says: “No two the darkness, and walketh in the dark- works in the whole range of literature ness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, show clearer signs of the genius of one because the darkness hath blinded his writer, and no other pair of works are eyes "; cf. John xii. 35: "Jesus therefore so completely in a class by themselves, said unto them, Yet a little while is the apart from the work of their own and light among you. Walk while ye have

every other time.

One work alone the light, that darkness overtake you stands near them, the Apocalypse; and not: and he that walketh in the dark- while identity of authorship is very far ness knoweth not whither he goeth." from being so clear, as in the case of iii. 14 : “We know that we have passed the Gospel and Epistle, yet there is a out of death into life, because we love closer relation between the three works the brethren. He that loveth not abid- than exists between any of them and eth in death ; cf. John v. 24:“ Verily, any fourth work. We must expect to verily, I say unto you, He that heareth find a close connection in time and cirmy word and believeth him that sent cumstances of origin between the First me, hath eternal life, and cometh not Epistle and the Apocalypse" (Church into judgement, but hath passed out of in the Roman Empire, p. 303): death into life.' iv.

• Herein was 2 Augustine and other Latin writers. the love of God manifested in us, that speak of the epistle as addressed to the God hath sent his only begotten Son Parthians, but this was probably a into the world, that we might live mistake, occasioned by the Greek term through him"; cf. John i. 14: And Trapê évos (“virgin"), which was frethe Word became flesh, and dwelt quently applied to the Apostle John, in among us (and we beheld his glory, allusion to his supposed lifelong celiglory as of the only begotten from bacy, or it may have arisen from the the Father), full of grace and truth"; Second Epistle being addressed in some iii. 16: “For God so loved the world, MSS. προς παρθένους.

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